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1.
N Engl J Med ; 388(21): 1931-1941, 2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether the antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids may decrease mortality among patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia is unclear. METHODS: In this phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned adults who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for severe community-acquired pneumonia to receive intravenous hydrocortisone (200 mg daily for either 4 or 7 days as determined by clinical improvement, followed by tapering for a total of 8 or 14 days) or to receive placebo. All the patients received standard therapy, including antibiotics and supportive care. The primary outcome was death at 28 days. RESULTS: A total of 800 patients had undergone randomization when the trial was stopped after the second planned interim analysis. Data from 795 patients were analyzed. By day 28, death had occurred in 25 of 400 patients (6.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9 to 8.6) in the hydrocortisone group and in 47 of 395 patients (11.9%; 95% CI, 8.7 to 15.1) in the placebo group (absolute difference, -5.6 percentage points; 95% CI, -9.6 to -1.7; P = 0.006). Among the patients who were not undergoing mechanical ventilation at baseline, endotracheal intubation was performed in 40 of 222 (18.0%) in the hydrocortisone group and in 65 of 220 (29.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.86). Among the patients who were not receiving vasopressors at baseline, such therapy was initiated by day 28 in 55 of 359 (15.3%) of the hydrocortisone group and in 86 of 344 (25.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.82). The frequencies of hospital-acquired infections and gastrointestinal bleeding were similar in the two groups; patients in the hydrocortisone group received higher daily doses of insulin during the first week of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia being treated in the ICU, those who received hydrocortisone had a lower risk of death by day 28 than those who received placebo. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; CAPE COD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02517489.).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Community-Acquired Infections , Hydrocortisone , Pneumonia , Adult , Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
2.
Crit Care Med ; 2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324563

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of high doses of corticosteroids (HDCT) in critically ill COVID-19 patients with nonresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who had been previously treated with dexamethasone as a standard of care. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. Eligible patients presented nonresolving ARDS related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and had received initial treatment with dexamethasone. We compared patients who had received or not HDCT during ICU stay, consisting of greater than or equal to 1 mg/kg of methylprednisolone or equivalent for treatment of nonresolving ARDS. The primary outcome was 90-day mortality. We assessed the impact of HDCT on 90-day mortality using univariable and multivariable Cox regression analysis. Further adjustment for confounding variables was performed using overlap weighting propensity score. The association between HDCT and the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia was estimated using multivariable cause-specific Cox proportional hazard model adjusting for pre-specified confounders. SETTING: We included consecutive patients admitted in 11 ICUs of Great Paris area from September 2020 to February 2021. PATIENTS: Three hundred eighty-three patients were included (59 in the HDCT group, 324 in the no HDCT group). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: At day 90, 30 of 59 patients (51%) in the HDCT group and 116 of 324 patients (35.8%) in the no HDCT group had died. HDCT was significantly associated with 90-day mortality in unadjusted (hazard ratio [HR], 1.60; 95% CI, 1.04-2.47; p = 0.033) and adjusted analysis with overlap weighting (adjusted HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.03-2.63; p = 0.036). HDCT was not associated with an increased risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (adjusted cause-specific HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.15-1.16; p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill COVID-19 patients with nonresolving ARDS, HDCT result in a higher 90-day mortality.

3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 6658, 2023 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302387

ABSTRACT

We aimed to explore the relationships between specific viral mutations/mutational patterns and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurrence in COVID-19 patients admitted in intensive care units between October 1, 2020, and May 30, 2021. Full-length SARS-CoV-2 genomes were sequenced by means of next-generation sequencing. In this prospective multicentre cohort study, 259 patients were included. 222 patients (47%) had been infected with pre-existing ancestral variants, 116 (45%) with variant α, and 21 (8%) with other variants. 153 patients (59%) developed at least one VAP. There was no significant relationship between VAP occurrence and a specific SARS CoV-2 lineage/sublineage or mutational pattern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Critical Illness , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Intensive Care Units , Dexamethasone , Mutation
4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228932

ABSTRACT

RATIONAL: Long-term outcomes of patients with COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are unknown. METHODS: Multicenter, prospective study in patients who received ECMO for COVID-19 ARDS from March to June 2020 and survived hospital discharge. Physical examination, pulmonary function tests, anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD), and quality of life (QoL) were assessed at 6 and 12 months after ECMO onset. RESULTS: Of 80 eligible patients, 62 were enrolled in 7 French Intensive Care Units (ICU). ECMO and invasive mechanical ventilation duration were 18 (11-25) and 36 (27-62) days, respectively. All were alive but only 19/50 (38%) returned to work and 13/42 (31%) had recovered a normal sex drive at one year. Pulmonary function tests were almost normal at 6 months except for diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide which was still impaired at 12 months. Mental health, role-emotional, and role-physical were the most impaired domain compared to non-COVID ECMO patients. One year after ICU admission, 19/43 (44%) patients had significant anxiety, 18/43 (42%) had depression symptoms and 21/50 (42%) were at risk for PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the partial recovery of the lung function tests at one year, the physical and psychological function of this population remains impaired. Based on the comparison with long-term follow-up of non-COVID ECMO patients, poor mental and physical health may be more related to COVID-19 than to ECMO in itself, although this needs confirmation This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

5.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 121, 2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Auto-antibodies (auto-Abs) neutralizing type I interferons (IFN) have been found in about 15% of critical cases COVID-19 pneumonia and less than 1% of mild or asymptomatic cases. Determining whether auto-Abs influence presentation and outcome of critically ill COVID-19 patients could lead to specific therapeutic interventions. Our objectives were to compare the severity at admission and the mortality of patients hospitalized for critical COVID-19 in ICU with versus without auto-Abs. RESULTS: We conducted a prospective multicentre cohort study including patients admitted in 11 intensive care units (ICUs) from Great Paris area hospitals with proven SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute respiratory failure. 925 critically ill COVID-19 patients were included. Auto-Abs neutralizing type I IFN-α2, ß and/or ω were found in 96 patients (10.3%). Demographics and comorbidities did not differ between patients with versus without auto-Abs. At ICU admission, Auto-Abs positive patients required a higher FiO2 (100% (70-100) vs. 90% (60-100), p = 0.01), but were not different in other characteristics. Mortality at day 28 was not different between patients with and without auto-Abs (18.7 vs. 23.7%, p = 0.279). In multivariable analysis, 28-day mortality was associated with age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.06 [1.04-1.08], p < 0.001), SOFA score (aOR = 1.18 [1.12-1.23], p < 0.001) and immunosuppression (aOR = 1.82 [1.1-3.0], p = 0.02), but not with the presence of auto-Abs (aOR = 0.69 [0.38-1.26], p = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS: In ICU patients, auto-Abs against type I IFNs were found in at least 10% of patients with critical COVID-19 pneumonia. They were not associated with day 28 mortality.

6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 29(6): 734-743, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2177753

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed at assessing the efficacy and safety on antibiotic exposure of a strategy combining a respiratory multiplex PCR (mPCR) with enlarged panel and daily procalcitonin (PCT) measurements, as compared with a conventional strategy, in adult patients who were critically ill with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: This multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomized controlled trial enrolled patients admitted to 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in France. Patients were assigned (1:1) to the control strategy, in which antibiotic streamlining remained at the discretion of the physicians, or interventional strategy, consisting of using mPCR and daily PCT measurements within the first 7 days of randomization to streamline initial antibiotic therapy, with antibiotic continuation encouraged when PCT was >1 ng/mL and discouraged if < 1 ng/mL or decreased by 80% from baseline. All patients underwent conventional microbiological tests and cultures. The primary end point was antibiotic-free days at day 28. RESULTS: Between April 20th and November 23rd 2020, 194 patients were randomized, of whom 191 were retained in the intention-to-treat analysis. Respiratory bacterial co-infection was detected in 48.4% (45/93) and 21.4% (21/98) in the interventional and control group, respectively. The number of antibiotic-free days was 12.0 (0.0; 25.0) and 14.0 (0.0; 24.0) days, respectively (difference, -2.0, (95% CI, -10.6 to 6.6), p=0.89). Superinfection rates were high (51.6% and 48.5%, respectively). Mortality rates and ICU lengths of stay did not differ between groups. DISCUSSION: In severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, the mPCR/PCT algorithm strategy did not affect 28-day antibiotics exposure nor the major clinical outcomes, as compared with routine practice.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Procalcitonin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Testing
8.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 350, 2022 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115659

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SP) has been described early during the COVID-19 pandemic in large series of patients with severe pneumonia, but most patients were receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) at the time of SP diagnosis. In this retrospective multicenter observational study, we aimed at describing the prevalence and outcomes of SP during severe COVID-19 with pneumonia before any IMV, to rule out mechanisms induced by IMV in the development of pneumomediastinum.Among 549 patients, 21 patients (4%) developed a SP while receiving non-invasive respiratory support, after a median of 6 days [4-12] from ICU admission. The proportion of patients requiring IMV was similar. However, the time to tracheal intubation was longer in patients with SP (6 days [5-13] vs. 2 days [1-4]; P = 0.00002), with a higher first-line use of non-invasive ventilation (n = 11; 52% vs. n = 150; 28%; P = 0.02). The 21 patients who developed a SP had persisting signs of severe lung disease and respiratory failure with lower ROX index between ICU admission and occurrence of SP (3.94 [3.15-5.55] at admission vs. 3.25 [2.73-4.02] the day preceding SP; P = 0.1), which may underline potential indirect signals of Patient-self inflicted lung injury (P-SILI).In this series of critically ill COVID-19 patients, the prevalence of SP without IMV was not uncommon, affecting 4% of patients. They received more often vasopressors and had a longer ICU length of stay, as compared with their counterparts. One pathophysiological mechanism may potentially be carried out by P-SILI related to a prolonged respiratory failure, as underlined by a delayed use of IMV and the evolution of the ROX index between ICU admission and the day preceding SP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6025, 2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062212

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV-2 variant Omicron is considered to be less severe than infection with variant Delta, with rarer occurrence of severe disease requiring intensive care. Little information is available on comorbid factors, clinical conditions and specific viral mutational patterns associated with the severity of variant Omicron infection. In this multicenter prospective cohort study, patients consecutively admitted for severe COVID-19 in 20 intensive care units in France between December 7th 2021 and May 1st 2022 were included. Among 259 patients, we show that the clinical phenotype of patients infected with variant Omicron (n = 148) is different from that in those infected with variant Delta (n = 111). We observe no significant relationship between Delta and Omicron variant lineages/sublineages and 28-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.68 [0.35-1.32]; p = 0.253). Among Omicron-infected patients, 43.2% are immunocompromised, most of whom have received two doses of vaccine or more (85.9%) but display a poor humoral response to vaccination. The mortality rate of immunocompromised patients infected with variant Omicron is significantly higher than that of non-immunocompromised patients (46.9% vs 26.2%; p = 0.009). In patients infected with variant Omicron, there is no association between specific sublineages (BA.1/BA.1.1 (n = 109) and BA.2 (n = 21)) or any viral genome polymorphisms/mutational profile and 28-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Humans , Phenotype , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 292, 2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The aim of this ancillary analysis of the coVAPid multicenter observational retrospective study is to assess the relationship between adjuvant corticosteroid use and the incidence of VAP. METHODS: Planned ancillary analysis of a multicenter retrospective European cohort in 36 ICUs. Adult patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were consecutively included between February and May 2020. VAP diagnosis required strict definition with clinical, radiological and quantitative microbiological confirmation. We assessed the association of VAP with corticosteroid treatment using univariate and multivariate cause-specific Cox's proportional hazard models with adjustment on pre-specified confounders. RESULTS: Among the 545 included patients, 191 (35%) received corticosteroids. The proportional hazard assumption for the effect of corticosteroids on the incidence of VAP could not be accepted, indicating that this effect varied during ICU stay. We found a non-significant lower risk of VAP for corticosteroid-treated patients during the first days in the ICU and an increased risk for longer ICU stay. By modeling the effect of corticosteroids with time-dependent coefficients, the association between corticosteroids and the incidence of VAP was not significant (overall effect p = 0.082), with time-dependent hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 0.47 (0.17-1.31) at day 2, 0.95 (0.63-1.42) at day 7, 1.48 (1.01-2.16) at day 14 and 1.94 (1.09-3.46) at day 21. CONCLUSIONS: No significant association was found between adjuvant corticosteroid treatment and the incidence of VAP, although a time-varying effect of corticosteroids was identified along the 28-day follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9502, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984415

ABSTRACT

The local immune-inflammatory response elicited by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still poorly described, as well as the extent to which its characteristics may be associated with the outcome of critical Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this prospective monocenter study, all consecutive COVID-19 critically ill patients admitted from February to December 2020 and explored by fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were included. Biological assays, including digital ELISA cytokine profiling and targeted eicosanoid metabolomic analysis, were performed on paired blood and BAL fluid (BALF). Clinical outcome was assessed through the World Health Organization 10-point Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS) at the 28th day (D28) following the admission to intensive care unit. A D28-WHO-CPS value higher than 5 defined a poor outcome. Seventy-six patients were included, 45 (59%) had a poor day-28 outcome. As compared to their counterparts, patients with D28-WHO-CPS > 5 exhibited a neutrophil-predominant bronchoalveolar phenotype, with a higher BALF neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, a blunted local type I interferon response, a decompartimentalized immune-inflammatory response illustrated by lower BALF/blood ratio of concentrations of IL-6 (1.68 [0.30-4.41] vs. 9.53 [2.56-19.1]; p = 0.001), IL-10, IL-5, IL-22 and IFN-γ, and a biological profile of vascular endothelial injury illustrated by a higher blood concentration of VEGF and higher blood and/or BALF concentrations of several vasoactive eicosanoids. In critically ill COVID-19 patients, we identified bronchoalveolar and blood immune-inflammatory biomarker signature associated with poor 28-day outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Critical Illness , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 155, 2022 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A dysregulated immune response is emerging as a key feature of critical illness in COVID-19. Neutrophils are key components of early innate immunity that, if not tightly regulated, contribute to uncontrolled systemic inflammation. We sought to decipher the role of neutrophil phenotypes, functions, and homeostasis in COVID-19 disease severity and outcome. METHODS: By using flow cytometry, this longitudinal study compares peripheral whole-blood neutrophils from 90 COVID-19 ICU patients with those of 22 SARS-CoV-2-negative patients hospitalized for severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and 38 healthy controls. We also assessed correlations between these phenotypic and functional indicators and markers of endothelial damage as well as disease severity. RESULTS: At ICU admission, the circulating neutrophils of the COVID-19 patients showed continuous basal hyperactivation not seen in CAP patients, associated with higher circulating levels of soluble E- and P-selectin, which reflect platelet and endothelial activation. Furthermore, COVID-19 patients had expanded aged-angiogenic and reverse transmigrated neutrophil subsets-both involved in endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation. Simultaneously, COVID-19 patients had significantly lower levels of neutrophil oxidative burst in response to bacterial formyl peptide. Moreover patients dying of COVID-19 had significantly higher expansion of aged-angiogenic neutrophil subset and greater impairment of oxidative burst response than survivors. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that neutrophil exhaustion may be involved in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 and identify angiogenic neutrophils as a potentially harmful subset involved in fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Aged , Homeostasis , Humans , Inflammation , Longitudinal Studies , Neutrophils/physiology , Pneumonia/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939016

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, α, spread worldwide at the beginning of 2021. It was suggested that this variant was associated with a higher risk of mortality than other variants. We aimed to characterize the genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 variants isolated from patients with severe COVID-19 and unravel the relationships between specific viral mutations/mutational patterns and clinical outcomes. This is a prospective multicenter observational cohort study. Patients aged ≥18 years admitted to 11 intensive care units (ICUs) in hospitals in the Greater Paris area for SARS-CoV-2 infection and acute respiratory failure between 1 October 2020 and 30 May 2021 were included. The primary clinical endpoint was day-28 mortality. Full-length SARS-CoV-2 genomes were sequenced by means of next-generation sequencing (Illumina COVIDSeq). In total, 413 patients were included, 183 (44.3%) were infected with pre-existing variants, 197 (47.7%) were infected with variant α, and 33 (8.0%) were infected with other variants. The patients infected with pre-existing variants were significantly older (64.9 ± 11.9 vs. 60.5 ± 11.8 years; p = 0.0005) and had more frequent COPD (11.5% vs. 4.1%; p = 0.009) and higher SOFA scores (4 [3-8] vs. 3 [2-4]; 0.0002). The day-28 mortality was no different between the patients infected with pre-existing, α, or other variants (31.1% vs. 26.2% vs. 30.3%; p = 0.550). There was no association between day-28 mortality and specific variants or the presence of specific mutations. At ICU admission, the patients infected with pre-existing variants had a different clinical presentation from those infected with variant α, but mortality did not differ between these groups. There was no association between specific variants or SARS-CoV-2 genome mutational pattern and day-28 mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Critical Illness , Genomics , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271358, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938449

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare the characteristics, management, and prognosis of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) for coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 during the first two waves of the outbreak and to evaluate the relationship between ICU strain (ICU demand due to COVID-19 admissions) and mortality. METHODS: In a multicentre retrospective study, 1166 COVID-19 patients admitted to five ICUs in France between 20 February and 31 December 2020 were included. Data were collected at each ICU from medical records. A Cox proportional-hazards model identified factors associated with 28-day mortality. RESULTS: 640 patients (55%) were admitted during the first wave (February to June 2020) and 526 (45%) during the second wave (July to December 2020). ICU strain was lower during the second wave (-0.81 [-1.04 --0.31] vs. 1.18 [-0.34-1.29] SD when compared to mean COVID-19 admission in each center during study period, P<0.001). Patients admitted during the second wave were older, had more profound hypoxemia and lower SOFA. High flow nasal cannula was more frequently used during the second wave (68% vs. 39%, P<0.001) and intubation was less frequent (46% vs. 69%, P<0.001). Neither 28-day mortality (30% vs. 26%, P = 0.12) nor hospital mortality (37% vs. 31%, P = 0.27) differed between first and second wave. Overweight and obesity were associated with lower 28-day mortality while older age, underlying chronic kidney disease, severity at ICU admission as assessed by SOFA score and ICU strain were associated with higher 28-day mortality. ICU strain was not associated with hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: The characteristics and the management of patients varied between the first and the second wave of the pandemic. Rather than the wave, ICU strain was independently associated with 28-day mortality, but not with hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
16.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 88(7-8): 580-587, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is responsible for unprecedented numbers of acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). This work aimed to assess whether adding face-mask noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) was associated with a reduced need for endotracheal intubation. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted from July 2020 to January 2021 in two tertiary care intensive care units (ICUs) in Paris, France. Patients admitted for laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring HFNO with or without NIV were included. The primary outcome was the rate of endotracheal intubation. Secondary outcomes included day-28 mortality, day-28 respiratory support and IMV free days, ICU and hospital length-of-stay. Sensitivity analyses with both propensity score matching and overlap weighting were used. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-eight patients were included, 88 (69%) received HFNO alone and 40 (31%) received additional NIV. Additional NIV was associated with a reduced rate of endotracheal intubation in multivariate analysis (53 [60%] vs. 15 [38%], HR=0.46 [95% CI: 0.23-0.95], P=0.04). Sensitivity analyses by propensity score matching (HR=0.45 [95% CI: 0.24-0.84], P=0.01) and overlap weighting (HR=0.52 [95% CI: 0.28-0.94], P=0.03) were consistent. Day-28 mortality was 25 (28%) in the HFNO group and 8 (20%) in the NIV group (HR=0.75 [95% CI: 0.15-3.82], P=0.72). NIV was associated with higher IMV free days (20 [0-28] vs. 28 [14-28], P=0.015). All sensitivity analyses were consistent regarding secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Need for endotracheal intubation was lower in critically-ill SARS-CoV-2 patients receiving face-mask noninvasive mechanical ventilation in addition to high-flow oxygen therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal , Oxygen , Propensity Score , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e059383, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 induces venous, arterial and microvascular thrombosis, involving several pathophysiological processes. In patients with severe COVID-19 without macrovascular thrombosis, escalating into high-dose prophylactic anticoagulation (HD-PA) or therapeutic anticoagulation (TA) could be beneficial in limiting the extension of microvascular thrombosis and forestalling the evolution of lung and multiorgan microcirculatory dysfunction. In the absence of data from randomised trials, clinical practice varies widely. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a French multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised controlled superiority trial to compare the efficacy and safety of three anticoagulation strategies in patients with COVID-19. Patients with oxygen-treated COVID-19 showing no pulmonary artery thrombosis on computed tomography with pulmonary angiogram will be randomised to receive either low-dose PA, HD-PA or TA for 14 days. Patients attaining the extremes of weight and those with severe renal failure will not be included. We will recruit 353 patients. Patients will be randomised on a 1:1:1 basis, and stratified by centre, use of invasive mechanical ventilation, D-dimer levels and body mass index. The primary endpoint is a hierarchical criterion at day 28 including all-cause mortality, followed by the time to clinical improvement defined as the time from randomisation to an improvement of at least two points on the ordinal clinical scale. Secondary outcomes include thrombotic and major bleeding events at day 28, individual components of the primary endpoint, number of oxygen-free, ventilator-free and vasopressor-free days at day 28, D-dimer and sepsis-induced coagulopathy score at day 7, intensive care unit and hospital stay at day 28 and day 90, and all-cause death and quality of life at day 90. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by an ethical committee (Ethics Committee, Ile de France VII, Paris, France; reference 2020-A03531-38). Patients will be included after obtaining their signed informed consent. The results will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04808882.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Humans , Microcirculation , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
18.
Hemato ; 3(1):204-219, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1732001

ABSTRACT

In some patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection induces cytokine storm, hypercoagulability and endothelial cell activation leading to worsening of COVID-19, intubation and death. Prompt identification of patients at risk of intubation is an urgent need. Objectives. To derive a prognostic score for the risk of intubation or death in patients with COVID-19 admitted in intensive care unit (ICU), by assessing biomarkers of hypercoagulability, endothelial cell activation and inflammation and a large panel of clinical analytes. Design, Setting and Participants. A prospective, observational study enrolled 118 patients with COVID-19 admitted in the ICU. On the first day of ICU admission, all patients were assessed for biomarkers (protein C, protein S, antithrombin, D-Dimer, fibrin monomers, FVIIa, FV, FXII, FXII, FVIII, FvW antigen, fibrinogen, procoagulant phospholipid dependent clotting time, TFPI, thrombomodulin, P-selectin, heparinase, microparticles exposing TF, IL-6, complement C3a, C5a, thrombin generation, PT, aPTT, hemogram, platelet count) and clinical predictors. Main Outcomes and Measures. The clinical outcomes were intubation and mortality during hospitalization in ICU. Results: The intubation and mortality rates were 70% and 18%, respectively. The COMPASS-COVID-19-ICU score composed of P-Selectin, D-Dimer, free TFPI, TF activity, IL-6 and FXII, age and duration of hospitalization predicted the risk of intubation or death with high sensitivity and specificity (0.90 and 0.92, respectively). Conclusions and Relevance. COVID-19 is related to severe endothelial cell activation and hypercoagulability orchestrated in the context of inflammation. The COMPASS-COVID-19-ICU risk assessment model is accurate for the evaluation of the risk of mechanical ventilation and death in patients with critical COVID-19. The COMPASS-COVID-19-ICU score is feasible in tertiary hospitals and could be placed in the diagnostic procedure of personalized medical management and prompt therapeutic intervention.

19.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 48, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) causes high mortality. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) have potentially relevant immune-modulatory properties, whose place in ARDS treatment is not established. This phase 2b trial was undertaken to assess the efficacy of UC-MSCs in patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS. METHODS: This multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (STROMA-CoV-2) recruited adults (≥ 18 years) with SARS-CoV-2-induced early (< 96 h) mild-to-severe ARDS in 10 French centres. Patients were randomly assigned to receive three intravenous infusions of 106 UC-MSCs/kg or placebo (0.9% NaCl) over 5 days after recruitment. For the modified intention-to-treat population, the primary endpoint was the partial pressure of oxygen to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2)-ratio change between baseline (day (D) 0) and D7. RESULTS: Among the 107 patients screened for eligibility from April 6, 2020, to October 29, 2020, 45 were enrolled, randomized and analyzed. PaO2/FiO2 changes between D0 and D7 did not differ significantly between the UC-MSCs and placebo groups (medians [IQR] 54.3 [- 15.5 to 93.3] vs 25.3 [- 33.3 to 104.6], respectively; ANCOVA estimated treatment effect 7.4, 95% CI - 44.7 to 59.7; P = 0.77). Six (28.6%) of the 21 UC-MSCs recipients and six of 24 (25%) placebo-group patients experienced serious adverse events, none of which were related to UC-MSCs treatment. CONCLUSIONS: D0-to-D7 PaO2/FiO2 changes for intravenous UC-MSCs-versus placebo-treated adults with SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS did not differ significantly. Repeated UC-MSCs infusions were not associated with any serious adverse events during treatment or thereafter (until D28). Larger trials enrolling patients earlier during the course of their ARDS are needed to further assess UC-MSCs efficacy in this context. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04333368. Registered 01 April 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/history/NCT04333368 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 183, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV 2) and requiring intensive care unit (ICU) have a high incidence of hospital-acquired infections; however, data regarding hospital acquired bloodstream infections (BSI) are scarce. We aimed to investigate risk factors and outcome of BSI in critically ill coronavirus infectious disease-19 (COVID-19) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed an ancillary analysis of a multicenter prospective international cohort study (COVID-ICU study) that included 4010 COVID-19 ICU patients. For the present analysis, only those with data regarding primary outcome (death within 90 days from admission) or BSI status were included. Risk factors for BSI were analyzed using Fine and Gray competing risk model. Then, for outcome comparison, 537 BSI-patients were matched with 537 controls using propensity score matching. RESULTS: Among 4010 included patients, 780 (19.5%) acquired a total of 1066 BSI (10.3 BSI per 1000 patients days at risk) of whom 92% were acquired in the ICU. Higher SAPS II, male gender, longer time from hospital to ICU admission and antiviral drug before admission were independently associated with an increased risk of BSI, and interestingly, this risk decreased over time. BSI was independently associated with a shorter time to death in the overall population (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.56) and, in the propensity score matched data set, patients with BSI had a higher mortality rate (39% vs 33% p = 0.036). BSI accounted for 3.6% of the death of the overall population. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 ICU patients have a high risk of BSI, especially early after ICU admission, risk that increases with severity but not with corticosteroids use. BSI is associated with an increased mortality rate.

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