Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(4): 71-79, 2022.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955240

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to analyze the difference of the SARS-CoV-2 infection impact between Italian and foreigner subjects, evaluating the trend of infections and access to diagnostic tests (molecular or antigenic swabs for the detection of SARS- CoV-2) in the two different populations, inducing the detection of new positive cases in the population. DESIGN: retrospective population study for the period February 2020-June 2021. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Italian and foreign resident population on 1st January of the years 2020 and 2021 in the Regions participating to the project: Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy), Tuscany, Lazio (Central Italy), and Sicily (Southern Italy). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: in the two populations, for every week and aggregated by macropandemic period were calculated: • the test rate (people tested on the population); • the swab positivity rate (positive subjects on those who are tested); • the new positives (positive subjects on study population); • the percentage of foreigners among the new positive cases. The ratio of the value of the indicators in the foreign and Italian populations (with 95% confidence interval) was calculated to evaluate the association between nationality (Italian vs not Italian) and outcome. The analyses were conducted at the regional level and at pool level. RESULTS: the trend of new positives by nationality (Italian vs not Italian) has a similar tendency in the different pandemic waves. However, the incidence of new positives during pandemic waves among foreigners is lower than in Italians, while it tends to increase during intermediate periods. Except for the summer periods, foreigners are less tested than Italians, but the percentage of new positives out of the total of new ones tested is higher among foreigners compared to Italians. The relative weight of new positives among foreigners tends to increase in periods with the greatest risk of inflow of SARS-CoV-2 for foreigners. CONCLUSIONS: the epidemic trends in the two populations are similar, although foreigners tend to show lower incidence values, probably in part because they are tested less frequently. Furthermore, in foreigners compared to Italians, there is a greater risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially in periods of relaxation of containment Coronavirus measures, reopening of national borders, production and commercial activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sicily/epidemiology
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742764

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has induced the explosion of vaccine research. Currently, according to the data of the World Health Organization, there are several vaccines in clinical (145) and preclinical (195) stages, while at least 10 are already in clinical phase 4 (post-marketing). Vaccines have proven to be safe, effective, and able to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its variants, as well as the clinical consequences of the development of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). In the two-dose primary vaccination, different time intervals between the two doses have been used. Recently, special attention has been paid to assessing the immunogenicity following booster administration. The third dose of the vaccine against COVID-19 may be administered at least 8 weeks after the second dose. In Israel, a fourth dose has already been approved in immunocompromised groups. The main objective of this review is to describe the principal results of studies on the effectiveness of first-to-fourth dose vaccination to reduce reinfection by variants and the incidence of severe disease/death caused by COVID-19. Vaccines have shown a high level of protection from symptomatic infection and reinfection by variants after a third dose. Accelerating mass third-dose vaccination could potentially induce immunogenicity against variants.

3.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(3): 769-773, 2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Aim of the present study is to determine the role of obesity as a risk factor for COronaVirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) hospitalization. METHODS AND RESULTS: This observational study was performed using Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) Tuscany COVID-19 database by the Agenzia Regionale Sanità (ARS), including all COVID-19 cases registered until April 30th, 2020, with reported information on chronic diseases. The principal outcome was hospitalization. An age and gender-adjusted logistic regression model was used to assess the association of clinical and demographic characteristics with hospitalization. Further multivariate models were applied. Of 4481 included subjects (36.9% aged over 70 years), 1907 (42.6%) were admitted to hospital. Obesity was associated with hospitalization after adjusting for age and gender. The association of obesity with hospitalization retained statistical significance in a fully adjusted model, including possible confounders (OR: 2.99 [IC 95% 2.04-4.37]). The effect of obesity was more evident in younger (<70 years) than in older (≥70 years) subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The present data confirm that obesity is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization in patients with COVID-19. Interestingly, the association of obesity with hospitalization was greater in younger (<70 years) patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Obesity/epidemiology , Aged , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 308-314, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: the COVID-19 pandemic represents a challenge for health systems around the world, with just under 10,000 cases in Tuscany Region (Central Italy) and about 4,500 in the Local Health Unit (LHU) 'Toscana Centro', updated on 11 May 2020. The risk factors reported are several, including age, being male, and some chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. However, the relative importance of chronic diseases is still to be explored. OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the role of chronic diseases on the risk to develop clinically evident (at least mild symptomatic) forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the population of the LHU Toscana Centro. DESIGN: case-population study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 'case' is a subject with SARS-CoV-2 positive swab with at least mild clinical status, who lives in the LHU Toscana Centro area; 'controls' are all people residing in the LHU Toscana Centro area at 1 January 2020. People aged under 30 and patients living in nursing care homes are excluded from the analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: the analysis assesses the effect of gender, age, neoplasm, and the main chronic diseases on the onset of an infection with at least mild symptoms by calculating odds ratios (OR) by multivariate logistic regression models (to produce adjusted OR by potential confounders). RESULTS: among the 1,840 cases, compared to the general population, the presence of males and over-60-year-old people is greater. Almost all the considered chronic diseases are more frequent among the cases, compared to the general population. A chronic patient has a 68% greater risk to be positive with at least mild symptoms. Many of the considered diseases show an effect on the risk of getting COVID-19 in a symptomatic form, which remains even adjusting by other comorbidities. The main ones include heart failure, psychiatric disorders, Parkinson's disease, and rheumatic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: these results confirm evidence already shown in other studies on COVID-19 patients and add information on the chronic diseases attributable risk in the population, referred to the symptomatic forms and adjusted by age, gender or the possible copresence of more diseases. These risk estimates should guide prevention interventions by health services in order to protect the chronic patients affected by the pathologies most at risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Sex Distribution
5.
J Psychosom Res ; 141: 110328, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957249

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Italy has been largely involved by the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study aimed at evaluating the impact of the lockdown during the pandemic on mental health adopting both a longitudinal and a cross-sectional design. Accordingly, the study investigated general psychopathology a few weeks before the COVID-19 outbreak (T0) and during lockdown (T1), and the associations between lockdown-related environmental conditions, self-perceived worsening in daily living and psychopathology. METHODS: 130 subjects (aged 18-60 years) were included in the longitudinal design, and an additional subsample of 541 subjects was recruited for the in-lockdown evaluation. Socio-demographic data and the Brief Symptom Inventory were collected both at T0 and T1. Moreover, at T1 an online survey was administered for the evaluation of lockdown-related environmental conditions and self-perceived variations in daily living induced by quarantine, along with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. RESULTS: Longitudinal analysis showed that phobic anxiety and depressive symptoms increased at T1 as compared with T0, whereas interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation decreased. Pre-existing general psychopathology predicted COVID-19-related post-traumatic symptomatology. Cross-sectional analyses underlined that self-perceived deteriorations in various areas of daily living were associated with general and post-traumatic psychopathology, and with several lockdown-related conditions, especially economic damage. CONCLUSION: The present study underlined a different trend of increased internalizing and decreased interpersonal symptoms during COVID-19 quarantine in Italy. Furthermore, the results showed that subjects with pre-existing psychopathology and those reporting economic damage during the pandemic were more likely to develop deterioration of their mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
6.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 2(12): 2808-2815, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887008

ABSTRACT

Globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 71 million people have chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A significant number of these will develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. Currently, during the COVID-19 outbreak, a high mortality rate has been found in patients with COVID-19 and cirrhosis. New direct-acting antiviral agents can cure more than 90% of HCV-infected patients. The new WHO strategy has introduced global goals against viral hepatitis, including a 30% reduction in new HCV cases and a 10% reduction in mortality by 2020. HCV transmission has changed considerably, reflecting both the evolution of medicine and health and social changes. The HCV is usually spread through blood-to-blood contact. After the discovery of HCV in 1989, antibody screening has drastically decreased the incidence of post-transfusion hepatitis. Nowadays, routine blood donor screening by nucleic acid amplification testing for the presence of HCV RNA has been introduced in many countries. It is conceivable that HCV screening could be offered to people born between 1946 and 1964 in the developed world and to people at high risk for HCV infection such as those who have received blood transfusions, blood products or organ donations before the 1990s, prisoners, health care workers, drug users and infants born to HCV-infected women. To achieve HCV elimination, health programmes should include improvement to access to health care services, increased screening and new projects to identify a submerged portion of patients with HCV infection. Submerged people with HCV infection are both people who are unaware of their condition and people diagnosed with HCV but not yet treated. Based on these premises, this review will examine and discuss the epidemiological changes in contracting HCV, highlighting the ways in which to identify a submerged portion of patients with HCV infection.

7.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 889: 173644, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846252

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes a severe acute respiratory syndrome, a characteristic hyperinflammatory response, vascular damage, microangiopathy, angiogenesis and widespread thrombosis. Four stages of COVID-19 have been identified: the first stage is characterised by upper respiratory tract infection; the second by the onset of dyspnoea and pneumonia; the third by a worsening clinical scenario dominated by a cytokine storm and the consequent hyperinflammatory state; and the fourth by death or recovery. Currently, no treatment can act specifically against the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on the pathological features and different clinical phases of COVID-19, particularly in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19, the classes of drugs used are antiviral agents, inflammation inhibitors/antirheumatic drugs, low molecular weight heparins, plasma, and hyperimmune immunoglobulins. During this emergency period of the COVID-19 outbreak, clinical researchers are using and testing a variety of possible treatments. Based on these premises, this review aims to discuss the most updated pharmacological treatments to effectively act against the SARS-CoV-2 infection and support researchers and clinicians in relation to any current and future developments in curing COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
8.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020062, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761263

ABSTRACT

The emergency caused by Covid-19 pandemic raised interest in studying lifestyles and comorbidities as important determinants of poor Covid-19 prognosis. Data on tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity are still limited, while no data are available on the role of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products (HTP). To clarify the role of tobacco smoking and other lifestyle habits on COVID-19 severity and progression, we designed a longitudinal observational study titled COvid19 and SMOking in ITaly (COSMO-IT). About 30 Italian hospitals in North, Centre and South of Italy joined the study. Its main aims are: 1) to quantify the role of tobacco smoking and smoking cessation on the severity and progression of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients; 2) to compare smoking prevalence and severity of the disease in relation to smoking in hospitalized COVID-19 patients versus patients treated at home; 3) to quantify the association between other lifestyle factors, such as e-cigarette and HTP use, alcohol and obesity and the risk of unfavourable COVID-19 outcomes. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and medical history information will be gathered for around 3000 hospitalized and 700-1000 home-isolated, laboratory-confirmed, COVID-19 patients. Given the current absence of a vaccine against SARS-COV-2 and the lack of a specific treatment for -COVID-19, prevention strategies are of extreme importance. This project, designed to highly contribute to the international scientific debate on the role of avoidable lifestyle habits on COVID-19 severity, will provide valuable epidemiological data in order to support important recommendations to prevent COVID-19 incidence, progression and mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Life Style , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobacco Smoking/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL