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1.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(2)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865275

ABSTRACT

This article aims to summarise the latest research presented at the virtual 2021 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress in the field of pulmonary vascular disease. In light of the current guidelines and proceedings, knowledge gaps are addressed and the newest findings of the various forms of pulmonary hypertension as well as key points on pulmonary embolism are discussed. Despite the comprehensive coverage of the guidelines for pulmonary embolism at previous conferences, discussions about controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in specific cases were debated and are addressed in the first section of this article. We then report on an interesting pro-con debate about the current classification of pulmonary hypertension. We further report on presentations on Group 3 pulmonary hypertension, with research exploring pathogenesis, phenotyping, diagnosis and treatment; important contributions on the diagnosis of post-capillary pulmonary hypertension are also included. Finally, we summarise the latest evidence presented on pulmonary vascular disease and COVID-19 and a statement on the new imaging guidelines for pulmonary vascular disease from the Fleischner Society.

3.
Respirology ; 26(9): 869-877, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia present with typical findings on chest computed tomography (CT), but the underlying histopathological patterns are unknown. Through direct regional correlation of imaging findings to histopathological patterns, this study aimed to explain typical COVID-19 CT patterns at tissue level. METHODS: Eight autopsy cases were prospectively selected of patients with PCR-proven COVID-19 pneumonia with varying clinical manifestations and causes of death. All had been subjected to chest CT imaging 24-72 h prior to death. Twenty-seven lung areas with typical COVID-19 patterns and two radiologically unaffected pulmonary areas were correlated to histopathological findings in the same lung regions. RESULTS: Two dominant radiological patterns were observed: ground-glass opacity (GGO) (n = 11) and consolidation (n = 16). In seven of 11 sampled areas of GGO, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was observed. In four areas of GGO, the histological pattern was vascular damage and thrombosis, with (n = 2) or without DAD (n = 2). DAD was also observed in five of 16 samples derived from areas of radiological consolidation. Seven areas of consolidation were based on a combination of DAD, vascular damage and thrombosis. In four areas of consolidation, bronchopneumonia was found. Unexpectedly, in samples from radiologically unaffected lung parenchyma, evidence was found of vascular damage and thrombosis. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19, radiological findings of GGO and consolidation are mostly explained by DAD or a combination of DAD and vascular damage plus thrombosis. However, the different typical CT patterns in COVID-19 are not related to specific histopathological patterns. Microvascular damage and thrombosis are even encountered in the radiologically normal lung.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Autopsy , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 664209, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247863

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Systemic activation of procoagulant and inflammatory mechanisms has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Knowledge of activation of these host response pathways in the lung compartment of COVID-19 patients is limited. Objectives: To evaluate local and systemic activation of coagulation and interconnected inflammatory responses in critically ill COVID-19 patients with persistent acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods: Paired bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma samples were obtained from 17 patients with COVID-19 related persistent acute respiratory distress syndrome (mechanical ventilation > 7 days) 1 and 2 weeks after start mechanical ventilation and compared with 8 healthy controls. Thirty-four host response biomarkers stratified into five functional domains (coagulation, complement system, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors) were measured. Measurements and Main Results: In all patients, all functional domains were activated, especially in the bronchoalveolar compartment, with significantly increased levels of D-dimers, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, soluble tissue factor, C1-inhibitor antigen and activity levels, tissue type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor type I, soluble CD40 ligand and soluble P-selectin (coagulation), next to activation of C3bc and C4bc (complement) and multiple interrelated cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. In 10 patients in whom follow-up samples were obtained between 3 and 4 weeks after start mechanical ventilation many bronchoalveolar and plasma host response biomarkers had declined. Conclusions: Critically ill, ventilated patients with COVID-19 show strong responses relating to coagulation, the complement system, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in the bronchoalveolar compartment. These results suggest a local pulmonary rather than a systemic procoagulant and inflammatory "storm" in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Critical Illness , Lung/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Aged , Blood Coagulation , Cohort Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial
5.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 196, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the health care systems suspended their non-urgent activities. This included the cancellation of consultations for patients with rare diseases, such as severe pulmonary hypertension (PH), resulting in potential medication shortage and loss of follow-up. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate PH patient health status evolution, access to health care and mental health experience during the early phase of the pandemic. METHODS: We conducted an online patient survey, available in 16 languages, between 22/05/2020 and 28/06/2020. The survey included questions corresponding to demographic, COVID-19 and PH related information. RESULTS: 1073 patients (or relatives, 27%) from 52 countries all over the world participated in the survey. Seventy-seven percent (77%) of responders reported a diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension and 15% of chronic thromboembolic PH. The COVID-19 related events were few: only 1% of all responders reported a diagnosis of COVID-19. However, 8% of patients reported health deterioration possibly related to PH, and 4% hospitalization for PH. Besides, 11% of the patients reported difficulties to access their PH expert centre, and 3% interruption of treatment due to shortage of medication. Anxiety or depression was reported by 67% of the participants. CONCLUSION: Although COVID-19 incidence in PH patients was low, PH related problems occurred frequently as the pandemic progressed, including difficulties to have access to specialized care. The importance of primary health care was emphasized. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term consequences of COVID-related PH care disruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Anxiety , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(2): 278-290, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120206

ABSTRACT

The incidence of venous thrombosis, mostly pulmonary embolism (PE), ranging from local immunothrombosis to central emboli, but also deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is reported to be remarkably high. The relevance of better understanding, predicting, treating, and preventing COVID-19-associated venous thrombosis meets broad support, as can be concluded from the high number of research, review, and guideline papers that have been published on this topic. The Dutch COVID & Thrombosis Coalition (DCTC) is a multidisciplinary team involving a large number of Dutch experts in the broad area of venous thrombosis and hemostasis research, combined with experts on virology, critically ill patients, pulmonary diseases, and community medicine, across all university hospitals and many community hospitals in the Netherlands. Within the consortium, clinical data of at least 5000 admitted COVID-19-infected individuals are available, including substantial collections of biobanked materials in an estimated 3000 people. In addition to considerable experience in preclinical and clinical thrombosis research, the consortium embeds virology-hemostasis research models within unique biosafety facilities to address fundamental questions on the interaction of virus with epithelial and vascular cells, in relation to the coagulation and inflammatory system. The DCTC has initiated a comprehensive research program to answer many of the current questions on the pathophysiology and best anticoagulant treatment of COVID-19-associated thrombotic complications. The research program was funded by grants of the Netherlands Thrombosis Foundation and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development. Here, we summarize the design and main aims of the research program.

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