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1.
Eur Respir J ; 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685992

ABSTRACT

Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection frequently experience symptom burden post-acute infection or post-hospitalisation. We aim to identify optimal strategies for follow-up care that may positively impact the patient's quality-of-life (QOL).A European Respiratory Society (ERS) Task Force (TF) convened and prioritised eight clinical questions. A targeted search of the literature defined the time line of long COVID-19 as one to six months post infection and identified clinical evidence in the follow-up of patients. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria report an association of characteristics of acute infection with persistent symptoms, thromboembolic events in the follow-up period and evaluations of pulmonary physiology and imaging. Importantly, this statement reviews QOL consequences, symptom burden, disability and home care follow-up. Overall, the evidence for follow-up care for patients with long COVID-19 is limited.

3.
Life (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638812

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine (TM)-the management of disease at a distance-has potential usefulness for patients with advanced respiratory disease. Underscoring this potential is the dramatic expansion of its applications in clinical medicine. However, since clinical studies testing this intervention often provide heterogeneous results, its role in the medical management of respiratory disorders remains inconclusive. A major problem in establishing TM's effectiveness is that it is not a single intervention; rather, it includes a number of divergent diagnostic and therapeutic modalities-and each must be tested separately. Reflecting the discord between the need for further documentation of its approaches and effectiveness and its rapid utilization without this needed information, a major challenge is the lack of international guidelines for its integration, regulation, operational plans, and guidance for professionals. Tailored TM, with increased flexibility to address differing healthcare contexts, has the potential to improve access to and quality of services while reducing costs and direct input by health professionals. We should view TM as a tool to aid healthcare professionals in managing their patients with respiratory diseases rather than as a stand-alone substitute to traditional medical care. As such, TM is a means rather than an end.

4.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 9(1)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether exposure to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) modifiers affects the severity of the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) because most of the available studies are retrospective. METHODS: We tested the prognostic value of exposure to RAS modifiers (either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACE-Is] or angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) in a prospective study of hypertensive patients with COVID-19. We analyzed data from 566 patients (mean age 75 years, 54% males, 162 ACE-Is users, and 147 ARBs users) hospitalized in five Italian hospitals. The study used systematic prospective data collection according to a pre-specified protocol. All-cause mortality during hospitalization was the primary outcome. RESULTS: Sixty-six patients died during hospitalization. Exposure to RAS modifiers was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of in-hospital mortality when compared to other BP-lowering strategies (odds ratio [OR]: 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32 to 0.90, p = 0.019). Exposure to ACE-Is was not significantly associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality when compared with patients not treated with RAS modifiers (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.36 to 1.20, p = 0.172). Conversely, ARBs users showed a 59% lower risk of death (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.84, p = 0.016) even after allowance for several prognostic markers, including age, oxygen saturation, occurrence of severe hypotension during hospitalization, and lymphocyte count (adjusted OR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.80, p = 0.012). The discontinuation of RAS modifiers during hospitalization did not exert a significant effect (p = 0.515). CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study indicates that exposure to ARBs reduces mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

5.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599013

ABSTRACT

The Lombardy region has been one of the areas most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic since the first months of 2020, providing real-life experiences in the acute phase. It is unclear how the respiratory rehabilitation network responded to this emergency. The aims of this retrospective study were: i) to analyze clinical, functional, and disability data at admission; ii) describe assessment tools and rehabilitative programs; iii) evaluate improvement after rehabilitation. The study was conducted on data collected from ten pulmonary rehabilitation centers in Lombardy, between the period of March 1st 2020 to March 1st 2021, in patients with respiratory failure recovering from COVID-19 both at admission and discharge. The study included demographics, comorbidities, nutritional status, risk of falls, disability status (Barthel index; Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB); 6 minutes walking test (6MWT), symptoms (dyspnoea with Barthel Dyspnoea and MRC Dyspnoea Scale), length of stay, discharge destination, need for mechanical ventilation, respiratory function, assessment/outcomes indices, and prescribed rehabilitative programs. 413 patients were analyzed. Length of stay in acute and rehabilitative units was less than 30 days. Fifty % of patients used non-invasive ventilation during their stay. Functional status was mildly compromised for forced volumes and oxygenation, while severely compromised for diffusion capacity. Independency was low while physical performance status very low.  At discharge, 318 (77%) patients were sent home, 83 (20.1%) were transferred to an acute unit and 12 (2.9%) passed away. Barthel Index and 6MWT were the most used, while MRC score was the least used outcome parameter. The 5 main rehabilitative activities were walking (90.8 %), transfer from bed to armchair (77.5%), limb mobilization in bed (76%), balance (71.2%), and cycle-ergometer or treadmill (43.1%). A huge difference was found in admission, discharge, and delta change among different rehabilitative centers. When available, all outcomes showed a significant improvement. With the limitation of a retrospective study with a clear amount of missing data, COVID-19 subjects admitted to rehabilitative centers presented a reduced physical performance, symptoms of dyspnoea, and severe disability. The 6MWT and Barthel index were the most used measurement.

6.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(4)2021 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599011

ABSTRACT

As part of the Italian Health Service the respiratory ICS Maugeri network were reconfigured and several in-hospital programs were suspended to be substituted by workforce and facilities reorganization for acute and post-acute COVID-19 care need. The present review shows the time course variation of respiratory ICS network in terms of admissions diagnosis and outcomes. A comparative review of the admissions and outcome measures data (anthropometric, admission diagnosis, provenience, comorbidities, disability, symptoms, effort tolerance, disease impact, length of stay and discharge destinations) over 1 year period (March 2020-March 2021) was undertaken and compared to retrospective data from a corresponding 1 year (March 2019-March 2020) period to determine the impact of the network relocation on the delivery of pulmonary specialist rehabilitation to patients with complex needs during the pandemic episode. One of the changes implemented at the respiratory Maugeri network was the relocation of the Pulmonary Rehabilitation units from its 351 beds base to a repurposed 247 beds and a reduction in total number of admitted patients (n=3912 in pre-COVID time; n=2089 in post COVID time). All respiratory diagnosis, except COVID sequelae, decreased (chronic respiratory failure-CRF, COPD, obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome-OSAS, interstitial lung disease-ILD, tracheostomized patients and other mixed diseases decreased of 734, 705, 157, 87, 79 and 326 units respectively). During the pandemic time, 265 post COVID sequelae with CRF were admitted for rehabilitation (12.62%), % of patients coming from acute hospital increased, LOS and NIV use remained stable while CPAP indication decreased. Disease impact, dyspnea and effort tolerance as their improvements after rehabilitation, were similar in the two periods.  Only baseline disability, expressed by Barthel index, seems higher in the 2° observation time as its improvement. Hospital deaths and transfers to acute hospitals were higher during pandemic crisis while home destination decreased. This review demonstrated impact of coronavirus pandemic situation, specifically the relocation of the respiratory inpatient rehabilitation wards in a huge Italian network.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512349

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 survivors are associated with acute respiratory failure (ARF) and show a high prevalence of impairment in physical performance. The present studied aimed to assess whether we may cluster these individuals according to an exercise test. The presented study is a retrospective analysis of 154 survivors who were admitted to two hospitals of Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri network, Italy. Clinical characteristics, walked distance, heart rate (HR), pulse oximetry (SpO2), dyspnoea, and leg fatigue (Borg scale: Borg-D and Borg-F, respectively) while performing the six-minute walking test (6MWT) were entered into unsupervised clustering analysis. Multivariate linear regression identified variables that were informative for the set of variables used for cluster definition. Cluster 1 (C1: 86.4% of participants) and Cluster 2 (C2: 13.6%) were identified. Compared to C1, the individuals in C2 were significantly older, showed significantly higher increase in fatigue and in dyspnoea, greater reduction in SpO2, and a lower HRpeak during the test. The need of walking aids, time from admission to acute care hospitals, age, body mass index, endotracheal intubation, baseline HR and baseline Borg-D, and exercise-induced SpO2 change were significantly associated with the variables that were used for cluster definition. Different characteristics and physiological parameters during the 6MWT characterise survivors of COVID-19-associated ARF. These results may help in the management of the long-term effects of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Exercise Test , Humans , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors , Walking
8.
Respir Care ; 66(11): 1657-1664, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Survivors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated pneumonia may show exercise-induced desaturation. We wondered whether these individuals show physiologic and symptom characteristics similar to individuals with chronic respiratory diseases with exercise-induced desaturation, namely COPD or interstitial lung diseases (ILD). We evaluated lung function, exercise capacity, and symptoms in these individuals compared with individuals with COPD or ILD and exercise-induced desaturation. METHODS: Survivors of COVID-19 associated pneumonia (study individuals), normoxemic at rest with exercise-induced desaturation, underwent assessment of dyspnea, dynamic lung volumes, carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, and the 6-min walk test. Data of individuals with COPD or with ILD and exercise-induced desaturation were also retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: FVC was lower in individuals with COVID-19 or ILD than in those with COPD. Individuals who had COVID-19 walked < 70% of predicted and, as a whole, had a 6-min walk test performance similar to individuals with ILD but walked significantly less, showed more severe leg fatigue and dyspnea during exercise, and more exercise-induced desaturation than individuals with COPD. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors of COVID-19 associated pneumonia, who were normoxemic at rest with exercise-induced desaturation, had alterations in lung function, exercise capacity, and symptoms similar to individuals with ILD but more severe than individuals with COPD and exercise-induced desaturation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Exercise Test , Humans , Pneumonia/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
9.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 268, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Noninvasive respiratory support (NIRS) has been diffusely employed outside the intensive care unit (ICU) to face the high request of ventilatory support due to the massive influx of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) caused by coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19). We sought to summarize the evidence on clinically relevant outcomes in COVID-19 patients supported by NIV outside the ICU. METHODS: We searched PUBMED®, EMBASE®, and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical trials register, along with medRxiv and bioRxiv repositories for pre-prints, for observational studies and randomized controlled trials, from inception to the end of February 2021. Two authors independently selected the investigations according to the following criteria: (1) observational study or randomized clinical trials enrolling ≥ 50 hospitalized patients undergoing NIRS outside the ICU, (2) laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, and (3) at least the intra-hospital mortality reported. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines were followed. Data extraction was independently performed by two authors to assess: investigation features, demographics and clinical characteristics, treatments employed, NIRS regulations, and clinical outcomes. Methodological index for nonrandomized studies tool was applied to determine the quality of the enrolled studies. The primary outcome was to assess the overall intra-hospital mortality of patients under NIRS outside the ICU. The secondary outcomes included the proportions intra-hospital mortalities of patients who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation following NIRS failure and of those with 'do-not-intubate' (DNI) orders. RESULTS: Seventeen investigations (14 peer-reviewed and 3 pre-prints) were included with a low risk of bias and a high heterogeneity, for a total of 3377 patients. The overall intra-hospital mortality of patients receiving NIRS outside the ICU was 36% [30-41%]. 26% [21-30%] of the patients failed NIRS and required intubation, with an intra-hospital mortality rising to 45% [36-54%]. 23% [15-32%] of the patients received DNI orders with an intra-hospital mortality of 72% [65-78%]. Oxygenation on admission was the main source of between-study heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 outbreak, delivering NIRS outside the ICU revealed as a feasible strategy to cope with the massive demand of ventilatory assistance. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ , CRD42020224788, December 11, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation/statistics & numerical data , Observational Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
11.
Pulmonology ; 27(6): 518-528, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284488

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of short- and long-term impairment of physical performance in patients with COVID-19 infection, but a verification of measures of physical impairment in this condition is lacking. We reviewed the measures used to assess physical performance in these patients. Secondary targets were measures of exercise or daily life activities induced symptoms. METHODS: Medline, CINAHL, and Pedro databases were searched from January 2020 to February 2021 for articles in the English language. Two investigators independently conducted the search, screened all titles and/or abstracts based on the inclusion criteria and independently scored the studies. The quality of the studies was evaluated by two reviewers according to the NIH quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies. Discrepancies were resolved through consensus. RESULTS: Out of 156 potentially relevant articles, 31 observational studies (8 cross-sectional), 1 randomized controlled trial, and 1 protocol were included. The quality of most of the 31 evaluable studies was judged as low (11 studies) or fair (14 studies). Sample sizes of the studies ranged from 14 to 20,889 patients. among the 28 reported measures, Barthel Index (42.4% of studies), Six-Minute Walking Distance Test (36.4%), Short Physical Performance Battery (21.2%) and 1-Minute Sit-to-Stand (12.1%) were the most used. Fifteen% and 36% of studies reported exercise induced desaturation and dyspnoea when performing the assessments, respectively. Other exercise induced symptoms were fatigue and pain. Studies reported wide ranges of impairment in physical performance as compared to "reference" values (range of mean or median reported values vs "reference values": 11-77 vs 100 points for Barthel Index; 11-22 vs 22-37 repetitions/min for 1m-STS; 0.5-7.9 vs 11.4 ± 1.3 points for SPPB; and 45-223 vs 380-782 m for 6MWT respectively). CONCLUSION: This review found that a wide variety of functional status tests have been used, making comparisons difficult between studies. These measures show impairment in physical performance in COVID-19 patients. However, the quality of most of the studies was judged as low or fair.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Functional Performance , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
13.
J Clin Med ; 10(12)2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264481

ABSTRACT

We evaluated vascular dysfunction with the single passive leg movement test (sPLM) in 22 frail elderly patients at 84 + 31 days after hospitalization for COVID-19 pneumonia, compared to 22 age-, sex- and comorbidity-matched controls (CTRL). At rest, all COVID-19 patients were in stable clinical condition without severe comorbidities. Patients (aged 72 ± 6 years, 73% male) had moderate disability (Barthel index score 77 ± 26), hypoxemia and normocapnia at arterial blood gas analysis and mild pulmonary restriction at spirometry. Values of circulating markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein: CRP; erythrocyte sedimentation rate: ESR) and coagulation (D-dimer) were: 27.13 ± 37.52 mg/dL, 64.24 ± 32.37 mm/1 h and 1043 ± 729 ng/mL, respectively. At rest, femoral artery diameter was similar in COVID-19 and CTRL (p = 0.16). On the contrary, COVID-19 infection deeply impacted blood velocity (p = 0.001) and femoral blood flow (p < 0.0001). After sPLM, peak femoral blood flow was dramatically reduced in COVID-19 compared to CTRL (p = 0.001), as was blood flow ∆peak (p = 0.05) and the area under the curve (p < 0.0001). This altered vascular responsiveness could be one of the unknown components of long COVID-19 syndrome leading to fatigue, changes in muscle metabolism and fibers' composition, exercise intolerance and increased cardiovascular risk. Impact of specific treatments, such as exercise training, dietary supplements or drugs, should be evaluated.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256542

ABSTRACT

Intensive Care Unit delirium, insomnia, anxiety, and frontal/dysexecutive disorders have been described following COVID-19 infection. The aim of this case study was to re-evaluate the neuropsychological pattern in a series of patients with COVID-19 outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated 294 patients admitted to the Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri of Lumezzane (Brescia) (May-September 2020). Neuropsychological assessment was available for 12 patients. We extracted clinical, functional data (FIM and Barthel Index score) and neuropsychological tests (MMSE, Trail making a-b, verbal fluency test, digit span, prose memory test, Frontal Assessment Battery, clock drawing test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure, Tower of London test). The results were analyzed by Spearman (rho) correlation. Six patients presented dysexecutive alterations even in the presence of normal overall cognitive functioning. Forward digit span score was directly correlated to FIM value at admission (p = 0.015) and inversely correlated to delta FIM (p = 0.030) and delta Barthel Index (p = 0.025). In our experience, subclinical cognitive alterations were present in 4% of patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia. The possible correlation between verbal memory and frontal functions, and the degree of functional impairment at admission and its subsequent improvement, underscores the importance of an adequate cognitive evaluation and rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Pulmonology ; 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persistence of breathlessness after recovery from SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is frequent. Recovery from acute respiratory failure (ARF) is usually determined by normalized arterial blood gases (ABGs), but the prevalence of persistent exercise-induced desaturation (EID) and dyspnea is still unknown. METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of EID in 70 patients with normal arterial oxygen at rest after recovery from ARF due to COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients underwent a 6-min walking test (6MWT) before discharge from hospital. We recorded dyspnea score and heart rate during 6MWT. We also investigated the possible role of lung ultrasound (LU) in predicting EID. Patients underwent a LU scan and scores for each explored area were summed to give a total LU score. RESULTS: In 30 patients (43%), oxygen desaturation was >4% during 6MWT. These patients had significantly higher dyspnea and heart rate compared to non-desaturators. LU score >8.5 was significantly able to discriminate patients with EID. CONCLUSION: In SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, ABGs at discharge cannot predict the persistence of EID, which is frequent. LU may be useful to identify patients at risk who could benefit from a rehabilitation program.

16.
Pulmonology ; 27(4): 281-282, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249115
18.
Eur J Intern Med ; 89: 81-86, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209445

ABSTRACT

AIMS: heart failure (HF) and coronary artery disease (CAD) are independent predictors of death in patients with COVID-19. The adverse prognostic impact of the combination of HF and CAD in these patients is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: we analysed data from 954 consecutive patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 in five Italian Hospitals from February 23 to May 22, 2020. The study was a systematic prospective data collection according to a pre-specified protocol. All-cause mortality during hospitalization was the outcome measure. Mean duration of hospitalization was 33 days. Mortality was 11% in the total population and 7.4% in the group without evidence of HF or CAD (reference group). Mortality was 11.6% in the group with CAD and without HF (odds ratio [OR]: 1.6, p = 0.120), 15.5% in the group with HF and without CAD (OR: 2.3, p = 0.032), and 35.6% in the group with CAD and HF (OR: 6.9, p<0.0001). The risk of mortality in patients with CAD and HF combined was consistently higher than the sum of risks related to either disorder, resulting in a significant synergistic effect (p<0.0001) of the two conditions. Age-adjusted attributable proportion due to interaction was 64%. Adjusting for the simultaneous effects of age, hypotension, and lymphocyte count did not significantly lower attributable proportion which persisted statistically significant (p = 0.0360). CONCLUSION: The combination of HF and CAD exerts a marked detrimental impact on the risk of mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, which is independent on other adverse prognostic markers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Heart Failure , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(4)2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178486

ABSTRACT

The present case report describes middle-time course of respiratory and physical variables in eight Covid-19 patients who were transferred from ICU of Covid Hub in our subacute Covid-19 unit. Secondly they were admitted in a pulmonary rehabilitation unit and, at discharge, a tele-rehabilitation program was provided as a continuum of care at home. Time course of oxygenation, physical function and disability were recorded. As expected, the acute event produced in these patients a dramatic worsening in oxygenation and physical activities, with a substantial improvement in oxygenation and mild disability after the sub-acute stay. After rehabilitation program, the patients showed additional improvement in particular in physical function. Anyway, this recover was not complete for all patients. The majority of Covid-19 survivors experienced ARF recovered oxygenation, physical function and disability within a median time of 137 days. A minority needs further follow up and rehabilitation maintenance due to incomplete recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Respiration ; 100(5): 416-422, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In hospitalized patients recovering from the SARS-coronavirus-2 disease 19 (COVID-19), high prevalence of muscle weakness and physical performance impairment has been observed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in these subjects in a real-life setting. METHODS: Retrospective data analysis of patients recovering from COVID-19, including those requiring assisted ventilation or oxygen therapy, consecutively admitted to an in-patient pulmonary rehabilitation program between April 1 and August 15, 2020. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB: primary outcome), Barthel Index (BI), and six-min walking distance were assessed as outcome measures. RESULTS: Data of 140 patients were analyzed. After rehabilitation, patients showed improvements in SPPB {from: (median [IQR]) 0.5 (0-7) to 7 (4-10), p < 0.001} and BI (from 55 [30-90] to 95 [65-100], p < 0.001), as well as in other assessed outcome measures. The proportion of patients unable at admission to stand, rise from a chair and walk was significantly reduced (p < 0.00). CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary rehabilitation is possible and effective in patients recovering from COVID-19. Our findings may be useful to guide clinicians taking care of patients surviving COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Dyspnea/rehabilitation , Respiratory Therapy , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disabled Persons/rehabilitation , Dyspnea/etiology , Exercise Test , Exercise Therapy , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
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