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1.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(10):8522-8533, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067322

ABSTRACT

Stress disorders are the most frequent type of mental disease. They are less noticeable than depression and schizophrenia, yet they are just incapacitating. This article presents a descriptive analysis of anxiety disorders, their types, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control, and it also unfolds the mode of action of drugs, herbal agents, therapies and, physical activity for the management of these disorders. Even though there are effective pharmacological and psychological treatments for stress disorders, many individuals who are affected do not seek treatment, and of those who do, the vast majority are misdiagnosed or do not receive cutting-edge treatment. The prevalence rates do not appear to have altered in recent years. These disorders have a lot of comorbidities.Due to the side effects and unbearable cost of medication/therapy, there is a growing trend of the use of herbal drugs and physical exercises for the treatment of anxiety mainly after covid-19. Psychopharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapies can be used for better treatment;For example, the ABC model is a dynamic model of anxiety that can help us understand the interactions between the processes that cause symptoms to emerge and persist throughout time, as well as the biological and psychological elements that influence them. Rational combinations of these tactics should be investigated further to boost future outcomes.

2.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL INVESTIGATION ; 12(2):129-135, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1969706

ABSTRACT

A spike protein is a protein that builds a huge spike that ejects from an enveloped virus's membrane. The spike protein is the only virus membrane protein that enables the virus to penetrate through the cell. Spike Protein has three potential methods of action. Most common viral illnesses have relatively similar virus structures, which are predominantly made up of dimers or trimers of the spike glycoprotein, as well as analogous mechanisms of host cell invasion. The purpose of this paper is to explore the structure of the spike protein and its cell invasion method. The prevalence of spike protein in distinct viruses, as well as their similar invasion mechanisms, are also highlighted in the paper. We observed that many infectious viruses have very identical structures, predominantly constituted of spike glycoprotein, as well as similar processes of invasion into host cells. There are diverse sorts of pathogenesis that have been identified, especially those relating to host cell contamination and the means wherein the infection spreads and produces disease. The Spike protein must be operational for the virus to penetrate the host organism, and variations in the protein's activation techniques are thought to have an influence in viral pathogenesis. Vaccines struggle to prevent the transmission of all virus variants due to variances in the spike protein in different viral versions, as well as modifications in them. More research into the structure of spike glycoproteins, as well as the creation of more effective vaccines to inhibit spike protein invasion and infection, are required.

3.
Open Dermatology Journal ; 15(1):59-65, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1599066

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the prevailing coronavirus crisis, the use of sanitizers has become an urgent need of today to take preventive care as we step out for various reasons. Many brands and varieties of sanitizers are available in the market today. Objective: The present study has been undertaken to develop and analyse the effects of an Ayurvedic preparation to overcome all the ill effects exerted on the skin by the chemical-based sanitizers. As there are very bad long-lasting effects on skin after continuous use of synthetically derived sanitizers. This pandemic situation has forced all of us for using sanitizers at least 10 times a day, especially for children and the Geriatric population. Material and Methods: Formulation was developed with the help of natural ingredients and then it was evaluated on the safety and efficacy standards to make sure about the credibility of the designed preparation. The benefits of using this formulation were observed during the health camps organised by Diabport health care at various parks in Kanpur. The texture of the skin was improved and apart from this. This was assessed with the help of a questionnaire (KAP) which was developed and validated. Results: The herbal based sanitizer, derived from Ayurvedic principles, was found to be quite effective against germs, microbes and it was beneficial for the care of hands also. Hands were soft and irritation free when the herbal sanitizers were applied for optimum time. We have observed that those patients who have history of high sugar level are more prone of developing rashes due to excessive usage of sanitizers. Diabetic dermopathy was also relieved. The population which used this formulation showed sign of improvement in both the texture of skin as well as decreased number of rashes. Conclusion: Herbal-based sanitizers are the need of the hour to combat the danger of corona, keeping the hands mild and soft. More focus on them should be encouraged on a large scale.

4.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.06.25.171686

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus genome replication is associated with virus-induced cytosolic double-membrane vesicles, which may provide a tailored micro-environment for viral RNA synthesis in the infected cell. However, it is unclear how newly synthesized genomes and mRNAs can travel from these sealed replication compartments to the cytosol to ensure their translation and the assembly of progeny virions. Here, using cellular electron cryo-microscopy, we unveiled a molecular pore complex that spans both membranes of the double-membrane vesicle and would allow export of RNA to the cytosol. A hexameric assembly of a large viral transmembrane protein was found to form the core of the crown-shaped complex. This coronavirus-specific structure likely plays a critical role in coronavirus replication and thus constitutes a novel drug target

5.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.04.20.049924

ABSTRACT

The sudden emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at the end of 2019 from the Chinese province of Hubei and its subsequent pandemic spread highlight the importance of understanding the full molecular details of coronavirus infection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared a variety of replication features of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV and analysed the cytopathology caused by the two closely related viruses in the commonly used Vero E6 cell line. Compared to SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 generated higher levels of intracellular viral RNA, but strikingly about 50-fold less infectious viral progeny was recovered from the culture medium. Immunofluorescence microscopy of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells established extensive cross-reactivity of antisera previously raised against a variety of nonstructural proteins, membrane and nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV. Electron microscopy revealed that the ultrastructural changes induced by the two SARS viruses are very similar and occur within comparable time frames after infection. Furthermore, we determined that the sensitivity of the two viruses to three established inhibitors of coronavirus replication (Remdesivir, Alisporivir and chloroquine) is very similar, but that SARS-CoV-2 infection was substantially more sensitive to pre-treatment of cells with pegylated interferon alpha. An important difference between the two viruses is the fact that - upon passaging in Vero E6 cells - SARS-CoV-2 apparently is under strong selection pressure to acquire adaptive mutations in its spike protein gene. These mutations change or delete a putative furin-like cleavage site in the region connecting the S1 and S2 domains and result in a very prominent phenotypic change in plaque assays.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
6.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.03.24.005298

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic coronavirus (CoV) infections, like those responsible for the current SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, cause grave international public health concern. In infected cells, the CoV RNA-synthesizing machinery associates with modified endoplasmic reticulum membranes that are transformed into the viral replication organelle (RO). While double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) appear to be a pan -coronavirus RO element, studies to date describe an assortment of additional coronavirus-induced membrane structures. Despite much speculation, it remains unclear which RO element(s) accommodate viral RNA synthesis. Here we provide detailed 2D and 3D analyses of CoV ROs and show that diverse CoVs essentially induce the same membrane modifications, including the small open double-membrane spherules (DMSs) previously thought to be restricted to gamma- and delta-CoV infections and proposed as sites of replication. Metabolic labelling of newly-synthesized viral RNA followed by quantitative EM autoradiography revealed abundant viral RNA synthesis associated with DMVs in cells infected with the beta-CoVs MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, and the gamma-CoV infectious bronchitis virus. RNA synthesis could not be linked to DMSs or any other cellular or virus-induced structure. Our results provide a unifying model of the CoV RO and clearly establish DMVs as the central hub for viral RNA synthesis and a potential drug target in coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Bronchitis
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