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Front Public Health ; 10: 936634, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228125


Background: SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in China in December 2019 and quickly spread across the world. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are the key to control the transmission of respiratory viruses. To stop the spread, NPI is widely recommended and is still followed by most countries. Methods: At the National Influenza Center of the Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Virology (ICMR-NIV), the surveillance of severe acute respiratory illness and acute respiratory illness cases for influenza and other respiratory viruses is in place. In this study, we analyzed surveillance data on respiratory viruses and/or SARS-CoV-2 testing from January 2017 to December 2021. Multiplex real-time PCR was used to detect the respiratory viruses. Results: Our findings indicate that during the pandemic, the positivity for influenza A and B, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and human coronavirus declined significantly. Conclusion: The annual distinct seasonal outbreaks of influenza, RSV, and other respiratory viruses as observed during the pre-COVID-19 period were not observed during the COVID-19 pandemic in years 2020 and 21. Social distancing, lock-downs, and non-pharmaceutical interventions may play an important role in the reduction of respiratory viruses. Understanding the seasonal respiratory virus decline could help public health experts prepare for future respiratory virus pandemics.

COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1269-1273, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933531


A 11-year-old boy with acute myeloid leukemia was brought for treatment of severe acute respiratory infection in the National Capital Region, New Delhi, India. Avian influenza A(H5N1) infection was laboratory confirmed. Complete genome analysis indicated hemagglutinin gene clade We found the strain to be susceptible to amantadine and neuraminidase inhibitors.

Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Birds , Child , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Humans , India , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Male , Phylogeny
Indian J Med Res ; 153(1 & 2): 166-174, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170507


BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Several phylogenetic classification systems have been devised to trace the viral lineages of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, inconsistency in the nomenclature limits uniformity in its epidemiological understanding. This study provides an integration of existing classifications and describes evolutionary trends of the SARS-CoV-2 strains circulating in India. METHODS: The whole genomes of 330 SARS-CoV-2 samples were sequenced using next-generation sequencing (NGS). Phylogenetic and sequence analysis of a total of 3014 Indian SARS-CoV-2 sequences from 20 different States/Union Territories (January to September 2020) from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) database was performed to observe the clustering of Nextstrain and Phylogenetic Assignment of Named Global Outbreak LINeages (Pangolin) lineages with the GISAID clades. The identification of mutational sites under selection pressure was performed using Mixed Effects Model of Evolution and Single-Likelihood Ancestor Counting methods available in the Datamonkey server. RESULTS: Temporal data of the Indian SARS-CoV-2 genomes revealed that except for Uttarakhand, West Bengal and Haryana that showed the circulation of GISAID clade O even after July 2020, the rest of the States showed a complete switch to GR/GH clades. Pangolin lineages B.1.1.8 and B.1.113 identified within GR and GH clades, respectively, were noted to be indigenous evolutions. Sites identified to be under positive selection pressure within these clades were found to occur majorly in the non-structural proteins coded by ORF1a and ORF1b. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: This study interpreted the geographical and temporal dominance of SARS-CoV-2 strains in India over a period of nine months based on the GISAID classification. An integration of the GISAID, Nextstrain and Pangolin classifications is also provided. The emergence of new lineages B.1.1.8 and B.1.113 was indicative of host-specific evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 strains in India. The hotspot mutations such as those driven by positive selection need to be further characterized.

Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , India/epidemiology