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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 821721, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902983

ABSTRACT

Many studies already reported on the association between patient characteristics on the severity of COVID-19 disease outcome, but the relation with SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels is less clear. To investigate this in more detail, we performed a retrospective observational study in which we used the IgG antibody response from 11,118 longitudinal antibody measurements of 2,082 unique COVID convalescent plasma donors. COVID-19 symptoms and donor characteristics were obtained by a questionnaire. Antibody responses were modelled using a linear mixed-effects model. Our study confirms that the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response is associated with patient characteristics like body mass index and age. Antibody decay was faster in male than in female donors (average half-life of 62 versus 72 days). Most interestingly, we also found that three symptoms (headache, anosmia, nasal cold) were associated with lower peak IgG, while six other symptoms (dry cough, fatigue, diarrhoea, fever, dyspnoea, muscle weakness) were associated with higher IgG concentrations.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Blood Donors , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
2.
Vox Sang ; 117(6): 822-830, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted blood systems worldwide. Challenges included maintaining blood supplies and initiating the collection and use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP). Sharing information on the challenges can help improve blood collection and utilization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey questionnaire was distributed to International Society of Blood Transfusion members in 95 countries. We recorded respondents' demographic information, impacts on the blood supply, CCP collection and use, transfusion demands and operational challenges. RESULTS: Eighty-two responses from 42 countries, including 24 low- and middle-income countries, were analysed. Participants worked in national (26.8%) and regional (26.8%) blood establishments and hospital-based (42.7%) institutions. CCP collection and transfusion were reported by 63% and 36.6% of respondents, respectively. Decreases in blood donations occurred in 70.6% of collecting facilities. Despite safety measures and recruitment strategies, donor fear and refusal of institutions to host blood drives were major contributing factors. Almost half of respondents working at transfusion medicine services were from large hospitals with over 10,000 red cell transfusions per year, and 76.8% of those hospitals experienced blood shortages. Practices varied in accepting donors for blood or CCP donations after a history of COVID-19 infection, CCP transfusion, or vaccination. Operational challenges included loss of staff, increased workloads and delays in reagent supplies. Almost half of the institutions modified their disaster plans during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The challenges faced by blood systems during the COVID-19 pandemic highlight the need for guidance, harmonization, and strengthening of the preparedness and the capacity of blood systems against future infectious threats.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Blood Banks , Blood Donors , Blood Transfusion , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Vox Sang ; 116(8): 872-879, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402988

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The lack of definitive treatment or preventative options for COVID-19 led many clinicians early on to consider convalescent plasma (CCP) as potentially therapeutic. Regulators, blood centres and hospitals worldwide worked quickly to get CCP to the bedside. Although response was admirable, several areas have been identified to help improve future pandemic management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary, multinational subgroup from the ISBT Working Group on COVID-19 was tasked with drafting a manuscript that describes the lessons learned pertaining to procurement and administration of CCP, derived from a comprehensive questionnaire within the subgroup. RESULTS: While each country's responses and preparedness for the pandemic varied, there were shared challenges, spanning supply chain disruptions, staffing, impact of social distancing on the collection of regular blood and CCP products, and the availability of screening and confirmatory SARS-CoV-2 testing for donors and patients. The lack of a general framework to organize data gathering across clinical trials and the desire to provide a potentially life-saving therapeutic through compassionate use hampered the collection of much-needed safety and outcome data worldwide. Communication across all stakeholders was identified as being central to reducing confusion. CONCLUSION: The need for flexibility and adaptability remains paramount when dealing with a pandemic. As the world approaches the first anniversary of the COVID-19 pandemic with rising rates worldwide and over 115 million cases and 2·55 million deaths, respectively, it is important to reflect on how to better prepare for future pandemics as we continue to combat the current one.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Vox Sang ; 116(8): 849-861, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402984

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence suggests that ABO blood group may play a role in the immunopathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with group O individuals less likely to test positive and group A conferring a higher susceptibility to infection and propensity to severe disease. The level of evidence supporting an association between ABO type and SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 ranges from small observational studies, to genome-wide-association-analyses and country-level meta-regression analyses. ABO blood group antigens are oligosaccharides expressed on red cells and other tissues (notably endothelium). There are several hypotheses to explain the differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection by ABO type. For example, anti-A and/or anti-B antibodies (e.g. present in group O individuals) could bind to corresponding antigens on the viral envelope and contribute to viral neutralization, thereby preventing target cell infection. The SARS-CoV-2 virus and SARS-CoV spike (S) proteins may be bound by anti-A isoagglutinins (e.g. present in group O and group B individuals), which may block interactions between virus and angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2-receptor, thereby preventing entry into lung epithelial cells. ABO type-associated variations in angiotensin-converting enzyme-1 activity and levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and factor VIII could also influence adverse outcomes, notably in group A individuals who express high VWF levels. In conclusion, group O may be associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and group A may be associated with a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection along with severe disease. However, prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to verify several of the proposed associations. Based on the strength of available studies, there are insufficient data for guiding policy in this regard.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , COVID-19 , ABO Blood-Group System/genetics , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Vox Sang ; 116(7): 798-807, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370878

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cytokine release syndrome in COVID-19 is due to a pathological inflammatory response of raised cytokines. Removal of these cytokines by therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) prior to end-organ damage may improve clinical outcomes. This manuscript is intended to serve as a preliminary guidance document for application of TPE in patients with severe COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The available literature pertaining to the role of TPE for treatment of COVID-19 patients was reviewed to guide optimal management. It included indication, contraindication, optimal timing of initiation and termination of TPE, vascular access and anticoagulants, numbers and mode of procedures, outcome measures and adverse events. RESULTS: Out of a total of 78 articles, only 65 were directly related to the topic. From these 65, only 32 were acceptable as primary source, while 33 were used as supporting references. TPE in critically ill COVID-19 patients may be classified under ASFA category III grade 2B. The early initiation of TPE for 1-1·5 patient's plasma volume with fresh frozen plasma, or 4-5% albumin or COVID-19 convalescent plasma as replacement fluids before multiorgan failure, has better chances of recovery. The number of procedures can vary from three to nine depending on patient response. CONCLUSION: TPE in COVID-19 patients may help by removing toxic cytokines, viral particles and/or by correcting coagulopathy or restoring endothelial membrane. Severity score (SOFA & APACHE II) and cytokine levels (IL-6, C-reactive protein) can be used to execute TPE therapy and to monitor response in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plasma Exchange , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Plasmapheresis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(3): 100222, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104326

ABSTRACT

Awareness of infection with SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for the effectiveness of COVID-19 control measures. Here, we investigate awareness of infection and symptoms in relation to antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in healthy plasma donors. We asked individuals donating plasma across the Netherlands between May 11th and 18th 2020 to report COVID-19-related symptoms, and we tested for antibodies indicative of a past infection with SARS-CoV-2. Among 3,676 with antibodies, and from questionnaire data, 239 (6.5%) are positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Of those, 48% suspect no COVID-19, despite the majority reporting symptoms; 11% of seropositive individuals report no symptoms and 27% very mild symptoms at any time during the first peak of the epidemic. Anosmia/ageusia and fever are most strongly associated with seropositivity. Almost half of seropositive individuals do not suspect SARS-CoV-2 infection. Improved recognition of COVID-19 symptoms, in particular, anosmia/ageusia and fever, is needed to reduce widespread SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Netherlands , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Immunol ; 205(12): 3491-3499, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895432

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infections often cause only mild disease that may evoke relatively low Ab titers compared with patients admitted to hospitals. Generally, total Ab bridging assays combine good sensitivity with high specificity. Therefore, we developed sensitive total Ab bridging assays for detection of SARS-CoV-2 Abs to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein in addition to conventional isotype-specific assays. Ab kinetics was assessed in PCR-confirmed, hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients (n = 41) and three populations of patients with COVID-19 symptoms not requiring hospital admission: PCR-confirmed convalescent plasmapheresis donors (n = 182), PCR-confirmed hospital care workers (n = 47), and a group of longitudinally sampled symptomatic individuals highly suspect of COVID-19 (n = 14). In nonhospitalized patients, the Ab response to RBD is weaker but follows similar kinetics, as has been observed in hospitalized patients. Across populations, the RBD bridging assay identified most patients correctly as seropositive. In 11/14 of the COVID-19-suspect cases, seroconversion in the RBD bridging assay could be demonstrated before day 12; nucleocapsid protein Abs emerged less consistently. Furthermore, we demonstrated the feasibility of finger-prick sampling for Ab detection against SARS-CoV-2 using these assays. In conclusion, the developed bridging assays reliably detect SARS-CoV-2 Abs in hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients and are therefore well suited to conduct seroprevalence studies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immunologic Tests , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Eur J Immunol ; 50(12): 1998-2012, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-871354

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Understanding the immune response that provides specific immunity but may also lead to immunopathology is crucial for the design of potential preventive and therapeutic strategies. Here, we characterized and quantified SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses in patients with different clinical courses. Compared to individuals with a mild clinical presentation, CD4+ T-cell responses were qualitatively impaired in critically ill patients. Strikingly, however, in these patients the specific IgG antibody response was remarkably strong. Furthermore, in these critically ill patients, a massive influx of circulating T cells into the lungs was observed, overwhelming the local T-cell compartment, and indicative of vascular leakage. The observed disparate T- and B-cell responses could be indicative of a deregulated immune response in critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Vox Sang ; 116(1): 18-35, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) has been used, predominantly in high-income countries (HICs) to treat COVID-19; available data suggest the safety and efficacy of use. We sought to develop guidance for procurement and use of CCP, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for which data are lacking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multidisciplinary, geographically representative group of individuals with expertise spanning transfusion medicine, infectious diseases and haematology was tasked with the development of a guidance document for CCP, drawing on expert opinion, survey of group members and review of available evidence. Three subgroups (i.e. donor, product and patient) were established based on self-identified expertise and interest. Here, the donor and product-related challenges are summarized and contrasted between HICs and LMICs with a view to guide related practices. RESULTS: The challenges to advance CCP therapy are different between HICs and LMICs. Early challenges in HICs related to recruitment and qualification of sufficient donors to meet the growing demand. Antibody testing also posed a specific obstacle given lack of standardization, variable performance of the assays in use and uncertain interpretation of results. In LMICs, an extant transfusion deficit, suboptimal models of donor recruitment (e.g. reliance on replacement and paid donors), limited laboratory capacity for pre-donation qualification and operational considerations could impede wide adoption. CONCLUSION: There has been wide-scale adoption of CCP in many HICs, which could increase if clinical trials show efficacy of use. By contrast, LMICs, having received little attention, require locally applicable strategies for adoption of CCP.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , Developing Countries , Guidelines as Topic , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
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