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2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308089

ABSTRACT

Background: The current global pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2 led to the investigation with clinical, biochemical, immunological and genomic characterization from the patients to understand the pathophysiology of viral infection.Methods: Samples were collected from six asymptomatic and six symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 confirmed hospitalized patients in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Clinical details, biochemical parameters, treatment regime were collected from hospital, viral load was determined by RT-PCR, levels of cytokines and circulating antibodies in plasma were assessed by Bioplex and isotyping respectively. In addition, the whole genome sequencing of viral strains and mutational analysis were carried out.Findings Analysis of the biochemical parameters highlighted the increased levels of C-Reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum SGPT, serum SGOT and ferritin in symptomatic patients. Symptomatic patients were mostly with one or more comorbidities, especially diabetes (66.6%). The virological estimation revealed that there was no significant difference in viral load of oropharyngeal (OP) samples between the two groups. Whereas, viral load was higher in plasma and serum samples of symptomatic patients and they develop sufficient amounts of antibodies (IgG, IgM and IgA). The levels of 7 cytokines (IL-6, IL-.1α, IP-10, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-α2, IL-15) were found to be highly elevated in symptomatic patients, while three cytokines (soluble CD40L, GRO and MDC) were remarkably higher in asymptomatic patients. The whole genome sequence analysis revealed that the current isolates were clustered with 19B, 20A and 20B clades, however acquired 11 additional changes in Orf1ab, spike, Orf3a, Orf8 and nucleocapsid proteins. The D614G mutation in spike protein is linked with higher virus replication efficiency and severe SARS-CoV-2 infection as three patients had higher viral load and among them two patients with this mutation passed away.Interpretation This is the first comprehensive study of SARS CoV-2 patients from India. This will contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and advance in the implementation of effective disease control strategies.Funding Information: This study was supported by the core funding of Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneswar, Dept of Biotechnology, India.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Human Ethics Committee, Institute of Life Sciences. Written consent informed to participate in this study was provided by the participants’ legal guardian/next of kin.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307181

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic in a very short time span. Currently, there is no specific treatment or vaccine to counter this highly contagiousdisease. Presently, existing anti-virals and disease-modifying agents are being repurposed to manage COVID-19. There is an urgent need to find a specific cure for the disease and global efforts are directed at developing SARS-CoV-2 specific anti-viralsand immunomodulators.The objective of this study is to explore the immunomodulatory and anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of key phytoconstituents from Ayurveda based Rasayana drugs, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) using in silico approaches like network pharmacology, and molecular docking. The SWISS-ADME tool was used to predict the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) interactions and drug likeliness potential. Using these approaches we propose a library of phytomolecules with potential to be developed as phytopharmaceuticals for COVID 19 management.The plant extracts were prepared as per Ayurvedic procedures and a total of 31 phytoconstituents were identified using HPLC and MS studies. The network pharmacology model shows that these phytoconstituents possess the potential to modulate several immune pathways. Amongst the three botanicals Withania somnifera was found to be the most potent immunomodulator through its potential to modulate T cell differentiation, NK cell cytotoxicity as well as T cell, B cell and NOD-like receptor signalling pathways.Molecular docking studies showed thatseveral phytoconstituents possess good affinity for the Spike protein, Main Protease and RNA dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2 suggesting their application for the termination of viral life cycle. Further, predictive tools indicate that there would beneficial herb-drug pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic interactions with concomitantly administered drug therapy. We thus make a compelling case to evaluate the potential of these Rasayana botanicals in the management of COVID-19 following rigorous experimental validation.

4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(3): 1551-1561, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636373

ABSTRACT

During the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, large-scale genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 has been useful in tracking its spread and in identifying variants of concern (VOC). Viral and host factors could contribute to variability within a host that can be captured in next-generation sequencing reads as intra-host single nucleotide variations (iSNVs). Analysing 1347 samples collected till June 2020, we recorded 16 410 iSNV sites throughout the SARS-CoV-2 genome. We found ∼42% of the iSNV sites to be reported as SNVs by 30 September 2020 in consensus sequences submitted to GISAID, which increased to ∼80% by 30th June 2021. Following this, analysis of another set of 1774 samples sequenced in India between November 2020 and May 2021 revealed that majority of the Delta (B.1.617.2) and Kappa (B.1.617.1) lineage-defining variations appeared as iSNVs before getting fixed in the population. Besides, mutations in RdRp as well as RNA-editing by APOBEC and ADAR deaminases seem to contribute to the differential prevalence of iSNVs in hosts. We also observe hyper-variability at functionally critical residues in Spike protein that could alter the antigenicity and may contribute to immune escape. Thus, tracking and functional annotation of iSNVs in ongoing genome surveillance programs could be important for early identification of potential variants of concern and actionable interventions.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , APOBEC-1 Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Immune Evasion/genetics , India/epidemiology , Phylogeny , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells
5.
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology ; 11, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601843

ABSTRACT

Purpose The current global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), led to the investigation with clinical, biochemical, immunological, and genomic characterization from patients to understand the pathophysiology of viral infection. Methods Samples were collected from six asymptomatic and six symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-confirmed hospitalized patients in Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. Clinical details, biochemical parameters, and treatment regimen were collected from a hospital;viral load was determined by RT-PCR;and the levels of cytokines and circulating antibodies in plasma were assessed by Bio-Plex and isotyping, respectively. In addition, whole-genome sequencing of viral strains and mutational analysis were carried out. Results Analysis of the biochemical parameters highlighted the increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum SGPT, serum SGOT, and ferritin in symptomatic patients. Symptomatic patients were mostly with one or more comorbidities, especially type 2 diabetes (66.6%). The virological estimation revealed that there was no significant difference in viral load of oropharyngeal (OP) samples between the two groups. On the other hand, viral load was higher in plasma and serum samples of symptomatic patients, and they develop sufficient amounts of antibodies (IgG, IgM, and IgA). The levels of seven cytokines (IL-6, IL-1α, IP-10, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-α2, IL-15) were found to be highly elevated in symptomatic patients, while three cytokines (soluble CD40L, GRO, and MDC) were remarkably higher in asymptomatic patients. The whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that the current isolates were clustered with 19B, 20A, and 20B clades;however, 11 additional changes in Orf1ab, spike, Orf3a, Orf8, and nucleocapsid proteins were acquired. The D614G mutation in spike protein is linked with higher virus replication efficiency and severe SARS-CoV-2 infection as three patients had higher viral load, and among them, two patients with this mutation passed away. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive study of SARS-CoV-2 patients from India. This will contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and thereby advance the implementation of effective disease control strategies.

6.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294790

ABSTRACT

Vaccine breakthrough infections pose a vast challenge in the eradication of the COVID pandemic situation. Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern infecting the immunized individuals indicate an ongoing battle between host immunity and natural selection of the pathogen. Our report sheds light on the prominent SARS-CoV-2 variations observed in the isolates from AZD1222/Covishield and BBV152/Covaxin vaccinated subjects.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0248479, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266543

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic in a very short time span. Currently, there is no specific treatment or vaccine to counter this highly contagious disease. There is an urgent need to find a specific cure for the disease and global efforts are directed at developing SARS-CoV-2 specific antivirals and immunomodulators. Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy has been traditionally used in India for its immunomodulatory and adaptogenic effects, and more recently has been included as therapeutic adjuvant for several maladies. Amongst several others, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) play an important role in Rasayana therapy. The objective of this study was to explore the immunomodulatory and anti SARS-CoV2 potential of phytoconstituents from Ashwagandha, Guduchi and Shatavari using network pharmacology and docking. The plant extracts were prepared as per ayurvedic procedures and a total of 31 phytoconstituents were identified using UHPLC-PDA and mass spectrometry studies. To assess the immunomodulatory potential of these phytoconstituents an in-silico network pharmacology model was constructed. The model predicts that the phytoconstituents possess the potential to modulate several targets in immune pathways potentially providing a protective role. To explore if these phytoconstituents also possess antiviral activity, docking was performed with the Spike protein, Main Protease and RNA dependent RNA polymerase of the virus. Interestingly, several phytoconstituents are predicted to possess good affinity for the three targets, suggesting their application for the termination of viral life cycle. Further, predictive tools indicate that there would not be adverse herb-drug pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic interactions with concomitantly administered drug therapy. We thus make a compelling case to evaluate the potential of these Rasayana botanicals as therapeutic adjuvants in the management of COVID-19 following rigorous experimental validation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Asparagus Plant/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Plant Extracts/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Tinospora/chemistry , Withania/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Herb-Drug Interactions , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacokinetics , India , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacokinetics , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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