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1.
JAMA ; 328(10): 935-940, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2047345

ABSTRACT

Importance: Despite the expansion of SARS-CoV-2 testing, available tests have not received Emergency Use Authorization for performance with self-collected anterior nares (nasal) swabs from children younger than 14 years because the effect of pediatric self-swabbing on SARS-CoV-2 test sensitivity is unknown. Objective: To characterize the ability of school-aged children to self-collect nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 testing compared with collection by health care workers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study of 197 symptomatic children and adolescents aged 4 to 14 years old. Individuals were recruited based on results of testing in the Children's Healthcare of Atlanta system from July to August 2021. Exposures: Children and adolescents were given instructional material consisting of a short instructional video and a handout with written and visual steps for self-swab collection. Participants first provided a self-collected nasal swab. Health care workers then collected a second specimen. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 detection and relative quantitation by cycle threshold (Ct) in self- vs health care worker-collected nasal swabs when tested with a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction test with Emergency Use Authorization. Results: Among the study participants, 108 of 194 (55.7%) were male and the median age was 9 years (IQR, 6-11). Of the 196 participants, 87 (44.4%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 105 (53.6%) tested negative by both self- and health care worker-collected swabs. Two children tested positive by self- or health care worker-collected swab alone; 1 child had an invalid health care worker swab. Compared with health care worker-collected swabs, self-collected swabs had 97.8% (95% CI, 94.7%-100.0%) and 98.1% (95% CI, 95.6%-100.0%) positive and negative percent agreement, respectively, and SARS-CoV-2 Ct values did not differ significantly between groups (mean [SD] Ct, self-swab: 26.7 [5.4] vs health care worker swab: 26.3 [6.0]; P = .65). Conclusions and Relevance: After hearing and seeing simple instructional materials, children and adolescents aged 4 to 14 years self-collected nasal swabs that closely agreed on SARS-CoV-2 detection with swabs collected by health care workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Specimen Handling/methods
2.
J Infect Dis ; 226(9): 1577-1587, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961056

ABSTRACT

Detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is essential for diagnosis, treatment, and infection control. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fails to distinguish acute from resolved infections, as RNA is frequently detected after infectiousness. We hypothesized that nucleocapsid in blood marks acute infection with the potential to enhance isolation and treatment strategies. In a retrospective serosurvey of inpatient and outpatient encounters, we categorized samples along an infection timeline using timing of SARS-CoV-2 testing and symptomatology. Among 1860 specimens from 1607 patients, the highest levels and frequency of antigenemia were observed in samples from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antigenemia was higher in seronegative individuals and in those with severe disease. In our analysis, antigenemia exhibited 85.8% sensitivity and 98.6% specificity as a biomarker for acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Thus, antigenemia sensitively and specifically marks acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further study is warranted to determine whether antigenemia may aid individualized assessment of active COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Nucleocapsid , Biomarkers
4.
Cell Rep Methods ; 2(5): 100222, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819464

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the development of point-of-care (POC) diagnostic testing accelerated in an unparalleled fashion. As a result, there has been an increased need for accurate, robust, and easy-to-use POC testing in a variety of non-traditional settings (i.e., pharmacies, drive-thru sites, schools). While stakeholders often express the desire for POC technologies that are "as simple as digital pregnancy tests," there is little discussion of what this means in regards to device design, development, and assessment. The design of POC technologies and systems should take into account the capabilities and limitations of the users and their environments. Such "human factors" are important tenets that can help technology developers create POC technologies that are effective for end-users in a multitude of settings. Here, we review the core principles of human factors and discuss lessons learned during the evaluation process of SARS-CoV-2 POC testing.

5.
Virus Evol ; 8(1): veac011, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816262

ABSTRACT

In early 2020, as diagnostic and surveillance responses for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ramped up, attention focused primarily on returning international travelers. Here, we build on existing studies characterizing early patterns of SARS-CoV-2 spread within the USA by analyzing detailed clinical, molecular, and viral genomic data from the state of Georgia through March 2020. We find evidence for multiple early introductions into Georgia, despite relatively sparse sampling. Most sampled sequences likely stemmed from a single or small number of introductions from Asia three weeks prior to the state's first detected infection. Our analysis of sequences from domestic travelers demonstrates widespread circulation of closely related viruses in multiple US states by the end of March 2020. Our findings indicate that the exclusive focus on identifying SARS-CoV-2 in returning international travelers early in the pandemic may have led to a failure to recognize locally circulating infections for several weeks and point toward a critical need for implementing rapid, broadly targeted surveillance efforts for future pandemics.

6.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810322

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variant detection relies on resource-intensive whole-genome sequencing methods. We sought to develop a scalable protocol for variant detection and surveillance in Paraguay, pairing rRT-PCR for spike mutations with Nanopore sequencing. A total of 201 acute-phase nasopharyngeal samples were included. Samples were positive for the SARS-CoV-2 N2 target and tested with the Spike SNP assay to detect mutations associated with the following variants: alpha (501Y), beta/gamma (417variant/484K/501Y), delta (452R/478K), and lambda (452Q/490S). Spike SNP calls were confirmed using amplicon (Sanger) sequencing and whole-genome (Nanopore) sequencing on a subset of samples with confirmed variant lineages. Samples had a mean N2 Ct of 20.8 (SD 5.6); 198/201 samples (98.5%) tested positive in the Spike SNP assay. The most common genotype was 417variant/484K/501Y, detected in 102/198 samples (51.5%), which was consistent with the P.1 lineage (gamma variant) in Paraguay. No mutations (K417 only) were found in 64/198 (32.3%), and K417/484K was identified in 22/198 (11.1%), consistent with P.2 (zeta). Seven samples (3.5%) tested positive for 452R without 478K, and one sample with genotype K417/501Y was confirmed as B.1.1.7 (alpha). The results were confirmed using Sanger sequencing in 181/181 samples, and variant calls were consistent with Nanopore sequencing in 29/29 samples. The Spike SNP assay could improve population-level surveillance for mutations associated with SARS-CoV-2 variants and inform the judicious use of sequencing resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Paraguay/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334154

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 mutations conferring escape from neutralizing antibodies can arise in immunocompromised patients with prolonged infection, but the conditions that facilitate immune escape are still not fully understood. Methods We characterized endogenous immune responses, within-host SARS-CoV-2 evolution, and autologous neutralization of the viral variants that arose in five immunocompromised patients with prolonged infection and B cell deficiencies. Results In two patients treated with the monoclonal antibody bamlanivimab, viral resistance to autologous serum arose early and persisted for several months, accompanied by ongoing evolution in the spike protein. These patients exhibited deficiencies in both T and B cell arms, and one patient succumbed to disease. In contrast, we did not observe spike mutations in immunologically important regions in patients who did not receive exogenous antibodies or who received convalescent plasma and had intact T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2. Conclusions Our results underscore the potential importance of multiple factors – the absence of an effective endogenous immune response, persistent virus replication, and selective pressure such as single-agent bamlanivimab – in promoting the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 mutations associated with immune evasion. These findings highlight the need for larger clinical studies in immunocompromised populations to better understand the ramifications of different therapies. Our results also confirm that patients with B cell deficiencies can elicit effector T cells and may suggest an important role for T cells in controlling infection, which is relevant to vaccines and therapeutics.

8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330352

ABSTRACT

Background The goal of this study was to characterize the ability of school-aged children to self-collect adequate anterior nares (AN) swabs for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing. Methods From July to August 2021, 287 children, age 4-14 years-old, were prospectively enrolled in the Atlanta area. Symptomatic (n=197) and asymptomatic (n=90) children watched a short instructional video before providing a self-collected AN specimen. Health care workers (HCWs) then collected a second specimen, and useability was assessed by the child and HCW. Swabs were tested side-by-side for SARS-CoV-2. RNase P RNA detection was investigated as a measure of specimen adequacy. Results Among symptomatic children, 87/196 (44.4%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by both self- and HCW-swab. Two children each were positive by self- or HCW-swab;one child had an invalid HCW-swab. Compared to HCW-swabs, self-collected swabs had 97.8% and 98.1% positive and negative percent agreements, respectively, and SARS-CoV-2 Ct values did not differ significantly between groups. Participants ≤8 years-old were less likely than those >8 to be rated as correctly completing self-collection, but SARS-CoV-2 detection did not differ. Based on RNase P RNA detection, 270/287 children (94.1%) provided adequate self-swabs versus 277/287 (96.5%) HCW-swabs (p=0.24) with no difference when stratified by age. Conclusions Children, aged 4-14 years-old, can provide adequate AN specimens for SARS-CoV-2 detection when presented with age-appropriate instructional material, consisting of a video and a handout, at a single timepoint. These data support the use of self-collected AN swabs among school-age children for SARS-CoV-2 testing.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e350-e353, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740827

ABSTRACT

We describe rapid detection of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant using targeted spike single-nucleotide polymorphism polymerase chain reaction and viral genome sequencing. This case occurred in a fully vaccinated and boosted returning traveler with mild symptoms who was identified through community surveillance rather than clinical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Genome, Viral , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-3, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703768

ABSTRACT

We performed an epidemiological investigation and genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to define the source and scope of an outbreak in a cluster of hospitalized patients. Lack of appropriate respiratory hygiene led to SARS-CoV-2 transmission to patients and healthcare workers during a single hemodialysis session, highlighting the importance of infection prevention precautions.

11.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327560

ABSTRACT

Background Upper respiratory samples for SARS-CoV-2 detection include the gold standard nasopharyngeal (NP) swab, and mid-turbinate (MT) nasal swabs, oropharyngeal (OP) swabs, and saliva. Following the emergence of the omicron (B.1.1.529) variant, limited preliminary data suggest that OP swabs or saliva samples may be more sensitive than nasal swabs, highlighting the need to understand differences in viral load across different sites. Methods MT, OP, and saliva samples were collected from symptomatic individuals presenting for evaluation in Atlanta, GA, in January 2022. Longitudinal samples were collected from a family cohort following COVID-19 exposure to describe detection of viral targets over the course of infection. Results SARS-CoV-2 RNA and nucleocapsid antigen measurements demonstrated a nares-predominant phenotype in a familial cohort. A consistent dominant location for SARS-CoV-2 was not found among 54 individuals. Positive percent agreement for virus detection in MT, OP and saliva specimens were 66.7 [54.1–79.2], 82.2 [71.1–93.4], and 72.5 [60.3–84.8] by RT-PCR, respectively, and 46.2 [32.6–59.7], 51.2 [36.2–66.1], and 72.0 [59.6–84.4] by ultrasensitive antigen assay. The composite of positive MT or OP assay was not significantly different than either alone for both RT-PCR and antigen assay (PPA 86.7 [76.7–96.6] and 59.5 [44.7–74.4], respectively). Conclusions Our data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and RNA exhibited similar kinetics and diagnostic yield in three upper respiratory sample types across the duration of symptomatic disease. Collection of OP or combined nasal and OP samples does not appear to increase sensitivity versus validated nasal sampling for rapid detection of viral antigen.

12.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327084

ABSTRACT

Background Reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential for diagnosis and treatment of disease as well as infection control and prevention during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Existing nucleic acid tests do not reliably distinguish acute from resolved infection, as residual RNA is frequently detected in the absence of replication-competent virus. We hypothesized that viral nucleocapsid in serum or plasma may be a specific biomarker of acute infection that could enhance isolation and treatment strategies at an individualized level. Methods Samples were obtained from a retrospective serological survey using a convenience sampling method from adult inpatient and outpatient encounters from January through March 2021. Samples were categorized along a timeline of infection (e.g. acute, late presenting, convalescent) based on timing of available SARS-CoV-2 testing and symptomatology. Nucleocapsid was quantified by digital immunoassay on the Quanterix HD-X platform. Results In a large sample of 1860 specimens from 1607 patients, the highest level and frequency of antigenemia were observed in samples obtained during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. Levels of antigenemia were highest in samples from seronegative individuals and in those with more severe disease. Using ROC analysis, we found that antigenemia exhibited up to 85.8% sensitivity and 98.6% specificity as a biomarker for acute COVID-19. Conclusions Nucleocapsid antigenemia is a sensitive and specific biomarker for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and may aid in individualized assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection resolution or persistence, although interpretation is limited by absence of a diagnostic gold standard for active infection.

13.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100529, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649941

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) omicron variant emerged in November 2021 and consists of several mutations within the spike. We use serum from mRNA-vaccinated individuals to measure neutralization activity against omicron in a live-virus assay. At 2-4 weeks after a primary series of vaccinations, we observe a 30-fold reduction in neutralizing activity against omicron. Six months after the initial two-vaccine doses, sera from naive vaccinated subjects show no neutralizing activity against omicron. In contrast, COVID-19-recovered individuals 6 months after receiving the primary series of vaccinations show a 22-fold reduction, with the majority of the subjects retaining neutralizing antibody responses. In naive individuals following a booster shot (third dose), we observe a 14-fold reduction in neutralizing activity against omicron, and over 90% of subjects show neutralizing activity. These findings show that a third dose is required to provide robust neutralizing antibody responses against the omicron variant.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Young Adult
17.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S244-S245, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564895

ABSTRACT

Background Most individuals diagnosed with mild to moderate COVID-19 are no longer infectious after day 10 of symptom onset and those with severe or critical illness from COVID are typically not infection after day 20 day of symptom onset. Recovered persons can continue to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR via detection of non-viable RNA in nasopharyngeal specimens for up to three months (or longer) after illness onset. It is also know known that severely immunocompromised patients may produce replication-competent virus greater than 20 days from symptom onset and may require, per CDC recommendations, “additional testing and consultation with infectious diseases specialists and infection control experts”. We aim to discuss four case studies of severely immunocompromised patients who exhibited signs of persistent COVID-19 infection of COVID and how we managed transmission-based precautions in our hospital through sequencing and evaluation of cycle thresholds (CT) values and subgenomic RNA detection. Methods Residual nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were collected on patients exhibiting persistent COVID like symptoms. These samples underwent N gene and N gene subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing. Results Analysis of longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 sequence data demonstrated within-patient virus evolution, including mutations in the receptor binding domain and deletions in the N-terminal domain of the spike protein, which have been implicated in antibody escape. See Figures 1 and 2. Figure 1. Timelines of Identified Patients 1 and 2 Patient 1: 46-year-old woman with recently diagnosed stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma for which she was treated with 2 cycles of R-CHOP. Patient 2: 38-year-old woman with history of myelodysplastic syndrome, peripheral blood stem cell transplant with chronic graft versus host disease of the GI tract, skin, and eyes as well as CMV enteritis, and she was maintained on rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, prednisone, and monthly IVIG without recent changes to her immunosuppression. Figure 2. Timeline of Identified Patients 3 and 4 Patient 3: 44 year-old man with prior history of thymoma s/p thymectomy Patient 4: 46 year-old man who was initially diagnosed with marginal zone lymphoma approximately 2.5 years ago. He was initially treated with bendamustine and rituximab and achieved remission. He was then continued on maintenance rituximab without significant complications for a planned two years. Conclusion Differentiating between prolonged viral shedding of non-infectious RNA and persistent replicating viable virus can be difficult to determine without full evaluation of a patient’s clinical picture and timeline. Consultation between laboratory, infectious diseases, and infection prevention experts to provide appropriate level of guidance for precautions and treatment may be warranted. Testing by PCR and analysis of CT values may provide key findings of viral replication in immunocompromised hosts, indicating the need for evaluation of additional treatment and maintaining isolation status in healthcare settings. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

18.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S89-S89, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564872

ABSTRACT

Background Detection and surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants is of great public health importance. Broadly accessible and inexpensive assays are needed to enhance variant surveillance and detection globally. We developed and validated a single-reaction multiplex real-time RT-PCR (the Spike SNP assay) to detect specific mutations associated with variants of concern (VOC). Methods A single primer pair was designed to amplify a 348 bp region of spike. Probes were initially designed with locked nucleic acids (LNAs) to increase probe melting temperature, shorten probe length, and specifically detect 417K, E484K, and N501Y (Figure). The assay was optimized and evaluated using characterized variant sample pools. Clinical evaluation was performed on a convenience set of residual nasopharyngeal swabs, and variant calls were confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing in a subset of samples. Following the initial evaluation, unmodified probes (without LNAs) were designed to detect L452R, L452Q, and E484Q. Figure. Spike SNP distinguishes mutations occurring in different lineages (A-C). Representative results of variant detection a single Spike SNP run are shown for mutations in the codons for 4177K (A) and mutations that encode 484K (B) and 501Y (C). Curves show dilutions of the following variants: blue, BEI 52286 (wild type);pink B.1.1.7;purple, B1.525;and green, P.1. Variant pools were used for B.1.17, B.1.525, and P.1 strains. Curves are displayed for a given dilution in each channel and result interpretation is shown (D). Results The lower limit of 95% detection was 2.46 to 2.48 log10 GE/mL for the three targets (~1-2 GE/reaction). Among 253 nasopharyngeal swabs with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA, the Spike SNP assay was positive in 238 (94.1%), including all samples with Ct values < 30 (220/220) for the N2 target and 18/33 samples with N2 Ct values ≥ 30. Results were confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing in 50/50 samples (100%). Subsequent addition of the 452R probe did not affect performance for the original targets, and probes for 452Q and 484Q performed similarly to LNA-modified probes. Conclusion The Spike SNP assay provides fast, inexpensive and sensitive detection of specific mutations associated with SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, and the assay can be quickly modified to detect new mutations in the receptor binding domain. Similar analytical performance of LNA-modified and unmodified probes presents options for future assay customization that balance the shorter probe length (LNAs) and increased accessibility (unmodified). The Spike SNP assay, if implemented across laboratories offering SARS-CoV-2 testing, could greatly increase capacity for variant detection and surveillance globally. Disclosures Colleen S. Kraft, MD, MSc, Rebiotix (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Advisor or Review Panel member

19.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542793

ABSTRACT

Evidence varies as to how far aerosols spread from individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 in hospital rooms. We investigated the presence of aerosols containing SARS-CoV-2 inside of dedicated COVID-19 patient rooms. Three National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health BC 251 two-stage cyclone samplers were set up in each patient room for a six-hour sampling period. Samplers were place on tripods, which each held two samplers at various heights above the floor. Extracted samples underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for selected gene regions of the SARS-CoV-2 virus nucleocapsid. Patient medical data were compared between participants in rooms where virus-containing aerosols were detected and those where they were not. Of 576 aerosols samples collected from 19 different rooms across 32 participants, 3% (19) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, the majority from near the head and foot of the bed. Seven of the positive samples were collected inside a single patient room. No significant differences in participant clinical characteristics were found between patients in rooms with positive and negative aerosol samples. SARS-CoV-2 viral aerosols were detected from the patient rooms of nine participants (28%). These findings provide reassurance that personal protective equipment that was recommended for this virus is appropriate given its spread in hospital rooms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Patients' Rooms , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Hospitals , Humans , Middle Aged , Patients' Rooms/statistics & numerical data , Phosphoproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
20.
J Virol Methods ; 300: 114374, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although active surveillance SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) is required for proper outbreak control measures, many lower income countries find it challenging to detect VOCs by carrying genomic sequencing alone, due to limited resources. METHODS: VOCs can also be identified by the unique mutations in the spike protein by real-time PCR that detect these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used a multiplex, real-time PCR assay for detection of these SNPs for identification of the prevalence of different SARS-CoV-2 VOCs in 16/26 districts in Sri Lanka. RESULTS: Of the 664/934 that were subjected to the multiplex qRT-PCR, 638 (96.1 %) detected L452R and K417 in the channels and were identified as the delta variant. 25 samples (3.9 %) detected N501Y, with K417 were considered as the alpha variant. Of 10/16 districts in Sri Lanka, the delta variant was the only VOC detected. CONCLUSIONS: This multiplex real-time qRT-PCR which identifies certain SNPs specific to the VOCs appears to be a fast, cheaper and less technically demanding method to generate data regarding the spread of different SARS-CoV-2 variants, and is a suitable method for lower income countries, to supplement the data generated by genomic sequencing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mutation , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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