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1.
Haematologica ; 12:12, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198585

ABSTRACT

The GIMEMA phase II LLC1518 VERITAS trial investigated the efficacy and safety of frontline, fixed-duration venetoclax and rituximab (VenR) combination in young (<=65 years) and fit patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and unmutated IGHV and/or TP53 disruption. Treatment consisted of the Ven ramp-up, six-monthly courses of the VenR combination, followed by six monthly courses of Ven single agent. A centralized assessment of measurable minimal residual disease (MRD) was performed on the peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) by ASO-PCR at the end of treatment (EOT) and during the follow-up. The primary endpoint was the complete remission (CR) rate at the EOT. Seventy-five patients were enrolled;the median age was 54 years (range 38-65), 96% had unmutated IGHV, 9 (12%) had TP53 disruption, and 4% were IGHV mutated with TP53 disruption. The overall response rate (ORR) at the EOT was 94.7%, with a CR rate of 76%. An undetectable (u) MRD was recorded in 69.3% of patients in the PB and 58.7% in the BM. The 12-month MRD-free survival in the 52 patients with uMRD in the PB at the EOT was 73.1%. After a median follow-up of 20.8 months, no disease progressions were observed. Three patients have died, two due to Covid-19 and 1 to tumor lysis syndrome. The first report of the VERITAS study shows that frontline VenR was associated with a high rate of CRs and durable responses with uMRD in young patients with CLL and unfavorable genetic characteristics.

2.
HemaSphere ; 6:1071-1072, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032136

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) show high infection-related morbidity and mortality due to variable degree of humoral and cellular immune deficiency. High Covid-related mortality and reduced response to the SARS-Cov-2 vaccine have been reported in this patient population. Aims: We carried out a prospective multicenter study to define the rate of CLL patients with an appropriate immune response after the mRNA SARS-CoV2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech;Moderna). Methods: Two-hundred patients with CLL received the first dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine between February and August 2021. Centralized assessment of the anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgG levels (Sero Index, Kantaro Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 IgG Antibody, RUO-R&D System) was performed at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità of Rome, Italy. The median followup of this study is 10.7 months (range 1-12.9). Results: The median age of patients was 70 years, the median IgG level was 635 mg/dl, 61% of patients were IGHV unmutated, and 34% showed TP53 disruption. The majority of patients, 83.5%, were previously treated. Prior treatment included chemoimmunotherapy in 20 (10%) patients, ibrutinib-based therapy in 72 (36%;front-line, 21%;advanced line, 15%), venetoclax-based therapy in 75 (37.5%;front-line, 13.5%;advanced line, 24%). Overall, 135 (77.5%) patients had been previously treated with rituximab, 33 (16.5%) of them within 12 months before vaccination. We assessed the serologic response after the second dose of the SARS-CoV2 vaccine in 195 patients while five were excluded from the analysis (positive test before vaccination, 3 patients;lost to the follow-up, 1;Richter syndrome, 1). Adequate levels of anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgG were detected in 76/195 (39%) patients. Age (<70 vs.≥ 70 years;p <0.0001), CIRS value (<6 vs. ≥6;p=0.005), beta-2 microglobulin (<3.5 vs. ≥ 3.5mg/dl;p=0.04), IgG levels (<550 vs. ≤ 550 mg/dl;p <0.0001), prior treatment (p=0.0001), number of prior treatments (0+1 vs. ≥ 2;p=0.002) and the time between prior rituximab and vaccination (>12 vs. ≤12 month;p=0.001) showed a significant impact on the humoral response. In multivariate analysis only age (OR: 0.92 [95% CI: 0.92-0.97] p=0.0001), IgG levels (OR: 0.28 [95% CI: 0.13-0.58] p<0.001), and the time between prior rituximab and vaccination (OR: 0.10 [95% CI: 0.03-0.37] p=0.001), revealed a significant and independent impact on response. When the analysis was restricted to patients who received targeted therapy, in addition to the younger age (OR: 0.96 [95% CI: 0.92-0.99] p=0.04), higher IgG levels at baseline (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.79] p=0.014), longer time between the start of ibrutinib or venetoclax-based therapy and vaccination (<18 vs.≥18 months;OR: 0.17 [95% CI: 0.06-0.44], p <0.0001) showed a favorable and independent impact on response. Ninety-three% (182/195) of patients received a third dose of the vaccine. A significant increase in the rate of serologic responses, 51.5% (85/165 evaluated patients, p=0.019), was observed after the booster dose. Moreover, a response was detected in 25% (26/103 evaluated patients) of previously seronegative patients. Summary/Conclusion: In this prospective, multicenter, centralized study, we recorded an effective immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in about a third of patients with CLL. Younger age, higher IgG levels, no prior treatment, or stable disease after targeted therapy that suggest preserved immunocompetence were associated with a greater likelihood of achieving an effective immune response. A booster dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine proved beneficial also in previously seronegative patients.

3.
HemaSphere ; 6:293-294, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032133

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with hematological malignancies (HM) infected with SARS-CoV-2 hae a higher risk of deeloping seere coronairus disease (COVID-19) with consequent death, due to immune system impairment. Anti-spike Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies (nMoAbs) are indicated for the treatment of paucisymptomatic COVID-19 patients, but eidence of safety and efficacy among HM subjects is still lacking. Aims: To assess the efficacy of different nMoAbs approed by Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco (AIFA) on HM patients affected by paucisymptomatic SARS-COV-2. Methods: Multicenter retrospectie obserational study at ten sites in Italy, which enrolled consecutie patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and treated with nMoAbs from February 2020 to December 2021. Only HM subjects on treatment or in disease remission within 6 months from treatment discontinuation with paucisymptomatic SARSCOV- 2 infection were included. nMoAbs approed by AIFA include Bamlaniimab, Bamlaniimab/Eteseimab, Casiriimab/Imdeimab, Sotroimab, and Regdanimab. The primary endpoint was to assess the time to SARS-CoV- 2 molecular swab negatiization. A comparison to an historical control not receiing nMoAbs was assessed. Secondary endpoints consisted in ealuation of Hospitalization rate due to COVID-19, including intensie care unit (ICU) admission rate due to respiratory failure, and safety assessment. Results: Oerall 51 HM patients (median age 62 years;35% women) were ealuated. Seenteen of them had non- Hodgkin lymphomas, 9 multiple myeloma, 6 chronic lymphocytic leukemia, 6 acute myeloid leukemia, 3 Hodgkin lymphoma, 2 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 2 myeloproliferatie neoplasm, 1 Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia and 5 had other HM diagnosis. Thirty-six patients were on actie treatment, whereas 11 had completed their therapies within 6 months from nMoAbs administration, for 4 patients data were missing. In 7 subjects the last treatment was chemotherapy, in 19 immunotherapy with or without chemotherapy, in 9 target therapy, in 4 autologous stem cell transplantation, in 2 allogeneic stem cell transplantation, for 4 patients data were missing. Detailed description of patients' characteristics is reported in table 1. Twenty-six patients were treated with Bamlaniimab/Eteseimab, 17 with Casiriimab/Imdeimab, 3 with Bamlaniimab, and 2 with Sotroimab, for 3 patients data were missing. Median time to SARS-CoV-2 molecular swab negatiization was ealuable in 41 subjects and was 17 days (min 5, IQR 12-26, max 174). This result compared well with the preious finding of 28 days reported in an historical group of HM patients not treated with nMoAbs. We did not find any subpopulation, according to age, diagnosis, period of infection or type of nMoAbs who achieed a major benefit from nMoAbs treatment. The rate of Hospitalization due to COVID-19 progression was 19% (10/51), with an extremely low percentage of patients requiring ICU admission due to seer COVID-19 (2%,1/51). Most frequent side effects included chills (8%), diarrhea (6%), headache (2%), nausea (2%) and omiting (2%). Summary/Conclusion: Among paucisymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positie HM patients on actie treatment or in disease remission within 6 months from treatment discontinuation, the administration of nMoAbs substantially reduced the time to swab negatiization compared to an historical control of HM subjects. This treatment was also able to reduce the rate of Hospitalization and death due to COVID-19 progression in this high risk group. (Table Presented).

4.
Blood ; 138:2180, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582290

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination have raised concerns in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). In fact, PNH patients carry an increased infectious risk secondary to complement inhibition treatment or associated bone marrow failure (BMF), and may therefore benefit from preventive strategies such as vaccinations. On the contrary, vaccines can be numbered among inflammatory complement amplifiers (e.g., infections, traumas, surgery), potentially triggering a disease exacerbation. In PNH patients on complement inhibitors, this phenomenon has been defined pharmacodynamic breakthrough hemolysis (BTH). Based on isolated reports of BTH following SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, we conducted a survey among 5 Italian reference centers to evaluate complications and BTH occurrence in PNH patients who completed the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination schedule from January, 2 2021 until the time of writing. Adverse events, hematologic and hemolytic parameters were recorded within 7-10 days before and after each dose of vaccine. A total of 67 patients (females/males 43/24, median age 47.6 years, range 21-90.5) were eligible for the analysis. According to the International PNH Interest Group classification, 45 patients suffered from hemolytic PNH, 20 from PNH in the context of BMF syndromes (aplastic anemia or myelodysplastic syndrome), and 2 from subclinical PNH. Fifty-five subjects (82%) were on regular complement inhibition therapy, i.e., eculizumab (N=35), ravulizumab (N=13), subcutaneous anti-C5 (N=3), anti-factor B (N=2) and ravulizumab + anti-factor D combination (N=2). Vaccines (Comirnaty/Pfizer-BioNTech N=53, mRNA-1273/Moderna N=12, and ChAdOx1 nCov-19/AstraZeneca N=2) were complessively well-tolerated, with 3 non-hematologic adverse events after the first dose (2 fever and 1 exercise-induced tachycardia, grade 1 according to CTCAE v5.0) and 2 after the second one (fever, accompanied by vomit in one patient, grade 1). During the observation period, 3 BTH and 1 hemolytic exacerbation were recorded (5.9% of patients), as detailed in Table 1. The most severe episode occurred in a young woman (Patient 3) on subcutaneous ravulizumab who experienced a hemoglobin (Hb) drop >2 g/dL, marked clinical signs of intravascular hemolysis and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increase >1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN) from baseline, which is considered a clinical BTH according to the criteria proposed by the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the European group for Bone Marrow Transplantation. The patient required hospitalization for additional treatment with recombinant erythropoietin and anti-thombotic/bacterial prophylaxis. The second more severe BTH was registered in a male patient (Patient 1) on oral anti-factor B who experienced a Hb drop >2 g/dL without an overt hemolytic flare, and required hospitalization for intravenous antibiotic therapy (concomitant urinary tract infection). The remaining two patients experienced a subclinical BTH (Patient 2) and a hemolytic flare (Patient 4, not on complement inhibition). On the whole, a median delta variation from usual values of Hb and LDH of -25% (range -26+3%) and +80% (+18+105%) were observed, respectively. Of note, 3 episodes occurred after the second dose of vaccine, generally within 24-48 hours. Anti-complement drugs were not modified/discontinued in any of the 3 patients on regular treatment. Patients not experiencing BTH (94.1%) showed stable hematologic parameters after the first dose (Hb/LDH median delta variations from baseline -1%/+1%, range -14+12%/-32+40%) and the second dose of vaccine (Hb/LDH median delta variations from baseline +1%/0%, range -18+47%/-76+41%). Of note, 4 patients with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection completed the vaccination without any complication/PNH exacerbation. In conclusion, this survey shows that BTH/hemolytic flares following SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are observed in about 6% of PNH patients, may be clinically relevant but manageable, and should not discourage vaccination. BTH has been registered mostly few days after the second dose of vaccine, suggesting a “booster⠝ effect favoring a higher inflammatory response. Watchful clinical and laboratory monitoring is advised, in order to promptly recognize severe hemolytic flares in both treated and naïve patients. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Fattizzo: Novartis: Speakers Bureau;Kira: Speakers Bureau;Alexion: Speakers Bureau;Annexon: Consultancy;Momenta: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Apellis: Speakers Bureau;Amgen: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau. Bianchi: Agios pharmaceutics: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Sica: Jazz Pharma: Consultancy;Alexion: Consultancy. Barcellini: Novartis: Other: Invited speaker, Research Funding;Agios: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: Invited speaker, Research Funding;Bioverativ: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Incyte: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.

8.
Blood ; 136:47-49, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1348291

ABSTRACT

Fixed-duration treatment with venetoclax (Ven), a highly selective Bcl-2 inhibitor combined with an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, showed high efficacy inducing high rates of deep responses with undetectable minimal residual disease (uMRD) in patients with previously treated and untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The efficacy and safety of the Ven and rituximab (VenR) combination have been investigated in a multicenter, prospective study of the GIMEMA group that included young patients with previously untreated CLL (LLC 1518, VERITAS, NCT03455517). The primary endpoint of this study was the CR rate assessed according to the iwCLL criteria. Inclusion criteria were: treatment requirement per iwCLL criteria, age ≤65 years, cumulative Illness rating scale score ≤6, creatinine clearance ≥30 mL/min, and an unfavorable biologic profile with IGHV unmutated and or TP53 disruption. Treatment consisted of the Ven dose ramp-up (from 20 to 400 mg daily, during 5-weeks) followed by Ven 400 mg daily, combined with R for six 28-day courses (375 mg/m2, course 1;500 mg/m2, courses 2-6). Patients continued with Ven single agent, 400 mg daily, until month 13. Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) prophylaxis measures included hydration, allopurinol, or rasburicase. All patients received Pneumocystis Jirovecii prophylaxis. G-CSF was given in patients with recurrent and severe granulocytopenia. Adverse events (AEs) were graded according to the CTCAE criteria v.5, TLS events were classified according to Howard's criteria. Response was assessed at months 7 and 15 and included clinical examination, PB evaluation, BM aspirate, BM biopsy, and CT scan. MRD was checked centrally in the PB and BM by a 6/4-color flow-cytometry assay with a sensitivity of at least 10-4 according to the internationally standardized European Research Initiative on CLL. Quantitative MRD results assessed by flow-cytometry were categorized as uMRD (uMRD4;<10-4), intermediate MRD, or high MRD (≥10-2). MRD was further evaluated by allele-specific oligonucleotide PCR with a sensitivity up to 10-5 in the PB and BM of patients who showed uMRD4 by flow-cytometry. During the follow-up, MRD was monitored every 6 months. Between October 2018 and May 2020, 77 patients with CLL were included in this study. Two patients were off study before the start of treatment (withdrawal of consent, 1;Covid-19 infection, 1) and were not included in the analysis. The median age was 53.5 years (range 38-65). Binet stage B/C was present in 84% of patients, increased beta-2 microglobulin in 41%. Seventy-one (96%) of patients were IGHV unmutated, while 3 (4%) were IGHV mutated and showed TP53 mutation (Table 1). At the data cutoff of June 30, 2020, 65 (87%) patients completed the ramp-up phase. The planned 400 mg dose of Ven was reached within 5 weeks in 78.5% of patients. Response was assessed in 34 patients at the end of the VenR combination therapy. A response was achieved by 32 (94%) patients. Responses included 20 (59%) CRs, 1 CRi (3%) and 11 (32%) PRs due to residual enlarged nodes (median maximum size, 1.9 cm). Treatment failure due to toxicity was recorded in 2 (6%) patients. Overall, a response with uMRD4 by flow-cytometry in the PB was observed in 26 (76.5%) cases, and in the PB and BM, in 17 (50.0%). The rates of patients with CR and uMRD4 by flow-cytometry in the PB, and both in the PB and BM, were 44%, and 35%, respectively (Table 2). No detectable disease by PCR, both in the PB and BM, was observed in 4 (12%) patients. With a median follow-up of 4.5 months from the start of therapy, no patient has progressed or died. Fifty-three percent of patients were hospitalized during the first seven days of the Ven ramp-up phase. A transient laboratory TLS was observed in 3 patients. Treatment was discontinued after the first dose of Ven in 1 patient with evidence of laboratory TLS associated with severe neurologic toxicity due to the concomitant administration of fentanyl. Selected grade ≥3 AEs included neutropenia in 10 patients (ramp-up phase, 5) and neutropenic fever in 4. Gra e ≥3 infection was recorded in 3 patients and was the reason for treatment discontinuation in 1 who developed COVID-19 pneumonia. In conclusion, the preliminary results of this study demonstrate the high efficacy of the front-line VenR combination, which resulted in a high proportion of CRs and responses with uMRD4 in young patients with CLL and an unfavorable biologic profile. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Mauro: Astrazeneca: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Jannsen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Octopharma: Consultancy. Reda: Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Trentin: Abbvie: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Janssen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Shire: Honoraria;Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Octapharma: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Coscia: Shire: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Gilead: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Karyopharm Therapeutics: Research Funding;Abbvie: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Sportoletti: Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Laurenti: Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;AbbVie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Gaidano: Astrazeneca: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Sunesys: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Marasca: Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Shire: Honoraria;Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Murru: Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Rigolin: Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Abbvie: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Scarfo: Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;AstraZeneca: Honoraria;Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Marchetti: Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisor committees;Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Amgen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Levato: Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Galieni: Celgene: Honoraria;Takeda: Honoraria;AbbVie: Honoraria;Janssen: Honoraria. Liberati: Verastem: Research Funding;Onconova: Research Funding;Janssen: Honoraria, Research Funding;Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;Abbvie: Honoraria, Research Funding;Pfizer: Research Funding;Karyopharm: Research Funding;Morphosys: Research Funding;Novartis: Research Funding;GSK: Research Funding;Incyte: Honoraria;Oncopeptides: Research Funding;Takeda: Research Funding. Molica: Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Visentin: Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, SpeakersBureau;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Vitale: Janssen: Honoraria. Del Giudice: Janssen: Other: grant for meeting participation;Tolero: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Roche: Other: grant for meeting partecipation;AstraZeneca: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Cuneo: Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Astra Zeneca: Honoraria;Gilead: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau. Foà: Janssen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Incyte: Speakers Bureau;Abbvie: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau;Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Speakers Bureau;Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.

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