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Bio Protoc ; 11(9): e4005, 2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326923


The COVID-19 pandemic requires mass screening to identify those infected for isolation and quarantine. Individually screening large populations for the novel pathogen, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is costly and requires a lot of resources. Sample pooling methods improve the efficiency of mass screening and consume less reagents by increasing the capacity of testing and reducing the number of experiments performed, and are therefore especially suitable for under-developed countries with limited resources. Here, we propose a simple, reliable pooling strategy for COVID-19 testing using clinical nasopharyngeal (NP) and/or oropharyngeal (OP) swabs. The strategy includes the pooling of 10 NP/OP swabs for extraction and subsequent testing via quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and may also be applied to the screening of other pathogens.

J Clin Virol ; 145: 105000, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472031


BACKGROUND: Reports of co-circulation of respiratory viruses during the COVID-19 pandemic and co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 vary. However, limited information is available from developing countries. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the incidence of respiratory viruses in adult patients with suspected COVID-19 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. STUDY DESIGN: We collected 198 respiratory samples from adult patients hospitalized with suspected COVID-19 in a single teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur in February-May 2020 and tested combined oro-nasopharyngeal swabs with the NxTAG Respiratory Pathogen Panel (Luminex) and Allplex RV Essential (Seegene) assays. Forty-five negative samples further underwent viral metagenomics analysis. RESULTS: Of the 198 samples, 74 (37.4%) had respiratory pathogens, including 56 (28.3%) with SARS-CoV-2 and 18 (9.1%) positive for other respiratory pathogens. There were five (2.5%) SARS-CoV-2 co-infections, all with rhinovirus/enterovirus. Three samples (6.7%; 3/45) had viruses identified by metagenomics, including one case of enterovirus D68 and one of Saffold virus genotype 6 in a patient requiring ICU care. Most of the COVID-19 patients (91.1%; 51/56) had mild symptoms but 5.4% (3/56) died. CONCLUSION: During the early COVID-19 period, common respiratory viruses other than SARS-CoV-2 only accounted for 9.1% of hospitalization cases with ARI and co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 were rare. Continued surveillance is important to understand the impact of COVID-19 and its associated public health control measures on circulation of other respiratory viruses. Metagenomics can identify unexpected or rare pathogens, such as Saffold virus, which is rarely described in adults.

COVID-19 , Viruses , Adult , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses/genetics
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238417, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732990


The rapid global spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has inflicted significant health and socioeconomic burden on affected countries. As positive cases continued to rise in Malaysia, public health laboratories experienced an overwhelming demand for COVID-19 screening. The confirmation of positive cases of COVID-19 has solely been based on the detection of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In efforts to increase the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of COVID-19 screening, we evaluated the feasibility of pooling clinical Nasopharyngeal/Oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swab specimens during nucleic acid extraction without a reduction in sensitivity of qRT-PCR. Pools of 10 specimens were extracted and subsequently tested by qRT-PCR according to the WHO-Charité protocol. We demonstrated that the sample pooling method showed no loss of sensitivity. The effectiveness of the pooled testing strategy was evaluated on both retrospective and prospective samples, and the results showed a similar detection sensitivity compared to testing individual sample alone. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a pooled testing strategy to increase testing capacity and conserve resources, especially when there is a high demand for disease testing.

Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Specimen Handling/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Malaysia , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity