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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may result in a severe pneumonia associated with elevation of blood inflammatory parameters, reminiscent of cytokine storm syndrome. Steroidal anti-inflammatory therapies have shown efficacy in reducing mortality in critically ill patients; however, the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 triggers such an extensive inflammation remain unexplained. OBJECTIVES: To dissect the mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2-associated inflammation in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we studied the role of IL-1ß, a pivotal cytokine driving inflammatory phenotypes, whose maturation and secretion are regulated by inflammasomes. METHODS: We analyzed nod-like receptor protein 3 pathway activation by means of confocal microscopy, plasma cytokine measurement, cytokine secretion following in vitro stimulation of blood circulating monocytes, and whole-blood RNA sequencing. The role of open reading frame 3a SARS-CoV-2 protein was assessed by confocal microscopy analysis following nucleofection of a monocytic cell line. RESULTS: We found that circulating monocytes from patients with COVID-19 display ASC (adaptor molecule apoptotic speck like protein-containing a CARD) specks that colocalize with nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome and spontaneously secrete IL-1ß in vitro. This spontaneous activation reverts following patient's treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra. Transfection of a monocytic cell line with cDNA coding for the ORF3a SARS-CoV-2 protein resulted in ASC speck formation. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide further evidence that IL-1ß targeting could represent an effective strategy in this disease and suggest a mechanistic explanation for the strong inflammatory manifestations associated with COVID-19.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332815

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) evolves in some pediatric patients following acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Whereas acute-COVID-19 severity and outcome were previously correlated with Notch4 expression on regulatory T (Treg) cells, here we show that the Treg cells in MIS-C are destabilized in association with increased Notch1 expression. Genetic analysis revealed that MIS-C patients were enriched in rare deleterious variant impacting inflammation and autoimmunity pathways, including dominant negative mutations in the Notch1 regulators NUMB and NUMBL . Notch1 signaling in Treg cells induced CD22, leading to their destabilization in an mTORC1 dependent manner and to the promotion of systemic inflammation. These results establish a Notch1-CD22 signaling axis that disrupts Treg cell function in MIS-C and point to distinct immune checkpoints controlled by individual Treg cell Notch receptors that shape the inflammatory outcome in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
Res Sq ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786451

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) evolves in some pediatric patients following acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Whereas acute-COVID-19 severity and outcome were previously correlated with Notch4 expression on regulatory T (Treg) cells, here we show that the Treg cells in MIS-C are destabilized in association with increased Notch1 expression. Genetic analysis revealed that MIS-C patients were enriched in rare deleterious variant impacting inflammation and autoimmunity pathways, including dominant negative mutations in the Notch1 regulators NUMB and NUMBL . Notch1 signaling in Treg cells induced CD22, leading to their destabilization in an mTORC1 dependent manner and to the promotion of systemic inflammation. These results establish a Notch1-CD22 signaling axis that disrupts Treg cell function in MIS-C and point to distinct immune checkpoints controlled by individual Treg cell Notch receptors that shape the inflammatory outcome in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(4): 1217-1225, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: IL-1 plays a pivotal role in the inflammatory response during cytokine storm syndromes. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to analyze the efficacy and safety of early anti-inflammatory treatment (AIT) with intravenous anakinra with or without glucocorticoids in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: We performed a retrospective single-center cohort study of patients admitted for COVID-19 pneumonia from February 26 to April 29, 2020, to assess the efficacy of early AIT with intravenous anakinra (100 mg every 8 hours for 3 days, with tapering) alone or in combination with a glucocorticoid (intravenous methylprednisolone, 1-2 mg/kg daily, with tapering). The standard of care (SOC) treatment was hydroxychloroquine and/or azithromycin with or without antivirals and anticoagulants. Late rescue AIT with anakinra or tocilizumab was also evaluated. Treatment effect on overall survival was assessed by a propensity score-adjusted Cox model. RESULTS: A total of 128 patients were analyzed; 63 patients received early AIT (30 received anakinra alone and 33 received anakinra plus a glucocorticoid) at admission, and 65 patients did not receive early AIT and were used as controls; of the latter 65 patients, 44 received the SOC treatment alone and 21 received the SOC treatment plus late rescue AIT. After adjustment for all the unbalanced baseline covariates, early AIT reduced the hazard of mortality by 74% (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.26; P < .001). The effect was similar in patients receiving anakinra alone (adjusted HR = 0.28; P = .04) and anakinra plus a glucocorticoid (adjusted HR = 0.33; P = .07). Late rescue treatment did not show a significant advantage over SOC treatment alone (adjusted HR = 0.82; P = .70). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests, on a larger series of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, the potential efficacy and safety of the early use of high doses of intravenous anakinra with or without glucocorticoids.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Injections, Intravenous , Italy/epidemiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
6.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31 Suppl 26: 75-78, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006222

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a complex new viral disease, in which a strict balance between anti-viral immune response and the ensuing organ inflammation has a critical role in determining the clinical course. In adults, compelling evidence exists indicating that an uncontrolled inflammatory response ("cytokine storm") is pivotal in determining disease progression and mortality. Children may rarely present with severe disease. Modulating factors related to the host's genetic factors, age-related susceptibility, and the capability to mount appropriate immune responses might play a role in control virus load at an early stage and regulating the inflammatory reaction. Elucidating these mechanisms seems crucial in developing target therapies according to patient's age, immunologic status, and disease evolution in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Pneumonia/complications
8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260121

ABSTRACT

As the outbreak of the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is spreading globally, great effort is being made to understand the disease pathogenesis and host factors that predispose to disease progression in an attempt to find a window of opportunity for intervention. In addition to the direct cytopathic effect of the virus, the host hyper-inflammatory response has emerged as a key factor in determining disease severity and mortality. Accumulating clinical observations raised hypotheses to explain why some patients develop more severe disease while others only manifest mild or no symptoms. So far, Covid-19 management remains mainly supportive. However, many researches are underway to clarify the role of antiviral and immunomodulating drugs in changing morbidity and mortality in patients who become severely ill. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the host immune system and discusses recent findings on proposed pharmacologic treatments.

9.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(7): 1059-1063, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-60433

ABSTRACT

Poor outcomes in COVID-19 correlate with clinical and laboratory features of cytokine storm syndrome. Broad screening for cytokine storm and early, targeted antiinflammatory therapy may prevent immunopathology and could help conserve limited health care resources. While studies are ongoing, extrapolating from clinical experience in cytokine storm syndromes may benefit the multidisciplinary teams caring for patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Early Medical Intervention , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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