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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 840984, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847237

ABSTRACT

Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic resurges affecting large numbers of patients, rapid, and accurate diagnosis using point-of-care tests is very important. Objectives: To evaluate the NG-Test® SARS-CoV-2 Ag (NG-Test) immunoassay for qualitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen in nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) samples compared with RT-PCR, in patients attending the Emergencies of an academic referral hospital. Methods: All adult ambulatory patients presenting to the Emergencies of "Attikon" University hospital (Athens, Greece) within three consecutive hours per day between December 2020 and March 2021 and for whom SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing was requested were included. Two NP and one OP samples obtained from each participant were analyzed to determine the diagnostic performance [sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV)] of the NG-Test (NP/OP swabs) in comparison to the reference RT-PCR (NP swab). Results: Overall, 134/263 (51%) patients tested were RT-PCR positive, whereof 108 (overall sensitivity 81%, 95% CI 73-87%) were NP NG-Test positive (PPV 99%, NPV 83%) and 68 (overall sensitivity 51%, 95% CI 42-59%) were OP NG-Test positive (PPV 100%, NPV 66%). The test's specificity (95% CI) was 99% (95-100%) and 100% (96-100%) for NP and OP swabs, respectively. The assay's sensitivity (95% CI) for high viral load (Ct ≤25) was 99% (92-100%) and 71% (60-81%) for NP and OP swabs, respectively. Conclusions: NG-Test using NP swabs detected almost all patients with high viral loads, showing satisfactory performance as a point-of-care test for NP samples obtained from patients with acute infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1823723

ABSTRACT

Background As the COVID-19 pandemic resurges affecting large numbers of patients, rapid, and accurate diagnosis using point-of-care tests is very important. Objectives To evaluate the NG-Test® SARS-CoV-2 Ag (NG-Test) immunoassay for qualitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen in nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) samples compared with RT-PCR, in patients attending the Emergencies of an academic referral hospital. Methods All adult ambulatory patients presenting to the Emergencies of “Attikon” University hospital (Athens, Greece) within three consecutive hours per day between December 2020 and March 2021 and for whom SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing was requested were included. Two NP and one OP samples obtained from each participant were analyzed to determine the diagnostic performance [sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV)] of the NG-Test (NP/OP swabs) in comparison to the reference RT-PCR (NP swab). Results Overall, 134/263 (51%) patients tested were RT-PCR positive, whereof 108 (overall sensitivity 81%, 95% CI 73–87%) were NP NG-Test positive (PPV 99%, NPV 83%) and 68 (overall sensitivity 51%, 95% CI 42–59%) were OP NG-Test positive (PPV 100%, NPV 66%). The test's specificity (95% CI) was 99% (95–100%) and 100% (96–100%) for NP and OP swabs, respectively. The assay's sensitivity (95% CI) for high viral load (Ct ≤25) was 99% (92–100%) and 71% (60–81%) for NP and OP swabs, respectively. Conclusions NG-Test using NP swabs detected almost all patients with high viral loads, showing satisfactory performance as a point-of-care test for NP samples obtained from patients with acute infection.

3.
Life (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438655

ABSTRACT

Changes in hospitals' daily practice due to COVID-19 pandemic may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We aimed to assess this possible impact as captured by the Greek Electronic System for the Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (WHONET-Greece). Routine susceptibility data of 17,837 Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial isolates from blood and respiratory specimens of hospitalized patients in nine COVID-19 tertiary hospitals were used in order to identify potential differences in AMR trends in the last three years, divided into two periods, January 2018-March 2020 and April 2020-March 2021. Interrupted time-series analysis was used to evaluate differences in the trends of non-susceptibility before and after the changes due to COVID-19. We found significant differences in the slope of non-susceptibility trends of Acinetobacter baumannii blood and respiratory isolates to amikacin, tigecycline and colistin; of Klebsiella pneumoniae blood and respiratory isolates to meropenem and tigecycline; and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa respiratory isolates to imipenem, meropenem and levofloxacin. Additionally, we found significant differences in the slope of non-susceptibility trends of Staphylococcus aureus isolates to oxacillin and of Enterococcus faecium isolates to glycopeptides. Assessing in this early stage, through surveillance of routine laboratory data, the way a new global threat like COVID-19 could affect an already ongoing pandemic like AMR provides useful information for prompt action.

4.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1779-1792, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309094

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is an emerging complication among intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19 (CAPA). In the present study, all CAPA cases during the first year of the pandemic were reviewed in critically ill patients at a 650-bed tertiary Greek COVID-19 reference hospital. METHODS: Data regarding patients admitted to the ICU of Attikon Hospital in Athens, Greece, between 22 March 2020 and 28 February 2021 with a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 infection were reviewed. Clinical and microbiological records were analysed including demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological features, treatment and outcomes. CAPA was determined according to the recent 2020 ECMM/ISHAM definitions. RESULTS: A total of 179 patients were admitted in the ICU and 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with CAPA (4 probable and 2 possible CAPA) with 5/6 with co-infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative pathogens. No patient had a history of immunosuppression. All suffered from acute respiratory distress syndrome. The median (range) time from intubation to diagnosis was 6 (1-14) days. Five patients had positive Aspergillus cultures in bronchial secretions (1 A. fumigatus, 1 A. flavus, 1 A. fumigatus + A. flavus, 1 A. fumigatus + A. terreus and 1 A. terreus) while culture was negative in one patient. All isolates were susceptible to antifungal drugs. Serum galactomannan (GM), pan-Aspergillus PCR and (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) were positive in 4/6 (67%), 5/6 (83%, 3/5 in two consecutive samples) and 4/6 (67%, in consecutive samples) patients, respectively. GM and PCR positive bronchial secretions had GM indices > 9.95 and PCR Ct < 34. All were treated with antifungal drugs with 5 out of 6 receiving isavuconazole. Mortality was 67% (4/6) with 1/4 attributed to CAPA (two died as a result of bacterial septic shock and one as a result of multiorgan failure). CONCLUSION: The incidence of CAPA in ICU patients was 3.3% and it was associated with approximately a 17% attributable mortality in the setting of MDR gram-negative pathogen co-infections.

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