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J Oral Biol Craniofac Res ; 13(2): 267-271, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246125


Objective: The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to have a profound effect worldwide. However, COVID-19 induced oral facial manifestations have not been fully described. We conducted a prospective study to demonstrate feasibility of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and inflammatory cytokine detection in saliva. Our primary objective was to determine whether COVID-19 PCR positive patients with xerostomia or loss of taste had altered serum or saliva cytokine levels compared to COVID-19 PCR positive patients without those oral symptoms. Our secondary objective was to determine the correlation between serum and saliva COVID-19 antibody levels. Materials and methods: For cytokine analysis, saliva and serum were obtained from 17 participants with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection at three sequential time points, yielding 48 saliva samples and 19 paired saliva-serum samples from 14 of the 17 patients. For COVID-19 antibody analyses, an additional 27 paired saliva-serum samples from 22 patients were purchased. Results: The saliva antibody assay had 88.64% sensitivity [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 75.44%, 96.21%] to detect SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies compared to serum antibody. Among the inflammatory cytokines assessed - IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-13, IL-2, IL-5, IL-7 and IL-17A, xerostomia correlated with lower levels of saliva IL-2 and TNF-α, and elevated levels of serum IL-12p70 and IL-10 (p < 0.05). Loss of taste was observed in patients with elevated serum IL-8 (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Further studies are needed to construct a robust saliva-based COVID-19 assay to assess antibody and inflammatory cytokine response, which has potential utility as a non-invasive monitoring modality during COVID-19 convalescence.

Saudi Dent J ; 34(7): 596-603, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1983982


Objective: Studies have shown that gingival crevices may be a significant route for SARS-CoV-2 entry. However, the role of oral health in the acquisition and severity of COVID-19 is not known. Design: A retrospective analysis was performed using electronic health record data from a large urban academic medical center between 12/1/2019 and 8/24/2020. A total of 387 COVID-19 positive cases were identified and matched 1:1 by age, sex, and race to 387 controls without COVID-19 diagnoses. Demographics, number of missing teeth and alveolar crestal height were determined from radiographs and medical/dental charts. In a subgroup of 107 cases and controls, we also examined the rate of change in alveolar crestal height. A conditional logistic regression model was utilized to assess association between alveolar crestal height and missing teeth with COVID-19 status and with hospitalization status among COVID-19 cases. Results: Increased alveolar bone loss, OR = 4.302 (2.510 - 7.376), fewer missing teeth, OR = 0.897 (0.835-0.965) and lack of smoking history distinguished COVID-19 cases from controls. After adjusting for time between examinations, cases with COVID-19 had greater alveolar bone loss compared to controls (0.641 ± 0.613 mm vs 0.260 ± 0.631 mm, p < 0.01.) Among cases with COVID-19, increased number of missing teeth OR = 2.1871 (1.146- 4.174) was significantly associated with hospitalization. Conclusions: Alveolar bone loss and missing teeth are positively associated with the acquisition and severity of COVID-19 disease, respectively.

Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice ; 30(2), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1691763


During the current pandemic, the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has quickly moved to the top of the list of potential causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients presenting to the hospital. Potential COVID-19 infections should continue to be quickly identified and treated when indicated, but it is important that we not forget about the other potential causes of ARDS. In this case series, we will discuss 3 cases of ARDS that were passed off as likely SARS-CoV-2 infections but were all discovered to be negative for COVID-19. This highlights the importance of maintaining a thorough history and physical examination during the pandemic to identify the other causes of ARDS and avoid the negative effects of frequency bias.