Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 30
Filter
1.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1939953

ABSTRACT

Natural Killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immunity that play a crucial role in the control of viral infections in the absence of a prior antigen sensitization. Indeed, they display rapid effector functions against target cells with the capability of direct cell killing and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Furthermore, NK cells are endowed with immune-modulatory functions innate and adaptive immune responses via the secretion of chemokines/cytokines and by undertaking synergic crosstalks with other innate immune cells, including monocyte/macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils. Recently, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread globally. Although the specific role of NK cells in COVID-19 pathophysiology still need to be explored, mounting evidence indicates that NK cell tissue distribution and effector functions could be affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection and that a prompt NK cell response could determine a good clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients. In this review, we give a comprehensive overview of how SARS-CoV-2 infection interferes with NK cell antiviral effectiveness and their crosstalk with other innate immune cells. We also provide a detailed characterization of the specific NK cell subsets in relation to COVID-19 patient severity generated from publicly available single cell RNA sequencing datasets. Finally, we summarize the possible NK cell-based therapeutic approaches against SARS-CoV-2 infection and the ongoing clinical trials updated at the time of submission of this review. We will also discuss how a deep understanding of NK cell responses could open new possibilities for the treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Arch Med Sci ; 18(3): 587-595, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835427

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Identifying SARS-CoV-2 patients at higher risk of mortality is crucial in the management of a pandemic. Artificial intelligence techniques allow one to analyze large amounts of data to find hidden patterns. We aimed to develop and validate a mortality score at admission for COVID-19 based on high-level machine learning. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients between March and December 2020. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. A machine learning approach based on vital parameters, laboratory values and demographic features was applied to develop different models. Then, a feature importance analysis was performed to reduce the number of variables included in the model, to develop a risk score with good overall performance, that was finally evaluated in terms of discrimination and calibration capabilities. All results underwent cross-validation. Results: 1,135 consecutive patients (median age 70 years, 64% male) were enrolled, 48 patients were excluded, and the cohort was randomly divided into training (760) and test (327) groups. During hospitalization, 251 (22%) patients died. After feature selection, the best performing classifier was random forest (AUC 0.88 ±0.03). Based on the relative importance of each variable, a pragmatic score was developed, showing good performances (AUC 0.85 ±0.025), and three levels were defined that correlated well with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Machine learning techniques were applied in order to develop an accurate in-hospital mortality risk score for COVID-19 based on ten variables. The application of the proposed score has utility in clinical settings to guide the management and prognostication of COVID-19 patients.

3.
EMBO Mol Med ; 14(5): e15326, 2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786385

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against an airborne pathogen is very effective if it induces also the development of mucosal antibodies that can protect against infection. The mRNA-based vaccine-encoding SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike protein (BNT162b2, Pfizer/BioNTech) protects also against infection despite being administered systemically. Here, we show that upon vaccination, cognate IgG molecules are also found in the saliva and are more abundant in SARS-CoV-2 previously exposed subjects, paralleling the development of plasma IgG. The antibodies titer declines at 3 months from vaccination. We identified a concentration of specific IgG in the plasma above which the relevant IgG can be detected in the saliva. Regarding IgA antibodies, we found only protease-susceptible IgA1 antibodies in plasma while they were present at very low levels in the saliva over the course of vaccination of SARS-CoV-2-naïve subjects. Thus, in response to BNT162b2 vaccine, plasma IgG can permeate into mucosal sites and participate in viral protection. It is not clear why IgA1 are detected in low amount, they may be proteolytically cleaved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Saliva , Vaccination
4.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(6): 839-858, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768958

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified as a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, Hubei province, central China, in December 2019, and is responsible for the 2019-to-present pandemic. According to the most recent data released by the World Health Organization, more than 200 million people have been infected by SARS-CoV-2 so far, and more than 4 million people died worldwide. Although our knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 is constantly growing, data on COVID-19 in immunocompromised patients are still limited. The aim of the present systematic review is to describe clinical picture, disease severity, proposed treatment regimen, and response to vaccination in patients with different types and severity of immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immune Tolerance
5.
Gastro Hep Adv ; 1(2): 194-209, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has overwhelmed the treatment capacity of the health care systems during the highest viral diffusion rate. Patients reaching the emergency department had to be either hospitalized (inpatients) or discharged (outpatients). Still, the decision was taken based on the individual assessment of the actual clinical condition, without specific biomarkers to predict future improvement or deterioration, and discharged patients often returned to the hospital for aggravation of their condition. Here, we have developed a new combined approach of omics to identify factors that could distinguish coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) inpatients from outpatients. METHODS: Saliva and blood samples were collected over the course of two observational cohort studies. By using machine learning approaches, we compared salivary metabolome of 50 COVID-19 patients with that of 270 healthy individuals having previously been exposed or not to SARS-CoV-2. We then correlated the salivary metabolites that allowed separating COVID-19 inpatients from outpatients with serum biomarkers and salivary microbiota taxa differentially represented in the two groups of patients. RESULTS: We identified nine salivary metabolites that allowed assessing the need of hospitalization. When combined with serum biomarkers, just two salivary metabolites (myo-inositol and 2-pyrrolidineacetic acid) and one serum protein, chitinase 3-like-1 (CHI3L1), were sufficient to separate inpatients from outpatients completely and correlated with modulated microbiota taxa. In particular, we found Corynebacterium 1 to be overrepresented in inpatients, whereas Actinomycetaceae F0332, Candidatus Saccharimonas, and Haemophilus were all underrepresented in the hospitalized population. CONCLUSION: This is a proof of concept that a combined omic analysis can be used to stratify patients independently from COVID-19.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742759

ABSTRACT

Short-term adverse events are common following the BNT162b2 vaccine for SARS-Cov-2 and have been possibly associated with IgG response. We aimed to determine the incidence of adverse reactions to the vaccine and the impact on IgG response. Our study included 4156 health-care professionals who received two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine 21 days apart and obtained 6113 online questionnaires inquiring about adverse events. The serum response was tested in 2765 subjects 10 days after the second dose. Adverse events, most frequently a local reaction at the site of injection, were reported by 39% of subjects. Multivariate analysis showed that female sex (odds ratio-OR-1.95; 95% confidence interval-CI-1.74-2.19; p < 0.001), younger age (OR 0.98 per year, p < 0.001), second dose of vaccine (OR 1.36, p < 0.001), and previous COVID-19 infection (OR 1.41, p < 0.001) were independently associated with adverse events. IgG response was significantly higher in subjects with adverse events (1110 AU/mL-IQR 345-1630 vs. 386 AU/mL, IQR 261-1350, p < 0.0001), and the association was more pronounced in subjects experiencing myalgia, fever, and lymphadenopathy. We demonstrate that a more pronounced IgG response is associated with specific adverse events, and these are commonly reported by health care professionals after the BNT162b2 vaccine for SARS-Cov-2.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319160

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the post- coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outcome of thyroid function in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related thyrotoxicosis. MethodsThis was a single-center prospective study involving 29 patients (11 females, 18 males;median age 64 years, range: 43-85) with thyrotoxicosis diagnosed after hospitalization for COVID-19 and then followed-up for a median period of 90 days (range: 30-120) after hospital discharge. At the follow-up, patients were evaluated for serum thyrotropic (TSH), free-thyroxine (FT4), free-triiodiothyronine (FT3), TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb), thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and ultrasonographic thyroid structure.ResultsAfter recovery of COVID-19, serum TSH values significantly increased ( P <0.001) and FT4 values significantly decreased ( P =0.001), without significant change in serum FT3 ( P =0.572). At the follow-up, 28 subjects (96.6%) became euthyroid whereas overt hypothyroidism developed in one case. At the ultrasound evaluation of thyroid gland, hypoecogenicity was found in 10 patients (34.5%) with a prevalence that was significantly higher in cases with serum TSH > 3.0 mU/l as compared to those with TSH values below 1.0 mU/L ( P =0.039). All subjects resulted to be negative for TgAb, TPOAb and TRAb. ConclusionIn a short-term follow-up, thyroid function spontaneously normalized in most subjects with SARS-CoV-2-related thyrotoxicosis. However, thyroid hypoecogenicity was found in a remarkable number of them and future longer-term studies are needed to clarify whether this ultrasonographic alteration may predispose to develop late-onset thyroid dysfunction.

8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(11): e29504, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a huge strain on the health care system globally. The metropolitan area of Milan, Italy, was one of the regions most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. Risk prediction models developed by combining administrative databases and basic clinical data are needed to stratify individual patient risk for public health purposes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop a stratification tool aimed at improving COVID-19 patient management and health care organization. METHODS: A predictive algorithm was developed and applied to 36,834 patients with COVID-19 in Italy between March 8 and the October 9, 2020, in order to foresee their risk of hospitalization. Exposures considered were age, sex, comorbidities, and symptoms associated with COVID-19 (eg, vomiting, cough, fever, diarrhea, myalgia, asthenia, headache, anosmia, ageusia, and dyspnea). The outcome was hospitalizations and emergency department admissions for COVID-19. Discrimination and calibration of the model were also assessed. RESULTS: The predictive model showed a good fit for predicting COVID-19 hospitalization (C-index 0.79) and a good overall prediction accuracy (Brier score 0.14). The model was well calibrated (intercept -0.0028, slope 0.9970). Based on these results, 118,804 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from October 25 to December 11, 2020, were stratified into low, medium, and high risk for COVID-19 severity. Among the overall study population, 67,030 (56.42%) were classified as low-risk patients; 43,886 (36.94%), as medium-risk patients; and 7888 (6.64%), as high-risk patients. In all, 89.37% (106,179/118,804) of the overall study population was being assisted at home, 9% (10,695/118,804) was hospitalized, and 1.62% (1930/118,804) died. Among those assisted at home, most people (63,983/106,179, 60.26%) were classified as low risk, whereas only 3.63% (3858/106,179) were classified at high risk. According to ordinal logistic regression, the odds ratio (OR) of being hospitalized or dead was 5.0 (95% CI 4.6-5.4) among high-risk patients and 2.7 (95% CI 2.6-2.9) among medium-risk patients, as compared to low-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: A simple monitoring system, based on primary care data sets linked to COVID-19 testing results, hospital admissions data, and death records may assist in the proper planning and allocation of patients and resources during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Applied Sciences ; 11(19):9342, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1463542

ABSTRACT

The region of Lombardy was the epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy. Emergency Hospital 19 (EH19) was built in the Milan metropolitan area during the pandemic’s second wave as a facility of Humanitas Clinical and Research Center (HCRC). The present study aimed to assess whether the implementation of EH19 was effective in improving the quality of care of COVID-19 patients during the second wave compared with the first one. The demographics, mortality rate, and in-hospital length of stay (LOS) of two groups of patients were compared: the study group involved patients admitted at HCRC and managed in EH19 during the second pandemic wave, while the control group included patients managed exclusively at HCRC throughout the first wave. The study and control group included 903 (56.7%) and 690 (43.3%) patients, respectively. The study group was six years older on average and had more pre-existing comorbidities. EH19 was associated with a decrease in the intensive care unit admission rate (16.9% vs. 8.75%, p <0.001), and an equal decrease in invasive oxygen therapy (3.8% vs. 0.23%, p <0.001). Crude mortality was similar but overlap propensity score weighting revealed a trend toward a potential small decrease. The adjusted difference in LOS was not significant. The implementation of an additional COVID-19 hospital facility was effective in improving the overall quality of care of COVID-19 patients during the first wave of the pandemic when compared with the second. Further studies are necessary to validate the suggested approach.

10.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 33(6): 514-521, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402704

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of the present review is to analyze the link between autoimmune diseases and environmental factors, in particular severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) as it shares numerous features with the interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue diseases positive for rare autoantibodies directed at highly specific autoantigens (i.e., MDA5 and RIG1) among the intracellular sensors of SARS-CoV-2 in the innate response against viruses. RECENT FINDINGS: As shown in recent publications and in our original data, specific autoantibodies may be functionally relevant to COVID-19 infection. We evaluated sera from 35 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 to identify antinuclear antibodies and autoantibodies directed against specific antigenic targets, and we identified anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 20/35 of patients with COVID-19 (57%), in patients with need for supplemental oxygen (90% vs. 20% in ANA-negative cases; P < 0.0001). In 7/35 COVID-19 sera, we detected anti-MJ/NXP2 (n = 3), anti-RIG1 (n = 2), anti-Scl-70/TOPO1 (n = 1), and anti-MDA5 (n = 1), overall associated with a significantly worse pulmonary involvement at lung computerized tomography scans. Eleven (31%) patients were positive for antibodies against the E2/E3 subunits of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. SUMMARY: Viral infections such as COVID-19 are associated with ANA and autoantibodies directed toward antiviral signaling antigens in particular in patients with worse pulmonary involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Dermatomyositis , Antibodies, Antinuclear , Autoantibodies , Dermatomyositis/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390782

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: According to recent guidelines, all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 should receive pharmacological prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE), unless there are specific contraindications. However, the optimal preventive strategy in terms of intensity of anticoagulation for these patients is not well established. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of individualized regimens of enoxaparin on the development of VTE and on the risk of major bleeding complications during hospitalization in patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: All consecutive patients admitted to the medical wards of six Italian hospitals between 15 September and 15 October 2020 with COVID-19 infection of moderate severity were administered enoxaparin in subcutaneous daily doses adjusted to the Padua Prediction Score stratification model: No heparin in patients scoring less than 4, 4000 IU daily in those scoring 4, 6000 IU in those scoring 5, and 8000 in those scoring six or more. Objective tests were performed in patients developing clinical symptoms of deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism. Bleeding complications were defined according to the ISTH classification. RESULTS: From the 154 eligible patients, enoxaparin was administered in all: 4000 IU in 73 patients, 6000 IU in 53, and 8000 IU in the remaining 28. During the course of hospitalization, 27 patients (17.5%) died. VTE developed in 14 of the 154 patients (9.1%; 95% CI, 4.6% to 13.6%), and was fatal in 1. Major bleeding complications developed in 35 patients (22.7%; 95% CI, 16.1% to 29.3%), and were fatal in 8. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the use of risk-adjusted doses of enoxaparin, the rate of VTE events was consistent with that reported in contemporary studies where fixed-dose low-molecular-weight heparin was used. The unexpectedly high risk of bleeding complications should induce caution in administering enoxaparin in doses higher than the conventional low ones.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Heparin/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hemorrhage/etiology , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
12.
Applied System Innovation ; 4(3):55, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1354913

ABSTRACT

The Lean method entails a set of standardized processes intending to optimize resources, reduce waste, and improve results. Lean has been proposed as an operative model for the COVID-19 outbreak. Herein, we summarized data resulted from the Lean model adoption in an Emergency Department of the Lombardy region, the Italian epicenter of the pandemic, to critically appraise its effectiveness and feasibility. The Lean algorithm was applied in the Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital, Milan, north of Italy. At admission, patients underwent outdoor pre-triage for fever, respiratory, and gastrointestinal symptoms, with a focus on SpO2. Based on these data, they were directed to the most appropriate area for the COVID-19 first-level screening. High-risk patients were assisted by trained staff for second-level screening and planning of treatment. Out of 7.778 patients, 21.9% were suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mortality was 21.9% and the infection rate in health workers was 4.8%. The lean model has proved to be effective in optimizing the overall management of COVID-19 patients in an emergency setting. It allowed for screening of a large volume of patients, while also limiting the health workers’ infection rate. Further studies are necessary to validate the suggested approach.

13.
Endocrine ; 73(2): 255-260, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245746

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the post- coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outcome of thyroid function in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related thyrotoxicosis. METHODS: This was a single-center prospective study involving 29 patients (11 females, 18 males; median age 64 years, range: 43-85) with thyrotoxicosis diagnosed after hospitalization for COVID-19 and then followed-up for a median period of 90 days (range: 30-120) after hospital discharge. At follow-up, patients were evaluated for serum thyrotropin (TSH), free-thyroxine (FT4), free-triiodiothyronine (FT3), TSH receptor antibodies (TRAb), thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb) and ultrasonographic thyroid structure. RESULTS: After recovery of COVID-19, serum TSH values significantly increased (P < 0.001) and FT4 values significantly decreased (P = 0.001), without significant change in serum FT3 (P = 0.572). At follow-up, 28 subjects (96.6%) became euthyroid whereas overt hypothyroidism developed in one case. At the ultrasound evaluation of thyroid gland, hypoecogenicity was found in 10 patients (34.5%) and in these cases serum TSH values tended to be higher than those without thyroid hypoecogenity (P = 0.066). All subjects resulted to be negative for TgAb, TPOAb and TRAb. CONCLUSION: In a short-term follow-up, thyroid function spontaneously normalized in most subjects with SARS-CoV-2-related thyrotoxicosis. However, thyroid hypoecogenicity was found in a remarkable number of them and future longer-term studies are needed to clarify whether this ultrasonographic alteration may predispose to develop late-onset thyroid dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thyrotoxicosis , Autoantibodies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors , Thyrotoxicosis/epidemiology , Thyrotoxicosis/etiology , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
14.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220507

ABSTRACT

The Lombardy SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in February 2020 represented the beginning of COVID-19 epidemic in Italy. Hospitals were flooded by thousands of patients with bilateral pneumonia and severe respiratory, and vital sign derangements compared to the standard hospital population. We propose a new visual analysis technique using heat maps to describe the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on vital sign anomalies in hospitalized patients. We conducted an electronic health record study, including all confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized from February 21st, 2020 to April 21st, 2020 as cases, and all non-COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the same wards from January 1st, 2018 to December 31st, 2018. All data on temperature, peripheral oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were retrieved. Derangement of vital signs was defined according to predefined thresholds. 470 COVID-19 patients and 9241 controls were included. Cases were older than controls, with a median age of 79 vs 76 years in non survivors (p = < 0.002). Gender was not associated with mortality. Overall mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients was 18%, ranging from 1.4% in patients below 65 years to about 30% in patients over 65 years. Heat maps analysis demonstrated that COVID-19 patients had an increased frequency in episodes of compromised respiratory rate, acute desaturation, and fever. COVID-19 epidemic profoundly affected the incidence of severe derangements in vital signs in a large academic hospital. We validated heat maps as a method to analyze the clinical stability of hospitalized patients. This method may help to improve resource allocation according to patient characteristics.

15.
Respir Care ; 66(6): 928-935, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, a critical care outreach team was implemented in our hospital to guarantee multidisciplinary patient assessment at admission and prompt ICU support in medical wards. In this paper, we report the activity plan results and describe the baseline characteristics of the referred subjects. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data from 125 subjects referred to the critical care outreach team from March 22 to April 22, 2020. We considered subjects with a ceiling of care decision, with those deemed eligible assigned to level 3 care (ward subgroup), and those deemed ineligible admitted to the ICU (ICU subgroup). Quality indicators of the outreach team plan delivery included number of cardiac arrest calls, number of intubations in level 2 areas, and ineffective palliative support. RESULTS: We enrolled 125 consecutive adult subjects with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19. We did not report any emergency endotracheal intubations in the clinical ward. In the care ceiling subgroup, we had 2 (3.3%) emergency calls for cardiac arrest, whereas signs of ineffective palliative support were reported in 5 subjects (12.5%). Noninvasive forms of respiratory assistance were delivered to 40.0% of subjects in the ward subgroup (median 3 d [interquartile range (IQR) 2-5]), to 45.9% of subjects in the care ceiling subgroup (median 5 d [IQR 3-7]), and to 64.7% of subjects in the ICU subgroup (median 2.5 d [IQR 1-3]). Thirty of the 31 ward subjects (96.7%), 26 of the 34 ICU subjects, (76.4%), and 19 of the 61 ceiling of care subjects (31.1%) were discharged. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of a hospital and ICU surge, a multidisciplinary daily plan supported by a dedicated critical care outreach team was associated with a low rate of cardiac arrest calls, no emergency intubations in the ward, and appropriate palliative care support for subjects with a ceiling of care decision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Critical Care , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(6)2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125507

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has been devastated by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Emergency Departments have been experiencing situations of urgency where clinical experts, without long experience and mature means in the fight against COVID-19, have to rapidly decide the most proper patient treatment. In this context, we introduce an artificially intelligent tool for effective and efficient Computed Tomography (CT)-based risk assessment to improve treatment and patient care. In this paper, we introduce a data-driven approach built on top of volume-of-interest aware deep neural networks for automatic COVID-19 patient risk assessment (discharged, hospitalized, intensive care unit) based on lung infection quantization through segmentation and, subsequently, CT classification. We tackle the high and varying dimensionality of the CT input by detecting and analyzing only a sub-volume of the CT, the Volume-of-Interest (VoI). Differently from recent strategies that consider infected CT slices without requiring any spatial coherency between them, or use the whole lung volume by applying abrupt and lossy volume down-sampling, we assess only the "most infected volume" composed of slices at its original spatial resolution. To achieve the above, we create, present and publish a new labeled and annotated CT dataset with 626 CT samples from COVID-19 patients. The comparison against such strategies proves the effectiveness of our VoI-based approach. We achieve remarkable performance on patient risk assessment evaluated on balanced data by reaching 88.88%, 89.77%, 94.73% and 88.88% accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and F1-score, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Respir Med ; 180: 106355, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118652

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmacological interventions and tracing-testing strategy proved insufficient to reduce SARS-CoV-2 spreading worldwide. Several vaccines with different mechanisms of action are currently under development. This review describes the potential target antigens evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in the context of both conventional and next-generation platforms. We reported experimental data from phase-3 trials with a focus on different definitions of efficacy as well as factors affecting real-life effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, including logistical issues associated to vaccine availability, delivery, and immunization strategies. On this background, new variants of SARS-CoV-2 are discussed. We also provided a critical view on vaccination in special populations at higher risk of infection or severe disease as elderly people, pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. A final paragraph addresses safety on the light of the unprecedented reduction of length of the vaccine development process and faster authorization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Herd , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Pandemics
18.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to investigate the impact of therapeutics with antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on mortality of older adults affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), taking into consideration the time interval from symptoms onset to drugs administration. METHODS: Data from 143 COVID-19 patients over 65 years of age admitted to the Humanitas Clinical and Research Center Emergency Department (Milan, Italy) and treated with Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or Darunavir/cobicistat (DVR/c) associated to Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were retrospectively analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed by using a logistic regression model and survival analysis to assess the role of different predictors of in-hospital mortality, including an early (<6 days from symptoms onset) vs. late treatment onset, signs and symptoms at COVID-19 presentation, type of antiviral treatment (LPV/r or DVR/c) and patients' age (65-80 vs. >80 years old). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that an older age (OR: 2.54) and dyspnea as presenting symptom (OR: 2.01) were associated with higher mortality rate, whereas cough as presenting symptom (OR: 0.53) and a timely drug administration (OR: 0.44) were associated with lower mortality. Survival analysis demonstrated that the timing of drug administration had an impact on mortality in 65-80 years-old patients (p = 0.02), whereas no difference was seen in those >80 years-old. This impact was more evident in patients with dyspnea as primary symptom of COVID-19, in whom mortality decreased from 57.1% to 38.3% due to timely drug administration (OR: 0.5; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant association between the use of a combined antiviral regimen and HCQ and lower mortality, when timely-administered, in COVID-19 patients aged 65-80 years. Our findings support timely treatment onset as a key component in the treatment of COVID-19.

20.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 10(4):686, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1077161

ABSTRACT

Background: Our aim was to investigate the impact of therapeutics with antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on mortality of older adults affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), taking into consideration the time interval from symptoms onset to drugs administration. Methods: Data from 143 COVID-19 patients over 65 years of age admitted to the Humanitas Clinical and Research Center Emergency Department (Milan, Italy) and treated with Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or Darunavir/cobicistat (DVR/c) associated to Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were retrospectively analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed by using a logistic regression model and survival analysis to assess the role of different predictors of in-hospital mortality, including an early (<6 days from symptoms onset) vs. late treatment onset, signs and symptoms at COVID-19 presentation, type of antiviral treatment (LPV/r or DVR/c) and patients’ age (65–80 vs. >80 years old). Results: Multivariate analysis showed that an older age (OR: 2.54) and dyspnea as presenting symptom (OR: 2.01) were associated with higher mortality rate, whereas cough as presenting symptom (OR: 0.53) and a timely drug administration (OR: 0.44) were associated with lower mortality. Survival analysis demonstrated that the timing of drug administration had an impact on mortality in 65–80 years-old patients (p = 0.02), whereas no difference was seen in those >80 years-old. This impact was more evident in patients with dyspnea as primary symptom of COVID-19, in whom mortality decreased from 57.1% to 38.3% due to timely drug administration (OR: 0.5;p = 0.04). Conclusions: There was a significant association between the use of a combined antiviral regimen and HCQ and lower mortality, when timely-administered, in COVID-19 patients aged 65–80 years. Our findings support timely treatment onset as a key component in the treatment of COVID-19.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL