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2.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 3(3): e166-e175, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758022

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of COVID-19 vaccines has been prioritised to protect the most vulnerable-notably, older people. Because of fluctuations in vaccine availability, strategies such as delayed second dose and heterologous prime-boost have been used. However, the effectiveness of these strategies in frail, older people are unknown. We aimed to assess the antigenicity of mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines in frail, older people in a real-world setting, with a rationed interval dosing of 16 weeks between the prime and boost doses. Methods: This prospective observational cohort study was done across 12 long-term care facilities of the Montréal Centre-Sud - Integrated University Health and Social Services Centre in Montréal, Québec, Canada. Under a rationing strategy mandated by the provincial government, adults aged 65 years and older residing in long-term care facilities in Québec, Canada, with or without previously documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, were administered homologous or heterologous mRNA vaccines, with an extended 16-week interval between doses. All older residents in participating long-term care facilities who received two vaccine doses were eligible for inclusion in this study. Participants were enrolled from Dec 31, 2020, to Feb 16, 2021, and data were collected up to June 9, 2021. Clinical data and blood samples were serially collected from participants at the following timepoints: at baseline, before the first dose; 4 weeks after the first dose; 6-10 weeks after the first dose; 16 weeks after the first dose, up to 2 days before administration of the second dose; and 4 weeks after the second dose. Sera were tested for SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies (to the trimeric spike protein, the receptor-binding domain [RBD] of the spike protein, and the nucleocapsid protein) by automated chemiluminescent ELISA. Two cohorts were used in this study: a discovery cohort, for which blood samples were collected before administration of the first vaccine dose and longitudinally thereafter; and a confirmatory cohort, for which blood samples were only collected from 4 weeks after the prime dose. Analyses were done in the discovery cohort, with validation in the confirmatory cohort, when applicable. Findings: The total study sample consisted of 185 participants. 65 participants received two doses of mRNA-1273 (Spikevax; Moderna), 36 received two doses of BNT162b2 (Comirnaty; Pfizer-BioNTech), and 84 received mRNA-1273 followed by BNT162b2. In the discovery cohort, after a significant increase in anti-RBD and anti-spike IgG concentrations 4 weeks after the prime dose (from 4·86 log binding antibody units [BAU]/mL to 8·53 log BAU/mL for anti-RBD IgG and from 5·21 log BAU/mL to 8·05 log BAU/mL for anti-spike IgG), there was a significant decline in anti-RBD and anti-spike IgG concentrations until the boost dose (7·10 log BAU/mL for anti-RBD IgG and 7·60 log BAU/mL for anti-spike IgG), followed by an increase 4 weeks later for both vaccines (9·58 log BAU/mL for anti-RBD IgG and 9·23 log BAU/mL for anti-spike IgG). SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals showed lower antibody responses than previously infected individuals at all timepoints tested up to 16 weeks after the prime dose, but achieved similar antibody responses to previously infected participants by 4 weeks after the second dose. Individuals primed with the BNT162b2 vaccine showed a larger decrease in mean anti-RBD and anti-spike IgG concentrations with a 16-week interval between doses (from 8·12 log BAU/mL to 4·25 log BAU/mL for anti-RBD IgG responses and from 8·18 log BAU/mL to 6·66 log BAU/mL for anti-spike IgG responses) than did those who received the mRNA-1273 vaccine (two doses of mRNA-1273: from 8·06 log BAU/mL to 7·49 log BAU/mL for anti-RBD IgG responses and from 6·82 log BAU/mL to 7·56 log BAU/mL for anti-spike IgG responses; mRNA-1273 followed by BNT162b2: from 8·83 log BAU/mL to 7·95 log BAU/mL for anti-RBD IgG responses and from 8·50 log BAU/mL to 7·97 log BAU/mL for anti-spike IgG responses). No differences in antibody responses 4 weeks after the second dose were noted between the two vaccines, in either homologous or heterologous combinations. Interpretation: Interim results of this ongoing longitudinal study show that among frail, older people, previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and the type of mRNA vaccine influenced antibody responses when used with a 16-week interval between doses. In these cohorts of frail, older individuals with a similar age and comorbidity distribution, we found that serological responses were similar and clinically equivalent between the discovery and confirmatory cohorts. Homologous and heterologous use of mRNA vaccines was not associated with significant differences in antibody responses 4 weeks following the second dose, supporting their interchangeability. Funding: Public Health Agency of Canada, Vaccine Surveillance Reference Group; and the COVID-19 Immunity Task Force. Translation: For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

3.
Cell Rep ; 38(10): 110502, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757194

ABSTRACT

Since the vast majority of species solely rely on innate immunity for host defense, it stands to reason that a critical evolutionary trait like immunological memory evolved in this primitive branch of our immune system. There is ample evidence that vaccines such as bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) induce protective innate immune memory responses (trained immunity) against heterologous pathogens. Here we show that while BCG vaccination significantly reduces morbidity and mortality against influenza A virus (IAV), it fails to provide protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). In contrast to IAV, SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to unique pulmonary vasculature damage facilitating viral dissemination to other organs, including the bone marrow (BM), a central site for BCG-mediated trained immunity. Finally, monocytes from BCG-vaccinated individuals mount an efficient cytokine response to IAV infection, while this response is minimal following SARS-CoV-2. Collectively, our data suggest that the protective capacity of BCG vaccination is contingent on viral pathogenesis and tissue tropism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , BCG Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
J Proteome Res ; 21(4): 975-992, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683912

ABSTRACT

The host response to COVID-19 pathophysiology over the first few days of infection remains largely unclear, especially the mechanisms in the blood compartment. We report on a longitudinal proteomic analysis of acute-phase COVID-19 patients, for which we used blood plasma, multiple reaction monitoring with internal standards, and data-independent acquisition. We measured samples on admission for 49 patients, of which 21 had additional samples on days 2, 4, 7, and 14 after admission. We also measured 30 externally obtained samples from healthy individuals for comparison at baseline. The 31 proteins differentiated in abundance between acute COVID-19 patients and healthy controls belonged to acute inflammatory response, complement activation, regulation of inflammatory response, and regulation of protein activation cascade. The longitudinal analysis showed distinct profiles revealing increased levels of multiple lipid-associated functions, a rapid decrease followed by recovery for complement activation, humoral immune response, and acute inflammatory response-related proteins, and level fluctuation in the regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation, secretory mechanisms, and platelet degranulation. Three proteins were differentiated between survivors and nonsurvivors. Finally, increased levels of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B were determined in patients with exposure to angiotensin receptor blockers versus decreased levels in those exposed to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Data are available via ProteomeXchange PXD029437.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Humans , Plasma , Proteomics , Retrospective Studies
6.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 159-164, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475313

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections display tremendous interindividual variability, ranging from asymptomatic infections to life-threatening disease. Inborn errors of, and autoantibodies directed against, type I interferons (IFNs) account for about 20% of critical COVID-19 cases among SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. By contrast, the genetic and immunological determinants of resistance to infection per se remain unknown. Following the discovery that autosomal recessive deficiency in the DARC chemokine receptor confers resistance to Plasmodium vivax, autosomal recessive deficiencies of chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and the enzyme FUT2 were shown to underlie resistance to HIV-1 and noroviruses, respectively. Along the same lines, we propose a strategy for identifying, recruiting, and genetically analyzing individuals who are naturally resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Disease Resistance/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Genetic Heterogeneity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Phenotype , Protective Factors , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314324

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234580

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
CJC Open ; 3(7): 965-975, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors could alter mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but existing meta-analyses that combined crude and adjusted results may be confounded by the fact that comorbidities are more common in ARB/ACE inhibitor users. METHODS: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE/Embase for cohort studies and meta-analyses reporting mortality by preexisting ARB/ACE inhibitor treatment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Random effects meta-regression was used to compute pooled odds ratios for mortality adjusted for imbalance in age, sex, and prevalence of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease between users and nonusers of ARBs/ACE inhibitors at the study level during data synthesis. RESULTS: In 30 included studies of 17,281 patients, 22%, 68%, 25%, and 11% had cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease. ARB/ACE inhibitor use was associated with significantly lower mortality after controlling for potential confounding factors (odds ratio 0.77 [95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.96]). In contrast, meta-analysis of ARB/ACE inhibitor use was not significantly associated with mortality when all studies were combined with no adjustment made for confounders (0.87 [95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.08]). CONCLUSIONS: ARB/ACE inhibitor use was associated with decreased mortality in cohorts of COVID-19 patients after adjusting for age, sex, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Unadjusted meta-analyses may not be appropriate for determining whether ARBs/ACE inhibitors are associated with mortality from COVID-19 because of indication bias.


INTRODUCTION: Les antagonistes des récepteurs de l'angiotensine (ARA) et/ou les inhibiteurs de l'enzyme de conversion de l'angiotensine (IECA) feraient varier la mortalité liée à la COVID-19, mais il est possible que les méta-analyses actuelles qui combinaient les résultats bruts et ajustés soient invalidées du fait que les comorbidités sont plus fréquentes chez les utilisateurs d'ARA/IECA. MÉTHODES: Nous avons effectué des recherches dans les bases de données PubMed/MEDLINE/Embase pour trouver des études de cohorte et des méta-analyses qui portent sur la mortalité associée à un traitement préexistant par ARA/IECA chez les patients hospitalisés atteints de la COVID-19. Nous avons utilisé la métarégression à effets aléatoires pour calculer les rapports de cotes regroupés de mortalité ajustés en fonction du déséquilibre de l'âge, du sexe, et de la prévalence des maladies cardiovasculaires, de l'hypertension, du diabète sucré et de l'insuffisance rénale chronique entre les utilisateurs et les non-utilisateurs d'ARA/IECA dans le cadre de l'étude durant la synthèse des données. RÉSULTATS: Dans les 30 études portant sur 17 281 patients, 22 %, 68 %, 25 % et 11 % avaient respectivement une maladie cardiovasculaire, de l'hypertension, le diabète sucré et de l'insuffisance rénale chronique. L'utilisation des ARA/IECA a été associée à une mortalité significativement plus faible après avoir tenu compte des facteurs confusionnels potentiels (rapport de cotes 0,77 [intervalle de confiance à 95 % : 0,62, 0,96]). En revanche, la méta-analyse sur l'utilisation des ARA/IECA n'a pas été associée de façon significative à la mortalité lorsque toutes les études ont été combinées sans ajustement sur les facteurs confusionnels (0,87 [intervalle de confiance à 95 % : 0,71, 1,08]). CONCLUSIONS: L'utilisation des ARA/IECA a été associée à la diminution de la mortalité au sein des cohortes de patients atteints de la COVID-19 après l'ajustement en fonction de l'âge, du sexe, des maladies cardiovasculaires, de l'hypertension, du diabète et de l'insuffisance rénale chronique. Les méta-analyses non ajustées peuvent ne pas permettre de déterminer si les ARA/IECA sont associés à la mortalité liée à la COVID-19 en raison du biais d'indication.

11.
Med (N Y) ; 2(4): 411-422.e5, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) primarily affects the lungs, but evidence of systemic disease with multi-organ involvement is emerging. Here, we developed a blood test to broadly quantify cell-, tissue-, and organ-specific injury due to COVID-19. METHODS: Our test leverages genome-wide methylation profiling of circulating cell-free DNA in plasma. We assessed the utility of this test to identify subjects with severe disease in two independent, longitudinal cohorts of hospitalized patients. Cell-free DNA profiling was performed on 104 plasma samples from 33 COVID-19 patients and compared to samples from patients with other viral infections and healthy controls. FINDINGS: We found evidence of injury to the lung and liver and involvement of red blood cell progenitors associated with severe COVID-19. The concentration of cell-free DNA correlated with the World Health Organization (WHO) ordinal scale for disease progression and was significantly increased in patients requiring intubation. CONCLUSIONS: This study points to the utility of cell-free DNA as an analyte to monitor and study COVID-19. FUNDING: This work was supported by NIH grants 1DP2AI138242 (to I.D.V.), R01AI146165 (to I.D.V., M.P.C., F.M.M., and J.R.), 1R01AI151059 (to I.D.V.), K08-CA230156 (to W.G.), and R33-AI129455 to C.Y.C., a Synergy award from the Rainin Foundation (to I.D.V.), a SARS-CoV-2 seed grant at Cornell (to I.D.V.), a National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada fellowship PGS-D3 (to A.P.C.), and a Burroughs-Wellcome CAMS Award (to W.G.). D.C.V. is supported by a Fonds de la Recherche en Sante du Quebec Clinical Research Scholar Junior 2 award. C.Y.C. is supported by the California Initiative to Advance Precision Medicine, and the Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Virus Diseases , Humans , Methylation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(6): e149-e162, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-974782

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 causes direct damage to the airway epithelium, enabling aspergillus invasion. Reports of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis have raised concerns about it worsening the disease course of COVID-19 and increasing mortality. Additionally, the first cases of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis caused by azole-resistant aspergillus have been reported. This article constitutes a consensus statement on defining and managing COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis, prepared by experts and endorsed by medical mycology societies. COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis is proposed to be defined as possible, probable, or proven on the basis of sample validity and thus diagnostic certainty. Recommended first-line therapy is either voriconazole or isavuconazole. If azole resistance is a concern, then liposomal amphotericin B is the drug of choice. Our aim is to provide definitions for clinical research and up-to-date recommendations for clinical management of the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Amphotericin B , Azoles/pharmacology , Humans , Nitriles , Pyridines , SARS-CoV-2 , Triazoles , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
13.
Science ; 370(6515)2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889832

ABSTRACT

Interindividual clinical variability in the course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is vast. We report that at least 101 of 987 patients with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia had neutralizing immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies (auto-Abs) against interferon-ω (IFN-ω) (13 patients), against the 13 types of IFN-α (36), or against both (52) at the onset of critical disease; a few also had auto-Abs against the other three type I IFNs. The auto-Abs neutralize the ability of the corresponding type I IFNs to block SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. These auto-Abs were not found in 663 individuals with asymptomatic or mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and were present in only 4 of 1227 healthy individuals. Patients with auto-Abs were aged 25 to 87 years and 95 of the 101 were men. A B cell autoimmune phenocopy of inborn errors of type I IFN immunity accounts for life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia in at least 2.6% of women and 12.5% of men.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon alpha-2/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur J Cancer ; 139: 181-187, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741187

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies suggest that patients with cancer are more likely to experience severe outcomes from COVID-19. Therefore, cancer centres have undertaken efforts to care for patients with cancer in COVID-free units. Nevertheless, the frequency and relevance of nosocomial transmission of COVID-19 in patients with cancer remain unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence and impact of hospital-acquired COVID-19 in this population and identify predictive factors for COVID-19 severity in patients with cancer. METHODS: Patients with cancer and a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were prospectively identified using provincial registries and hospital databases between March 3rd and May 23rd, 2020 in the provinces of Quebec and British Columbia in Canada. Patient's baseline characteristics including age, sex, comorbidities, cancer type and type of anticancer treatment were collected. The exposure of interest was incidence of hospital-acquired infection defined by diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 ≥ 5 days after hospital admission for COVID-unrelated cause. Co-primary outcomes were death or composite outcomes of severe illness from COVID-19 such as hospitalisation, supplemental oxygen, intensive-care unit (ICU) admission and/or mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: A total of 252 patients (N = 249 adult and N = 3 paediatric) with COVID-19 and cancer were identified, and the majority were residents of Quebec (N = 233). One hundred and six patients (42.1%) received active anticancer treatment in the last 3 months before COVID-19 diagnosis. During a median follow-up of 25 days, 33 (13.1%) required admission to the ICU, and 71 (28.2%) died. Forty-seven (19.1%) had a diagnosis of hospital-acquired COVID-19. Median overall survival was shorter in those with hospital-acquired infection than that in a contemporary community-acquired population (27 days versus unreached, hazard ratio (HR) = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.4, p = 0.0006. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that hospital-acquired COVID-19, age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status and advanced stage of cancer were independently associated with death. INTERPRETATION: Our study demonstrates a high rate of nosocomial transmission of COVID-19, associated with increased mortality in both univariate and multivariate analysis in the cancer population, reinforcing the importance of treating patients with cancer in COVID-free units. We also validated that age and advanced cancer were negative predictive factors for COVID-19 severity in patients with cancer.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Mortality/trends , Neoplasms/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , Young Adult
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