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HemaSphere ; 6:1038, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032104

ABSTRACT

Background: Vulnerability of patients (pts) with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and their susceptibility to Covid-19 infection is documented in several studies with reported case fatality rates (CFRs) up to 40%, but there is still paucity of data on identifying risk factors of their adverse outcome. Aims: To evaluate demographic, patient-related, CLL-related and Covid-19 related risk factors in hospitalized pts with concurrent CLL and Covid-19. Methods: Total of 81 CLL pts were identified in medical records of three University centers in Belgrade: Clinical Hospital Center (CHC) Zemun, CHC Bezanijska kosa and CHC Zvezdara dedicated to treatment of Covid-19 pts during pandemic (from 15 March 2020 to 31 December 2021). Results: For all 81 pts CFR was 32.1%. Age (median age 68 yrs;range 45-90 yrs) and sex (apparent male prevalence: 61 male and 20 female;M:F=3.05) had no influence on outcome. Pts with Charlson comorbidity index >4 (29/81;35.8%) had significantly higher CFR (38% vs 9.5%, p=0,025). Concerning CLL-directed treatment: 26/81(32.1%) pts were on active treatment (5 pts were on Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, 21pts receiving imunochemotherapy), 11/81(13.6%) pts were in remission on previous lines of therapy, while 44/81(54.3%) pts were treatment naive. CLL treatment history had no impact on CFR, as well as anemia (Hb<100g/l) that was present in 29/81(35.8%)pts, hipogammaglobulinemia (21/81;26%pts) and hiperferritinemia>450ng/mL (50/81;61.7%pts). Of evaluated laboratory parameters, high levels of lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH>2xUNL:6/81;7.4%pts), D-dimer (>1000ng/mL:36/81;44.4%pts), and C-reactive protein (CRP>100mg/L: 31/81;38.3%pts) proved to be associated with adverse outcome;p-values 0.002, 0.039 and <0.001, respectively. According to Covid-19 clinical course, the severe Covid-19 score had 35(43,2%)pts, and critical 19(23.5%)pts. Covid-19 infection was treated according to current National guidelines. Corticosteroids were administrated to 81.5% of pts, antiviral agents to 38.3%, IL-6 receptor inhibitor to 11.1%, antiviral monoclonal antibodies to 7.4% and intravenous immunoglobulin to 19.8% of pts. None of listed therapeutic approaches had impact on CFRs. Antibiotics were administrated to 43/81 (53.1%) of pts with documented or highly suspected concomitant bacterial infection (procaltitonin level>0.5ng/mL and/or chest X-Ray image corresponding to bacterial pneumonia), and the bacterial coinfection had adverse impact on CFR (51.2% vs.10.2%;p<0.001). Significantly higher mortality was documented in pts who needed supplemental oxygen (58/81;71%) (CFR 43.1 vs.4.3%;p<0.001), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (25/81-30.9%;19/25 needed mechanical ventilation) (CFR 88% vs.7.1%;p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, bacterial coinfection and ICU admission proved to be the most significant adverse parameters influencing outcome (p=0.012). Summary/Conclusion: Our study proved the dismal outcome of CLL pts with concurrent Covid-19. That could be mainly attributed to the high proportion of bacterial coinfections reflecting their frailty and sucessibility to both viral and bacterial infections.

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