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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 854419, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834651

ABSTRACT

Human deaths from rabies are preventable and can be eliminated by applying a systematic One Health approach. However, this ancient disease still threatens the lives of millions of people in up to 150 countries and kills an estimated 59, 000 people every year. Rabies today is largely a disease of poverty, almost always linked to dog bites, with most deaths occurring in neglected communities in Africa and Asia. The disease places an immense economic burden on its victims, a cost that far outweighs the investment needed to control it. A global framework for rabies elimination in humans is set out in Zero by 30: The Global Strategic Plan to end human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030. Despite the existence of proven control strategies and agreement on the path to eliminating human rabies deaths, mortality numbers from rabies remain high, and COVID-19 has set back efforts even further. But COVID-19 has also highlighted the value of a One Health approach to zoonotic disease and pandemic prevention. Rabies control programs offer a practical route to building One Health capacities that can also address other zoonotic threats, including those with pandemic potential. The United Against Rabies Forum aims to accelerate progress on rabies elimination while applying a One Health approach. The Forum promotes cross-sector collaboration among stakeholders and supports countries in their rabies elimination efforts. Increased political engagement and resource mobilization, both internationally and nationally, will be needed to achieve global rabies goals and can also make One Health implementation a reality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , One Health , Rabies , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Humans , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Zoonoses/prevention & control
2.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; : 1-9, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834225

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To provide epidemiological information on animal and human cases of rabies in the US during 2020 and summaries of 2020 rabies surveillance for Canada and Mexico. ANIMALS: All animals submitted for laboratory diagnosis of rabies in the US during 2020. PROCEDURES: State and territorial public health departments and USDA Wildlife Services provided 2020 rabies surveillance data. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic and wildlife rabies cases. RESULTS: During 2020, 54 jurisdictions submitted 87,895 animal samples for rabies testing, of which 85,483 (97.3%) had a conclusive (positive or negative) test result. Of these, 4,479 (5.2%) tested positive for rabies, representing a 4.5% decrease from the 4,690 cases reported in 2019. Texas (n = 580 [12.9%]), Pennsylvania (371 [8.3%]), Virginia (351 [7.8%]), New York (346 [7.7%]), North Carolina (301 [6.7%]), New Jersey (257 [5.7%]), Maryland (256 [5.7%]), and California (248 [5.5%]) together accounted for > 60% of all animal rabies cases reported in 2020. Of the total reported rabid animals, 4,090 (91.3%) involved wildlife, with raccoons (n = 1,403 [31.3%]), bats (1,400 [31.3%]), skunks (846 [18.9%]), and foxes (338 [7.5%]) representing the primary hosts confirmed with rabies. Rabid cats (288 [6.4%]), cattle (43 [1.0%]), and dogs (37 [0.8%]) accounted for 95% of rabies cases involving domestic animals in 2020. No human rabies cases were reported in 2020. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: For the first time since 2006, the number of samples submitted for rabies testing in the US was < 90,000; this is thought to be due to factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic, as similar decreases in sample submission were also reported by Canada and Mexico.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307782

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, from people to companion animals has been reported globally. Between March 2020 and January 2021, the United States reported 94 companion animals with SARS-CoV-2. While most animals with SARS-CoV-2 have mild illness, 10 animals (5 dogs, 5 cats) died around the time of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. In one dog, histopathologic changes suggest SARS-CoV-2 exacerbated a severe chronic respiratory disease and contributed to death. In one cat, SARS-CoV-2 was associated with histopathologic changes suggesting the virus caused clinical signs that resulted in euthanasia. In the remaining eight animals, SARS-CoV-2 infection was an incidental finding (4 dogs, 4 cats). This report provides evidence that in rare circumstances, SARS-CoV-2 can contribute to or cause death in companion animals with underlying conditions.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305068

ABSTRACT

Background: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is variably performed before atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation to evaluate left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus. We describe our experience with transitioning to the pre-ablation cardiac computed tomography (CT) approach for the assessment of LAA thrombus during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We studied consecutive patients undergoing AF ablation at our center. The study cohort was divided into pre- vs. post-COVID groups. The pre-COVID cohort included ablations performed during 1 year before the COVID-19 pandemic;pre-ablation TEE was used routinely to evaluate LAA thrombus in high-risk patients. Post-COVID cohort included ablations performed during the 1 year after the COVID-19 pandemic;pre-ablation CT was performed in all patients, with TEE performed only in patients with LAA thrombus by CT imaging. The demographics, clinical history, imaging, and ablation characteristics, and peri-procedural cerebrovascular events (CVE) were recorded. Results A total of 637 patients (pre-COVID n=424, post-COVID n=213) were studied. The mean age was 65.6  10.1 years in the total cohort, and the majority were men. There was a significant increase in pre-ablation CT imaging from pre to post-COVID cohort (74.8 vs. 93.9%, p=<0.01), with a significant reduction in TEEs (34.6 vs. 3.7%, p=<0.01). One patient in the post-COVID cohort developed CVE following negative pre-ablation CT. However, the incidence of peri-procedural CVE between both cohorts remained statistically unchanged (0 vs. 0.4%, p=0.33). Conclusion Implementation of pre ablation CT-only imaging strategy with selective use of TEE for LAA thrombus evaluation is not associated with increased CVE risk during the COVID- 19 pandemic.

5.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295223

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Dog vaccination is a cost-effective approach to preventing human rabies deaths. In Haiti, the 2019 dog vaccination campaign did not include the capital city, and the 2020 campaign was cancelled because of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions and redirection of funds. We estimated the number of human lives that could be saved by resuming dog vaccination in 2021 compared to 2022 and compared the cost-effectiveness of these two scenarios. METHODS: We modified a previously published rabies transmission and economic model to estimate trends in dog and human rabies cases in Haiti from 2005-2025. We compared model outputs to surveillance data on human rabies deaths from 2005-2020 and animal rabies cases from 2018-2020. We then estimated the human health and cost implications of restarting dog vaccination programs in either 2021 or 2022. FINDINGS: Model predictions and animal surveillance data from Haiti both suggest a 5- to 8-fold increase in animal rabies cases has occurred in the capital city between Fall 2019 and Fall 2020. We estimate that restarting dog vaccination in Haiti in 2021 compared to 2022 could save 285 human lives and prevent 6,541 human rabies exposures over a five-year period and may decrease program costs due to reduced need for human post-exposure prophylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: A one-year delay in resuming dog vaccination in Haiti, from 2021 to 2022, could cost hundreds of lives over the next 5 years. Interruptions in dog vaccination campaigns before elimination is achieved can lead to significant human rabies epidemics if not promptly resumed.

6.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294830

ABSTRACT

Background Approximately 67% of U.S. households have pets. Limited data are available on SARS-CoV-2 in pets. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 infection in pet cohabitants as a sub-study of an ongoing COVID-19 household transmission investigation. Methods Mammalian pets from households with ≥1 person with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were eligible for inclusion from April–May 2020. Demographic/exposure information, oropharyngeal, nasal, rectal, and fur swabs, feces, and blood were collected from enrolled pets and tested by rRT-PCR and virus neutralization assays. Findings We enrolled 37 dogs and 19 cats from 34 of 41 eligible households. All oropharyngeal, nasal, and rectal swabs tested negative by rRT-PCR;one dog’s fur swabs (2%) tested positive by rRT-PCR at the first animal sampling. Among 47 pets with serological results from 30 households, eight (17%) pets (4 dogs, 4 cats) from 6 (20%) households had detectable SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. In households with a seropositive pet, the proportion of people with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 was greater (median 79%;range: 40–100%) compared to households with no seropositive pet (median 37%;range: 13–100%) (p=0.01). Thirty-three pets with serologic results had frequent daily contact (≥1 hour) with the human index patient before the person’s COVID-19 diagnosis. Of these 33 pets, 14 (42%) had decreased contact with the human index patient after diagnosis and none (0%) were seropositive;of the 19 (58%) pets with continued contact, 4 (21%) were seropositive. Interpretations Seropositive pets likely acquired infection from humans, which may occur more frequently than previously recognized. People with COVID-19 should restrict contact with animals. Funding Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Agriculture

7.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(9): 1032-1039, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468297

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish a pathoepidemiological model to evaluate the role of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first 10 companion animals that died while infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the US. ANIMALS: 10 cats and dogs that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and died or were euthanized in the US between March 2020 and January 2021. PROCEDURES: A standardized algorithm was developed to direct case investigations, determine the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and evaluate the role, if any, that SARS-CoV-2 infection played in the animals' course of disease and death. Using clinical and diagnostic information collected by state animal health officials, state public health veterinarians, and other state and local partners, this algorithm was applied to each animal case. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was an incidental finding in 8 animals, was suspected to have contributed to the severity of clinical signs leading to euthanasia in 1 dog, and was the primary reason for death for 1 cat. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This report provides the global community with a standardized process for directing case investigations, determining the necessity of certain diagnostic procedures, and determining the clinical significance of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animals with fatal outcomes and provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can, in rare circumstances, cause or contribute to death in pets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cat Diseases , Dog Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Cats , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Pets , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411082

ABSTRACT

Approximately 67% of U.S. households have pets. Limited data are available on SARS-CoV-2 in pets. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 infection in pets during a COVID-19 household transmission investigation. Pets from households with ≥1 person with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were eligible for inclusion from April-May 2020. We enrolled 37 dogs and 19 cats from 34 households. All oropharyngeal, nasal, and rectal swabs tested negative by rRT-PCR; one dog's fur swabs (2%) tested positive by rRT-PCR at the first sampling. Among 47 pets with serological results, eight (17%) pets (four dogs, four cats) from 6/30 (20%) households had detectable SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. In households with a seropositive pet, the proportion of people with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 was greater (median 79%; range: 40-100%) compared to households with no seropositive pet (median 37%; range: 13-100%) (p = 0.01). Thirty-three pets with serologic results had frequent daily contact (≥1 h) with the index patient before the person's COVID-19 diagnosis. Of these 33 pets, 14 (42%) had decreased contact with the index patient after diagnosis and none were seropositive; of the 19 (58%) pets with continued contact, four (21%) were seropositive. Seropositive pets likely acquired infection after contact with people with COVID-19. People with COVID-19 should restrict contact with pets and other animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/history , COVID-19/transmission , Cats , Dogs , Family Characteristics , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pets/history , Phylogeny , Population Surveillance , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Utah/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology
9.
Biology ; 10(9):898, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1408444

ABSTRACT

Human-to-animal and animal-to-animal transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been documented;however, investigations into SARS-CoV-2 transmission in congregate animal settings are lacking. We investigated four animal shelters in the United States that had identified animals with exposure to shelter employees with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Of the 96 cats and dogs with specimens collected, only one dog had detectable SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies;no animal specimens had detectable viral RNA. These data indicate a low probability of human-to-animal transmission events in cats and dogs in shelter settings with early implementation of infection prevention interventions.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0254287, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398927

ABSTRACT

Dog importation data from 2018-2020 were evaluated to ascertain whether the dog importation patterns in the United States changed during the COVID-19 pandemic, specifically with regard to denial of entry. Dog denial of entry reports from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2020, stored within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Quarantine Activity Reporting System (QARS), were reviewed. Basic descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Reason for denial, country of origin, and month of importation were all examined to determine which countries of origin resulted in the largest number of denials, and whether there was a seasonal change in importations during the COVID-19 pandemic (2020), compared to previous years (2018 and 2019). During 2020, CDC denied entry to 458 dogs. This represents a 52% increase in dogs denied entry compared to the averages in 2018 and 2019. Dogs were primarily denied entry for falsified rabies vaccination certificates (56%). Three countries exported 74% of all dogs denied entry into the United States, suggesting that targeted interventions may be needed for certain countries. Increased attempts to import inadequately vaccinated dogs from countries with canine rabies in 2020 may have been due to the increased demand for domestic pets during the COVID-19 pandemic. Educational messaging should highlight the risk of rabies and the importance of making informed pet purchases from foreign entities to protect pet owners, their families, and the public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Animals , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Dog Diseases/immunology , Dogs , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine , Rabies/immunology , Rabies Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/methods
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(23): 710-713, 2020 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389844

ABSTRACT

On April 22, CDC and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported cases of two domestic cats with confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These are the first reported companion animals (including pets and service animals) with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the United States, and among the first findings of SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic companion animals reported worldwide. These feline cases originated from separate households and were epidemiologically linked to suspected or confirmed human COVID-19 cases in their respective households. Notification of presumptive positive animal test results triggered a One Health* investigation by state and federal partners, who determined that no further transmission events to other animals or persons had occurred. Both cats fully recovered. Although there is currently no evidence that animals play a substantial role in spreading COVID-19, CDC advises persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 to restrict contact with animals during their illness and to monitor any animals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and separate them from other persons and animals at home (1).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Cat Diseases/diagnosis , Cat Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Pandemics/veterinary , Pets/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Animals , COVID-19 , Cats , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , New York , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses
12.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 32(12): 3125-3134, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is variably performed before atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation to evaluate left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus. We describe our experience with transitioning to the pre-ablation cardiac computed tomography (CT) approach for the assessment of LAA thrombus during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We studied consecutive patients undergoing AF ablation at our center. The study cohort was divided into pre- versus post-COVID groups. The pre-COVID cohort included ablations performed during the 1 year before the COVID-19 pandemic; pre-ablation TEE was used routinely to evaluate LAA thrombus in high-risk patients. Post-COVID cohort included ablations performed during the 1 year after the COVID-19 pandemic; pre-ablation CT was performed in all patients, with TEE performed only in patients with LAA thrombus by CT imaging. The demographics, clinical history, imaging, and ablation characteristics, and peri-procedural cerebrovascular events (CVEs) were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 637 patients (pre-COVID n = 424, post-COVID n = 213) were studied. The mean age was 65.6 ± 10.1 years in the total cohort, and the majority were men. There was a significant increase in pre-ablation CT imaging from pre- to post-COVID cohort (74.8% vs. 93.9%, p ≤ .01), with a significant reduction in TEEs (34.6% vs. 3.7%, p ≤ .01). One patient in the post-COVID cohort developed CVE following negative pre-ablation CT. However, the incidence of peri-procedural CVE between both cohorts remained statistically unchanged (0% vs. 0.4%, p = .33). CONCLUSION: Implementation of pre-ablation CT-only imaging strategy with selective use of TEE for LAA thrombus evaluation is not associated with increased CVE risk during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Catheter Ablation , Thrombosis , Aged , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Appendage/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Tomography
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