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1.
Journal of Stroke Medicine ; 5(1):48-55, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1910250

ABSTRACT

Background and objective Amongst the varied neurological manifestations of COVID-19 infection, stroke is one of the common complications. A large portion of patients had large vessel occlusion (LVO) which increases the risk of malignant cerebral infarction requiring decompressive craniectomy. The impact of COVID-19, however, on decompressive craniectomy is not well described. Through this study, we aim to study the impact of decompressive craniectomy in COVID-19 patients presented to our tertiary care hospital. Material and methods Data of all acute ischemic stroke patients who tested COVID positive during the study period was collected. From among them, patients requiring decompressive craniectomy were included. The demographic, clinico-radiological parameters related to stroke, treatment received, outcome and complications were noted. In addition, data from all case reports and case series published on patients with COVID-19, who had developed ischemic stroke and underwent decompression craniectomy was collected and systematically reviewed. Results Twenty-seven stroke patients tested positive for COVID-19 infection, out of whom five patients underwent decompression hemicraniectomy in view of neurologic deterioration. The review of literature yielded 453 s. After reading the full text of 69 articles, 12 studies on 15 patients finally met our inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. The mortality rate was 40% among stroke patients requiring decompressive craniectomy in COVID-19 patients. The mortality rate and functional outcomes of this cohort are comparable to the pre-pandemic period. Conclusion Decompressive craniectomy is a life-saving procedure in COVID-19 patients with malignant infarctions similar to patients in the pre-COVID-19 era.

2.
Microorganisms ; 10(6)2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911472

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: During the second wave of COVID-19, India faced a rapid and sudden surge of not only COVID19-delta variant cases but also mucormycosis, making the infection even more fatal. We conducted a study to determine factors associated with the occurrence of mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. (2) Methods: This case-control study comprised 121 patients; 61 cases (mucormycosis with COVID-19) and 60 controls. Patients were included from April 10, 2021 onwards. Follow-up was conducted after about 90 days and health status was recorded based on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). (3) Results: Mucormycosis with COVID-19 cases had a median (IQR) age of 49 (43-59) years with 65.6% males and were older (95% CI 1.015-1.075; p = 0.002) than in the control group with median (IQR) 38 (29-55.5) years and 66.6% males. Baseline raised serum creatinine (OR = 4.963; 95% CI 1.456-16.911; p = 0.010) and D-dimer (OR = 1.000; 95% CI 1.000-1.001; p = 0.028) were independently associated with the occurrence of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients. Additionally, diabetes mellitus (OR = 26.919; 95% CI 1.666-434.892; p = 0.020) was associated with poor outcomes and increased mortality in patients with mucormycosis with COVID-19 as per the multivariable analysis. A total of 30/61 mucormycosis patients had intracranial involvement. (4) Conclusions: The study observed elevated levels of baseline raised creatinine and D-dimer in mucormycosis pa-tients with COVID-19 as compared to the control group. However, future studies may be conducted to establish this cause-effect relationship.

3.
Telemed Rep ; 2(1): 88-96, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901063

ABSTRACT

Background: Teleneurology consultations can be highly advantageous since neurological diseases and disabilities often limit patient's access to health care, particularly in a setting where they need to travel long distances for specialty consults. Patient satisfaction is an important outcome assessing success of a telemedicine program. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine satisfaction and perception of patients toward an audio call based teleneurology follow-up initiated during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Primary outcomes were satisfaction to tele-consult, and proportion of patients preferring telemedicine for future follow-up. Results: A total of 261 patients who received tele-consult were enrolled. Satisfaction was highest for domain technological quality, followed by patient-physician dialogue (PPD) and least to quality of care (QoC). Median (interquartile range) patient satisfaction on a 5-point Likert scale was 4 (3-5). Eighty-five (32.6%; 95% confidence interval 26.9-38.6%) patients preferred telemedicine for future follow-up. Higher overall satisfaction was associated with health condition being stable/better, change in treatment advised on tele-consult, diagnosis not requiring follow-up examination, higher scores on domains QoC and PPD (p < 0.05). Future preference for telemedicine was associated with patient him-/herself consulting with doctor, less duration of follow-up, higher overall satisfaction, and higher scores on domain QoC (p < 0.05). On thematic analysis, telemedicine was found convenient, reduced expenditure, and had better physician attention; in-person visits were comprehensive, had better patient-physician relationship, and better communication. Discussion: Patient satisfaction was lower in our study than what has been observed earlier, which may be explained by the primitive nature of our platform. Several variables related to the patients' disease process have an effect on patient satisfaction. Conclusion: Development of robust, structured platforms is necessary to fully utilize the potential of telemedicine in developing countries.

4.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 7-10, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726287

ABSTRACT

During the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic, there is a sudden increase in number of cases mucormycosis infection in India. This communication by the Tropical Neurology subsection expert group of the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN) describes the clinical and diagnostic features, treatment of the disease and gives recommendations about the ways forward.

5.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 60-67, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726286

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study impact of COVID-19 pandemic on frequency, clinical/electrophysiological profile and treatment outcomes in pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Background: GBS is the most frequent cause of pediatric acute flaccid paralysis. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric GBS is unclear in the literature. Methods: We conducted an ambispective, multicentric, cohort study involving 12 of 27 centres in GBS Consortium, during two periods: pre-COVID-19 (March-August 2019) and during COVID-19 (March-August 2020). Children ≤12 years who satisfied National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke criteria for GBS/variants were enrolled. Details pertaining to clinical/laboratory parameters, treatment and outcomes (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge, GBS Disability score at discharge and 3 months) were analysed. Results: We enrolled 33 children in 2019 and 10 in 2020. Children in 2020 were older (median 10.4 [interquartile range 6.75-11.25] years versus 5 (2.5-8.4) years; P = 0.022) and had more sensory symptoms (50% versus 18.2%; P = 0.043). The 2020 group had relatively favourable mRS at discharge (median 1 (1-3.5) versus 3 (2-4); P = 0.042) and GBS disability score at 3 months (median 0 (0-0.75) versus 2 (0-3); P = 0.009) compared to 2019. Multivariate analysis revealed bowel involvement (P = 0.000) and ventilatory support (P = 0.001) as independent predictors of disability. No child in 2020 had preceding/concurrent SARS-CoV2 infection. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic led to a marked decline in pediatric GBS presenting to hospitals. Antecedent illnesses, clinical and electrophysiological profile of GBS remained largely unchanged from the pre-pandemic era.

6.
Indian J Public Health ; 65(4): 375-379, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related scientific publications have increased exponentially during the present pandemic but their influence on biomedical literature is not known. The characteristics of highly cited articles help us to identify important advances and their scientific impact. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we have identified and analyzed the top 100 most highly-cited articles of COVID-19 research published in the year 2020. METHODS: A cross-sectional bibliometric analysis was using the search terms "severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2," "COVID," "nCoV," "Coronavirus," and "HCoV" querying the Google Scholar database using the program "Publish or Perish." The first 100 English language articles with the maximum number of citations were identified and evaluated in detail. RESULTS: The top 100 COVID-19 articles in 2020 had citations ranging from 1147 to 20,440. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) number of citations was 1970 (1456-2939). The number of authors ranged from 1 to 79 (median 10; IQR 5.25-19). The majority of first authors was from China (58%), followed by the United States of America (16%) and the United Kingdom (7%). The top three journals in terms of the number of published articles (37%) were the New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, and The Lancet. Most of the top-cited COVID-19 literature were descriptive studies focusing on epidemiology (48%) and clinical course (60%) of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Clinical course and epidemiology have been the predominant areas of research interest in COVID-19 in 2020. Citation analysis of COVID-19 literature helps us to map out the most important focus for research in this pandemic and to identify gaps in knowledge which would guide further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bibliometrics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , India , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(5): 668-685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Occurrence of stroke has been reported among patients with COVID-19. The present study compares clinical features and outcomes of stroke patients with and without COVID-19. METHODS: The COVID-19 Stroke Study Group (CSSG) is a multicentric study in 18 sites across India to observe and compare the clinical characteristics of patients with stroke admitted during the current pandemic period and a similar epoch in 2019. The present study reports patients of stroke with and without COVID-19 (CoVS and non-CoVS, respectively) seen between February 2020 and July 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and outcome details of patients were collected. RESULTS: The mean age and gender were comparable between the two groups. CoVS patients had higher stroke severity and extent of cerebral involvement on imaging. In-hospital complications and death were higher among CoVS patients (53.06% vs. 17.51%; P < 0.001) and (42.31% vs. 7.6%; P < 0.001), respectively. At 3 months, higher mortality was observed among CoVS patients (67.65% vs. 13.43%; P < 0.001) and good outcome (modified Rankin score [mRS]: 0-2) was seen more often in non-CoVS patients (68.86% vs. 33.33%; P < 0.001). The presence of COVID-19 and baseline stroke severity were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: CoVS is associated with higher severity, poor outcome, and increased mortality. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and baseline stroke severity are independent predictors of mortality.

10.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 23(3): 261-264, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent respiratory infection including SARS-CoV-2 is an independent risk factor for acute cerebrovascular disease. PURPOSE: There have been reports linking haemorrhagic strokes to SARS-CoV-2 infection during this pandemic, which lead us to evaluate if SARS-CoV-2 infection could be associated with increased risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: A retrospective observational study evaluating all stroke cases admitted in our centre in the past one month. RESULTS: More than half (56%) had ICH, compared to 22% last year. Two patients with ICH were SARS-CoV-2 positive and they had no or mild respiratory symptoms and had higher occurrence of renal dysfunction. CONCLUSION: There could be possible association between ICH and SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, a prospective study with larger sample size is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis.

11.
J Neurol Sci ; 428: 117583, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the health systems around the world struggled to meet the challenges of COVID-19 pandemic, care of many non-COVID emergencies was affected. AIMS: The present study examined differences in the diagnosis, evaluation and management of stroke patients during a defined period in the ongoing pandemic in 2020 when compared to a similar epoch in year 2019. METHODS: The COVID stroke study group (CSSG) India, included 18 stroke centres spread across the country. Data was collected prospectively between February and July 2020 and retrospectively for the same period in 2019. Details of demographics, stroke evaluation, treatment, in-hospital and three months outcomes were collected and compared between these two time points. RESULTS: A total of 2549 patients were seen in both study periods; 1237 patients (48.53%) in 2019 and 1312 (51.47%) in 2020. Although the overall number of stroke patients and rates of thrombolysis were comparable, a significant decline was observed in the month of April 2020, during the initial period of the pandemic and lockdown. Endovascular treatment reduced significantly and longer door to needle and CT to needle times were observed in 2020. Although mortality was higher in 2020, proportion of patients with good outcome were similar in both the study periods. CONCLUSIONS: Although stroke admissions and rates of thrombolysis were comparable, some work flow metrics were delayed, endovascular stroke treatment rates declined and mortality was higher during the pandemic study period. Reorganization of stroke treatment pathways during the pandemic has likely improved the stroke care delivery across the globe.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment
12.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(1): 11-14, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150828

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has precipitated a global health crisis. Non-COVID diseases across specialties have been significantly compromised. The greatest challenge has been to continue providing care to non-COVID cases with minimum transmission risk to health care workers, patients, and caregivers. In this specter, better described as a medical holocaust, we present our experiences of dealing with acute neurological patients who could access our facility. We attempted to work on three key areas - initial screening using a more inclusive, dynamic checklist for COVID suspicion over and above the emergency triage, a mandatory initial holding on a separate floor of our inpatient service equipped with infection control strategies similar to a COVID-designated area, and daily screening of health care workers and caregivers for symptoms and possible exposures. It was a steep learning curve, a couple of close shaves, and many more lessons that went into the development of an algorithm that seems to be working well.

14.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 23(4): 429-432, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-830288

ABSTRACT

Medical training programs are witnessing immense disruptions worldwide due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Keeping in mind the trainees' future prospects, it is important to provide continuity of teaching and timely certification assessments. Overcoming the obstacles to routine functioning presented by SARS-CoV-2 spread, we recently conducted the DM Neurology exit examination in a hybrid virtual format. We created a curated case repository with history and clinical examination findings followed by structured questions that could be built upon for case discussions. The external examiners assessed the candidates virtually through a video conferencing platform. The end results were well accepted by all key stake holders. The concerns, logistics and experience of conducting the DM Neurology exit exam in a virtual format are summarized here.

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