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Acad Radiol ; 28(2): 158-165, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064684


RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Three-dimensional (3D) printing allows innovative solutions for personal protective equipment, particularly in times of crisis. Our goal was to generate an N95-alternative 3D-printed respirator that passed Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-certified quantitative fit testing during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D printed prototypes for N95 solutions were created based on the design of commercial N95 respirators. Computed tomography imaging was performed on an anthropomorphic head phantom wearing a commercially available N95 respirator and these facial contour data was used in mask prototyping. Prototypes were generated using rigid and flexible polymers. According to OSHA standards, prototypes underwent subsequent quantitative respirator fit testing on volunteers who passed fit tests on commercial N95 respirators. RESULTS: A total of 10 prototypes were 3D printed using both rigid (n = 5 designs) and flexible materials (n = 5 designs), Prototypes generated with rigid printing materials (n = 5 designs) did not pass quantitative respirator fit testing. Three of the five prototypes with flexible materials failed quantitative fit testing. The final two prototypes designs passed OSHA-certified quantitative fit tests with an overall mean fit factor of 138 (passing is over 100). CONCLUSION: Through rapid prototyping, 3D printed N95 alternative masks were designed with topographical facial computed tomography data to create mask facial contour and passed OSHA-certified quantitative respiratory testing when flexible polymer was used. This mask design may provide an alternative to disposable N95 respirators in case of pandemic-related shortages. Furthermore, this approach may allow customization for those that would otherwise fail fit testing on standard commercial respirators.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Equipment Design , Humans , Masks , Materials Testing , N95 Respirators , Printing, Three-Dimensional , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 50(5): 607-613, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628178


PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic transformed the personal and professional lives of radiology trainees. The purpose of this study was to broadly summarize the impact of COVID-19 on radiology trainees and their training programs via data collected during the early pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An online survey was distributed to radiology chief residents in residencies throughout North America with responses collected between March 20th, 2020 and May 15th, 2020, which coincided with the development of initial COVID-19 peaks in North America. A subset of COVID-19 pandemic questions included resident wellness, imaging opinions, residency infrastructure change, and opinions regarding the Core Exam delay. RESULTS: One hundred forty chief residents from 86 institutions responded to COVID-19-related questions. Nearly all responding programs (99%; 85/86) reported institutional positive cases of COVID-19. Most residents (94%; 132/140) thought laboratory testing provided more value than imaging. Fifty-seven percent of respondents (80/140) would use COVID-19-related terminology when encountering chest CT findings supportive of viral pneumonia in symptomatic patients. There was little reported change in the number of residents on call (no change reported in >80% of programs). Fifty-nine percent of residents (83/140) reported increased stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of programs (93%) had fewer residents on service (80/86 responding programs). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 dramatically affected radiology residencies during the early pandemic period. As we enter future phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, careful thought should also be given to rebuilding the radiology resident experience.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Graduate , Internship and Residency , Radiology/education , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , North America/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires