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1.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(10): 1375-1385, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522100

ABSTRACT

Background: Nearly half of U.S. women experienced new or worsening health-related socioeconomic risks (HRSRs) (food, housing, utilities and transportation difficulties, and interpersonal violence) early in the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to examine racial/ethnic disparities in pandemic-related changes in HRSRs among women. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (04/2020) of 3200 women. Pre- and early pandemic HRSRs were described by race/ethnicity. Weighted, multivariable logistic regression models generated odds of incident and worsening HRSRs by race/ethnicity. Results: The majority of Black, East or Southeast (E/SE) Asian, and Hispanic women reported ≥1 prepandemic HRSR (51%-56% vs. 38% of White women, p < 0.001). By April 2020, 68% of Black, E/SE Asian, and Hispanic women and 55% of White women had ≥1 HRSR (p < 0.001). For most HRSRs, the odds of an incident or worsening condition were similar across racial/ethnic groups, except Black, E/SE Asian and Hispanic women had 2-3.6 times the odds of incident transportation difficulties compared with White women. E/SE Asian women also had higher odds of worsening transportation difficulties compared with White women (adjusted odds ratios = 2.5, 95% confidence interval 1.1-5.6). In the early pandemic, 1/19 Hispanic, 1/28 E/SE Asian, 1/36 Black and 1/100 White women had all 5 HRSRs (extreme health-related socioeconomic vulnerability). Conclusions: Prepandemic racial/ethnic disparities in HRSRs persisted and prevalence rates increased for all groups early in the pandemic. Disparities in transportation difficulties widened. White women were much less likely than others to experience extreme health-related socioeconomic vulnerability. An equitable COVID-19 response requires attention to persistent and widening racial/ethnic disparities in HRSRs among women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256074, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357435

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Asian-Americans are one of the most understudied racial/ethnic minority populations. To increase representation of Asian subgroups, researchers have traditionally relied on data collection at community venues and events. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has created serious challenges for in-person data collection. In this case study, we describe multi-modal strategies for online recruitment of U.S. Vietnamese parents, compare response rates and participant characteristics among strategies, and discuss lessons learned. METHODS: We recruited 408 participants from community-based organizations (CBOs) (n = 68), Facebook groups (n = 97), listservs (n = 4), personal network (n = 42), and snowball sampling (n = 197). Using chi-square tests and one-way analyses of variance, we compared participants recruited through different strategies regarding sociodemographic characteristics, acculturation-related characteristics, and mobile health usage. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 71.8% (range: 51.5% for Vietnamese CBOs to 86.6% for Facebook groups). Significant differences exist for all sociodemographic and almost all acculturation-related characteristics among recruitment strategies. Notably, CBO-recruited participants were the oldest, had lived in the U.S. for the longest duration, and had the lowest Vietnamese language ability. We found some similarities between Facebook-recruited participants and those referred by Facebook-recruited participants. Mobile health usage was high and did not vary based on recruitment strategies. Challenges included encountering fraudulent responses (e.g., non-Vietnamese). Perceived benefits and trust appeared to facilitate recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: Facebook and snowball sampling may be feasible strategies to recruit U.S. Vietnamese. Findings suggest the potential for mobile-based research implementation. Perceived benefits and trust could encourage participation and may be related to cultural ties. Attention should be paid to recruitment with CBOs and handling fraudulent responses.


Subject(s)
Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , Internet , Patient Selection , Adult , Asian Americans/psychology , Cultural Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Selection Bias , Socioeconomic Factors
3.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(4): 502-513, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169611

ABSTRACT

Background: During a pandemic, women may be especially vulnerable to secondary health problems driven by its social and economic effects. We examined the relationship between changes in health-related socioeconomic risks (HRSRs) and mental health. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 3,200 women aged 18-90 years was conducted in April 2020 using a quota-based sample from a national panel (88% cooperation rate). Patterns of change in HRSRs (food insecurity, housing instability, interpersonal violence, and difficulties with utilities and transportation) were described. Weighted, multivariate logistic regression was used to model the odds of depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress symptoms among those with and without incident or worsening HRSRs. Results: More than 40% of women had one or more prepandemic HRSRs. In the early pandemic phase, 49% of all women, including 29% with no prepandemic HRSRs, had experienced incident or worsening HRSRs. By April 2020, the rates of depression and anxiety were twice that of prepandemic benchmarks (29%); 17% of women had symptoms of traumatic stress. The odds of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were two to three times higher among women who reported at least one incident or worsening HRSR; this finding was similar for women with and without prepandemic HRSRs. Conclusions: Increased health-related socioeconomic vulnerability among U.S. women early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was prevalent and associated with alarmingly high rates of mental health problems. Pandemic-related mental health needs are likely to be much greater than currently available resources, especially for vulnerable women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Pedagogy in Health Promotion ; : 2373379920963660, 2020.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-858421

ABSTRACT

Schools and programs of public health are expanding online course offerings, particularly in response to the transition to remote learning due to COVID-19. While previous research in the health professions suggests that online and in-person modalities are equally effective in supporting student learning, there is minimal evidence of this in public health education. This evaluation examines the effectiveness of newly developed online or hybrid course sections offered to Master of Public Health (MPH) and Master of Science in Public Health (MSPH) students enrolled in on-campus programs. We compared the effectiveness of these new offerings with that of the on-campus in-person courses and hybrid courses in the Executive MPH program. The purposes of this mixed-methods evaluation were to (1) assess student learning across the three course modalities and (2) examine student, instructor, and staff experiences with the modalities. The data included pre- and postcourse student surveys on 17 sections of five courses (precourse response rate: 51% to 98%;postcourse response rate: 12% to 57%), the participating students? grades, five student focus groups, one focus group with academic advisors, and 11 instructor interviews. The findings indicate that the new online modality was equivalent to the in-person sections for student learning, satisfaction, and engagement. Mean student ratings of confidence in meeting the course learning objectives increased from the beginning to the end of the semester in all sections for all courses. Regardless of the modality, the students reported that the course improved their understanding of key concepts and that they were satisfied with their course. We discuss the lessons learned and recommendations for ensuring high-quality online learning experiences.

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