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1.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 125, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087218

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic marks the third coronavirus pandemic this century (SARS-CoV-1, MERS, SARS-CoV-2), emphasizing the need to identify and evaluate conserved immunogens for a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine. Here we investigate the potential utility of a T-cell vaccine strategy targeting conserved regions of the sarbecovirus proteome. We identified the most conserved regions of the sarbecovirus proteome as portions of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and Helicase proteins, both of which are part of the coronavirus replication transcription complex (RTC). Fitness constraints suggest that as SARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve these regions may better preserve cross-reactive potential of T-cell responses than Spike, Nucleocapsid, or Membrane proteins. We sought to determine if vaccine-elicited T-cell responses to the highly conserved regions of the RTC would reduce viral loads following challenge with SARS-CoV-2 in mice using a rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 (RhAd52) vector. The RhAd52.CoV.Consv vaccine generated robust cellular immunity in mice and led to significant reductions in viral loads in the nasal turbinates following challenge with a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2. These data suggest the potential utility of T-cell targeting of conserved regions for a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine.

2.
Cell Rep ; 38(11): 110514, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739598

ABSTRACT

The success of nucleoside-modified mRNAs in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP) as COVID-19 vaccines heralded a new era of vaccine development. For HIV-1, multivalent envelope (Env) trimer protein nanoparticles are superior immunogens compared with trimers alone for priming of broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) B cell lineages. The successful expression of complex multivalent nanoparticle immunogens with mRNAs has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that mRNAs can encode antigenic Env trimers on ferritin nanoparticles that initiate bnAb precursor B cell expansion and induce serum autologous tier 2 neutralizing activity in bnAb precursor VH + VL knock-in mice. Next-generation sequencing demonstrates acquisition of critical mutations, and monoclonal antibodies that neutralize heterologous HIV-1 isolates are isolated. Thus, mRNA-LNP can encode complex immunogens and may be of use in design of germline-targeting and sequential boosting immunogens for HIV-1 vaccine development.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV-1 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Ferritins/genetics , HIV Antibodies , Humans , Liposomes , Mice , RNA, Messenger , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(4): 529-539.e3, 2021 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309188

ABSTRACT

All current vaccines for COVID-19 utilize ancestral SARS-CoV-2 spike with the goal of generating protective neutralizing antibodies. The recent emergence and rapid spread of several SARS-CoV-2 variants carrying multiple spike mutations raise concerns about possible immune escape. One variant, first identified in the United Kingdom (B.1.1.7, also called 20I/501Y.V1), contains eight spike mutations with potential to impact antibody therapy, vaccine efficacy, and risk of reinfection. Here, we show that B.1.1.7 remains sensitive to neutralization, albeit at moderately reduced levels (∼sim;2-fold), by serum samples from convalescent individuals and recipients of an mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273, Moderna) and a protein nanoparticle vaccine (NVX-CoV2373, Novavax). A subset of monoclonal antibodies to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike are less effective against the variant, while others are largely unaffected. These findings indicate that variant B.1.1.7 is unlikely to be a major concern for current vaccines or for an increased risk of reinfection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
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