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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5935, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784029

ABSTRACT

mRNA- and vector-based vaccines are used at a large scale to prevent COVID-19. We compared Spike S1-specific (S1) IgG antibodies after vaccination with mRNA-based (Comirnaty, Spikevax) or vector-based (Janssen, Vaxzevria) vaccines, using samples from a Dutch nationwide cohort. In adults 18-64 years old (n = 2412), the median vaccination interval between the two doses was 77 days for Vaxzevria (interquartile range, IQR: 69-77), 35 days (28-35) for Comirnaty and 33 days (28-35) for Spikevax. mRNA vaccines induced faster inclines and higher S1 antibodies compared to vector-based vaccines. For all vaccines, one dose resulted in boosting of S1 antibodies in adults with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. For Comirnaty, two to four months following the second dose (n = 196), S1 antibodies in adults aged 18-64 years old (436 BAU/mL, IQR: 328-891) were less variable and median concentrations higher compared to those in persons ≥ 80 years old (366, 177-743), but differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.100). Nearly all participants seroconverted following COVID-19 vaccination, including the aging population. These data confirm results from controlled vaccine trials in a general population, including vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Kinetics , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Young Adult
2.
Vaccine ; 40(15): 2251-2257, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With COVID-19 vaccine roll-out ongoing in many countries globally, monitoring of breakthrough infections is of great importance. Antibodies persist in the blood after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Since COVID-19 vaccines induce immune response to the Spike protein of the virus, which is the main serosurveillance target to date, alternative targets should be explored to distinguish infection from vaccination. METHODS: Multiplex immunoassay data from 1,513 SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR-tested individuals (352 positive and 1,161 negative) without COVID-19 vaccination history were used to determine the accuracy of Nucleoprotein-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in detecting past SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also described Spike S1 and Nucleoprotein-specific IgG responses in 230 COVID-19 vaccinated individuals (Pfizer/BioNTech). RESULTS: The sensitivity of Nucleoprotein seropositivity was 85% (95% confidence interval: 80-90%) for mild COVID-19 in the first two months following symptom onset. Sensitivity was lower in asymptomatic individuals (67%, 50-81%). Participants who had experienced a SARS-CoV-2 infection up to 11 months preceding vaccination, as assessed by Spike S1 seropositivity or RT-qPCR, produced 2.7-fold higher median levels of IgG to Spike S1 ≥ 14 days after the first dose as compared to those unexposed to SARS-CoV-2 at ≥ 7 days after the second dose (p = 0.011). Nucleoprotein-specific IgG concentrations were not affected by vaccination in infection-naïve participants. CONCLUSIONS: Serological responses to Nucleoprotein may prove helpful in identifying SARS-CoV-2 infections after vaccination. Furthermore, it can help interpret IgG to Spike S1 after COVID-19 vaccination as particularly high responses shortly after vaccination could be explained by prior exposure history.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Nucleoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2318-2321, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599037

ABSTRACT

This large, nationwide, population-based, seroepidemiological study provides evidence of the effectiveness of physical distancing (>1.5 m) and indoor group size reductions in reducing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Additionally, young adults may play an important role in viral spread, contrary to children up until age 12 years with whom close contact is permitted. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NTR8473.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Research , Young Adult
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(12): 2155-2162, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the duration of immunity following infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a first priority to gauge the degree of protection following infection. Such knowledge is lacking, especially in the general population. Here, we studied changes in immunoglobulin isotype seropositivity and immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding strength of SARS-CoV-2-specific serum antibodies up to 7 months following onset of symptoms in a nationwide sample. METHODS: Participants from a prospective representative serological study in the Netherlands were included based on IgG seroconversion to the spike S1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 (N = 353), with up to 3 consecutive serum samples per seroconverted participant (N = 738). Immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and IgG antibody concentrations to S1, and increase in IgG avidity in relation to time since onset of disease symptoms, were determined. RESULTS: While SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgA antibodies declined rapidly after the first month after disease onset, specific IgG was still present in 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89%-95%) of the participants after 7 months. The estimated 2-fold decrease of IgG antibodies was 158 days (95% CI, 136-189 days). Concentrations were sustained better in persons reporting significant symptoms compared to asymptomatic persons or those with mild upper respiratory complaints only. Similarly, avidity of IgG antibodies for symptomatic persons showed a steeper increase over time compared with persons with mild or no symptoms (P = .022). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies persist and show increasing avidity over time, indicative of underlying immune maturation. These data support development of immune memory against SARS-CoV-2, providing insight into protection of the general unvaccinated part of the population. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NL8473 (the Dutch trial registry).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
5.
Vaccine ; 40(1): 59-66, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) vaccination was introduced for 14-month-olds in the Netherlands in 2002, alongside a mass campaign for 1-18 year-olds. Due to an outbreak of serogroup W disease, MenC vaccination was replaced for MenACWY vaccination in 2018, next to introduction of a booster at 14 years of age and a catch-up campaign for 14-18 year-olds. We assessed meningococcal ACWY antibodies across the Dutch population in 2016/17 and 2020. METHODS: In a nationwide cross-sectional serosurvey in 2016/17, sera from participants aged 0-89 years (n = 6886) were tested for MenACWY-polysaccharide-specific (PS) serum IgG concentrations, and functional MenACWY antibody titers were determined in subsets. Moreover, longitudinal samples collected in 2020 (n = 1782) were measured for MenACWY-PS serum IgG concentrations. RESULTS: MenC antibody levels were low, except in recently vaccinated 14-23 month-olds and individuals who were vaccinated as teenagers in 2002, with seroprevalence of 59% and 20-46%, respectively. Meningococcal AWY antibody levels were overall low both in 2016/17 and in 2020. Naturally-acquired MenW immunity was limited in 2020 despite the recent serogroup W outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates waning of MenC immunity 15 years after a mass campaign in the Netherlands. Furthermore, it highlights the lack of meningococcal AWY immunity across the population and underlines the importance of the recently introduced MenACWY (booster) vaccination.


Subject(s)
Meningococcal Infections , Meningococcal Vaccines , Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup C , Adolescent , Antibodies, Bacterial , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Meningococcal Infections/epidemiology , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Netherlands/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccines, Conjugate
6.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(7): 735-739, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The proportion of SARS-CoV-2 positive persons who are asymptomatic-and whether this proportion is age-dependent-are still open research questions. Because an unknown proportion of reported symptoms among SARS-CoV-2 positives will be attributable to another infection or affliction, the observed, or 'crude' proportion without symptoms may underestimate the proportion of persons without symptoms that are caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Based on two rounds of a large population-based serological study comprising test results on seropositivity and self-reported symptom history conducted in April/May and June/July 2020 in the Netherlands (n = 7517), we estimated the proportion of reported symptoms among those persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 that is attributable to this infection, where the set of relevant symptoms fulfills the ECDC case definition of COVID-19, using inferential methods for the attributable risk (AR). Generalised additive regression modelling was used to estimate the age-dependent relative risk (RR) of reported symptoms, and the AR and asymptomatic proportion (AP) were calculated from the fitted RR. RESULTS: Using age-aggregated data, the 'crude' AP was 37% but the model-estimated AP was 65% (95% CI 63-68%). The estimated AP varied with age, from 74% (95% CI 65-90%) for < 20 years, to 61% (95% CI 57-65%) for the 50-59 years age-group. CONCLUSION: Whereas the 'crude' AP represents a lower bound for the proportion of persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 without COVID-19 symptoms, the AP as estimated via an attributable risk approach represents an upper bound. Age-specific AP estimates can inform the implementation of public health actions such as targetted virological testing and therefore enhance containment strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Poisson Distribution , Regression Analysis , Risk Assessment , Self Report , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
7.
Eurosurveillance ; 26(8):1, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1124144

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries have implemented physical distancing measures to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Aim: To measure the actual reduction of contacts when physical distancing measures are implemented. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Netherlands in 2016–17, in which participants reported the number and age of their contacts the previous day. The survey was repeated among a subsample of the participants in April 2020, after strict physical distancing measures were implemented, and in an extended sample in June 2020, after some measures were relaxed. Results: The average number of community contacts per day was reduced from 14.9 (interquartile range (IQR): 4–20) in the 2016–17 survey to 3.5 (IQR: 0–4) after strict physical distancing measures were implemented, and rebounded to 8.8 (IQR: 1–10) after some measures were relaxed. All age groups restricted their community contacts to at most 5, on average, after strict physical distancing measures were implemented. In children, the number of community contacts reverted to baseline levels after measures were eased, while individuals aged 70 years and older had less than half their baseline levels. Conclusion: Strict physical distancing measures greatly reduced overall contact numbers, which likely contributed to curbing the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in the Netherlands. However, age groups reacted differently when measures were relaxed, with children reverting to normal contact numbers and elderly individuals maintaining restricted contact numbers. These findings offer guidance for age-targeted measures in future waves of the pandemic.

8.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 2020 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to detect SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies in the general population of the Netherlands and identify risk factors for seropositivity amidst the first COVID-19 epidemic wave. METHODS: Participants (n=3207, aged 2-90 years), enrolled from a previously established nationwide serosurveillance study, provided a self-collected fingerstick blood sample and completed a questionnaire (median inclusion date 3 April 2020). IgG antibodies targeted against the spike S1-protein of SARS-CoV-2 were quantified using a validated multiplex-immunoassay. Seroprevalence was estimated controlling for survey design, individual pre-pandemic concentration, and test performance. Random-effects logistic regression identified risk factors for seropositivity. RESULTS: Overall seroprevalence in the Netherlands was 2.8% (95% CI 2.1 to 3.7), with no differences between sexes or ethnic background, and regionally ranging between 1.3 and 4.0%. Estimates were highest among 18-39 year-olds (4.9%), and lowest in children 2-17 years (1.7%). Multivariable analysis revealed that persons taking immunosuppressants and those from the Orthodox-Reformed Protestant community had over four times higher odds of being seropositive compared to others. Anosmia/ageusia was the most discriminative symptom between seropositive (53%) and seronegative persons (4%, p<0.0001). Antibody concentrations in seropositive persons were significantly higher in those with fever or dyspnoea in contrast to those without (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In the midst of the first epidemic wave, 2.8% of the Dutch population was estimated to be infected with SARS-CoV-2, that is, 30 times higher than reported. This study identified independent groups with increased odds for seropositivity that may require specific surveillance measures to guide future protective interventions internationally, including vaccination once available.

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