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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(666): eabm8351, 2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063973

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the need for inexpensive, easy-to-use, rapidly mass-produced resuscitation devices that could be quickly distributed in areas of critical need. In-line miniature ventilators based on principles of fluidics ventilate patients by automatically oscillating between forced inspiration and assisted expiration as airway pressure changes, requiring only a continuous supply of pressurized oxygen. Here, we designed three miniature ventilator models to operate in specific pressure ranges along a continuum of clinical lung injury (mild, moderate, and severe injury). Three-dimensional (3D)-printed prototype devices evaluated in a lung simulator generated airway pressures, tidal volumes, and minute ventilation within the targeted range for the state of lung disease each was designed to support. In testing in domestic swine before and after induction of pulmonary injury, the ventilators for mild and moderate injury met the design criteria when matched with the appropriate degree of lung injury. Although the ventilator for severe injury provided the specified design pressures, respiratory rate was elevated with reduced minute ventilation, a result of lung compliance below design parameters. Respiratory rate reflected how well each ventilator matched the injury state of the lungs and could guide selection of ventilator models in clinical use. This simple device could help mitigate shortages of conventional ventilators during pandemics and other disasters requiring rapid access to advanced airway management, or in transport applications for hands-free ventilation.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Animals , Homeostasis , Humans , Oxygen , Pandemics , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Respiratory Rate , Swine , Ventilators, Mechanical
2.
Pediatrics ; 150(3)2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933416

ABSTRACT

This article aims to provide guidance to health care workers for the provision of basic and advanced life support to children and neonates with suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It aligns with the 2020 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular care while providing strategies for reducing risk of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 to health care providers. Patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and cardiac arrest should receive chest compressions and defibrillation, when indicated, as soon as possible. Because of the importance of ventilation during pediatric and neonatal resuscitation, oxygenation and ventilation should be prioritized. All CPR events should therefore be considered aerosol-generating procedures. Thus, personal protective equipment (PPE) appropriate for aerosol-generating procedures (including N95 respirators or an equivalent) should be donned before resuscitation, and high-efficiency particulate air filters should be used. Any personnel without appropriate PPE should be immediately excused by providers wearing appropriate PPE. Neonatal resuscitation guidance is unchanged from standard algorithms, except for specific attention to infection prevention and control. In summary, health care personnel should continue to reduce the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission through vaccination and use of appropriate PPE during pediatric resuscitations. Health care organizations should ensure the availability and appropriate use of PPE. Because delays or withheld CPR increases the risk to patients for poor clinical outcomes, children and neonates with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 should receive prompt, high-quality CPR in accordance with evidence-based guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Heart Arrest , Child , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Personal Protective Equipment , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 15(4): e008900, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807749
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316522

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a massive economic shock across the world due to business interruptions and shutdowns from social-distancing measures. To evaluate the socio-economic impact of COVID-19 on individuals, a micro-economic model is developed to estimate the direct impact of distancing on household income, savings, consumption, and poverty. The model assumes two periods: a crisis period during which some individuals experience a drop in income and can use their precautionary savings to maintain consumption;and a recovery period, when households save to replenish their depleted savings to pre-crisis level. The San Francisco Bay Area is used as a case study, and the impacts of a lockdown are quantified, accounting for the effects of unemployment insurance (UI) and the CARES Act federal stimulus. Assuming a shelter-in-place period of three months, the poverty rate would temporarily increase from 17.1% to 25.9% in the Bay Area in the absence of social protection, and the lowest income earners would suffer the most in relative terms. If fully implemented, the combination of UI and CARES could keep the increase in poverty close to zero, and reduce the average recovery time, for individuals who suffer an income loss, from 11.8 to 6.7 months. However, the severity of the economic impact is spatially heterogeneous, and certain communities are more affected than the average and could take more than a year to recover. Overall, this model is a first step in quantifying the household-level impacts of COVID-19 at a regional scale. This study can be extended to explore the impact of indirect macroeconomic effects, the role of uncertainty in households' decision-making and the potential effect of simultaneous exogenous shocks (e.g., natural disasters).

5.
IEEE Open J Eng Med Biol ; 2: 158-162, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599077

ABSTRACT

This paper explores how the approach, process, and learnings of the RADxSM Tech Deployment Core in its support of manufacturing, deployment, and implementation of medical technologies is creating a replicable model for the future. Initially, the key construct of the RADx Tech Deployment Core was helping companies manufacture, commercialize, and develop a digital infrastructure for the purpose of SARS-CoV-2 testing and reporting. However, the team and RADx Tech leadership soon realized that the larger infrastructure to deploy testing in non-clinical environments was nonexistent and that wrap-around services were required to build the necessary bridge between manufacturing and end users. Furthermore, the unique communities that required testing (e.g., manufacturing plants, transportation hubs, K-12 schools, etc.) had different infrastructure requirements and outsized needs for education and support around testing plan implementation. The Deployment Core, therefore, quickly scaled a team to help to complete the picture and provide guidance to end users and ultimately help shape public policy around a useful data model.

6.
IEEE Open J Eng Med Biol ; 2: 286-290, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592551

ABSTRACT

Goal: Monitoring the genetic diversity and emerging mutations of SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for understanding the evolution of the virus and assuring the performance of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapies against COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 is still adapting to humans and, as illustrated by B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and B.1.617.2 (Delta), lineage dynamics are fluid, and strain prevalence may change radically in a matter of months. The National Institutes of Health's Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics (RADxSM) initiative created a Variant Task Force to assess the impact of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants on in vitro diagnostic testing. Working in tandem with clinical laboratories, the FDA, and the CDC, the Variant Task Force uses both in silico modeling and in vitro testing to determine the effect of SARS-CoV-2 mutations on diagnostic molecular and antigen tests. Here, we offer an overview of the approach and activities of the RADx Variant Task Force to ensure test performance against emerging SARS-CoV-2 lineages.

9.
Journal of Financial Planning ; 33(9):48-58, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-831243

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic expanded the adoption of virtual financial planning, or tele-financial planning practices, as it's referred to in this paper. Unfortunately, limited empirical research on telefinancial planning exists to guide planners through this transition. However, there are similarities between financial planning and counseling;therefore, a systematic literature review on tele-mental health interventions was conducted to provide guidance for financial planning practices and future research. Research suggests the efficacy of tele-mental health is comparable to face-to-face delivery while creating greater efficiency for the therapist and the patient. The breadth and severity of conditions treated suggest that this delivery method is a viable channel, not a convenient stopgap for extraordinary circumstances or lower-value engagements. These findings suggest financial planners might leverage a virtual delivery channel to provide effective recommendations while expanding their reach and providing an experience that is less stressful and more convenient. The operational efficiencies experienced in tele-mental health suggest that financial planners could also improve the efficiency of their practices. Planners should proactively ensure that all clients have the resources and knowledge to engage in a virtual capacity and review their data security measures. For the financial planning profession to advance, practitioners cannot solely rely on research and best practices from related disciplines. Thus, this paper serves as a call for further study on telefinancial planning.

10.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(5): 984-1000, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788420

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In the chronic phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, questions have arisen regarding the care of patients with a tracheostomy and downstream management. This review addresses gaps in the literature regarding posttracheostomy care, emphasizing safety of multidisciplinary teams, coordinating complex care needs, and identifying and managing late complications of prolonged intubation and tracheostomy. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Google Scholar, institutional guidance documents. REVIEW METHODS: Literature through June 2020 on the care of patients with a tracheostomy was reviewed, including consensus statements, clinical practice guidelines, institutional guidance, and scientific literature on COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 virology and immunology. Where data were lacking, expert opinions were aggregated and adjudicated to arrive at consensus recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Best practices in caring for patients after a tracheostomy during the COVID-19 pandemic are multifaceted, encompassing precautions during aerosol-generating procedures; minimizing exposure risks to health care workers, caregivers, and patients; ensuring safe, timely tracheostomy care; and identifying and managing laryngotracheal injury, such as vocal fold injury, posterior glottic stenosis, and subglottic stenosis that may affect speech, swallowing, and airway protection. We present recommended approaches to tracheostomy care, outlining modifications to conventional algorithms, raising vigilance for heightened risks of bleeding or other complications, and offering recommendations for personal protective equipment, equipment, care protocols, and personnel. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Treatment of patients with a tracheostomy in the COVID-19 pandemic requires foresight and may rival procedural considerations in tracheostomy in their complexity. By considering patient-specific factors, mitigating transmission risks, optimizing the clinical environment, and detecting late manifestations of severe COVID-19, clinicians can ensure due vigilance and quality care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Postoperative Care , Tracheostomy , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Crit Care ; 29(6): e116-e127, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Critical care nurses caring for patients with a tracheostomy are at high risk because of the predilection of SARS-CoV-2 for respiratory and mucosal surfaces. This review identifies patient-centered practices that ensure safety and reduce risk of infection transmission to health care workers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Consensus statements, guidelines, institutional recommendations, and scientific literature on COVID-19 and previous outbreaks were reviewed. A global interdisciplinary team analyzed and prioritized findings via electronic communications and video conferences to develop consensus recommendations. RESULTS: Aerosol-generating procedures are commonly performed by nurses and other health care workers, most notably during suctioning, tracheostomy tube changes, and stoma care. Patient repositioning, readjusting circuits, administering nebulized medications, and patient transport also present risks. Standard personal protective equipment includes an N95/FFP3 mask with or without surgical masks, gloves, goggles, and gown when performing aerosol-generating procedures for patients with known or suspected COVID-19. Viral testing of bronchial aspirate via tracheostomy may inform care providers when determining the protective equipment required. The need for protocols to reduce risk of transmission of infection to nurses and other health care workers is evident. CONCLUSION: Critical care nurses and multidisciplinary teams often care for patients with a tracheostomy who are known or suspected to have COVID-19. Appropriate care of these patients relies on safeguarding the health care team. The practices described in this review may greatly reduce risk of infectious transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Health Personnel , Infection Control/methods , Occupational Health , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Tracheostomy , Aerosols , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Critical Care Nursing/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Econ Disaster Clim Chang ; 4(3): 453-479, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671028

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a massive economic shock across the world due to business interruptions and shutdowns from social-distancing measures. To evaluate the socio-economic impact of COVID-19 on individuals, a micro-economic model is developed to estimate the direct impact of distancing on household income, savings, consumption, and poverty. The model assumes two periods: a crisis period during which some individuals experience a drop in income and can use their savings to maintain consumption; and a recovery period, when households save to replenish their depleted savings to pre-crisis level. The San Francisco Bay Area is used as a case study, and the impacts of a lockdown are quantified, accounting for the effects of unemployment insurance (UI) and the CARES Act federal stimulus. Assuming a shelter-in-place period of three months, the poverty rate would temporarily increase from 17.1% to 25.9% in the Bay Area in the absence of social protection, and the lowest income earners would suffer the most in relative terms. If fully implemented, the combination of UI and CARES could keep the increase in poverty close to zero, and reduce the average recovery time, for individuals who suffer an income loss, from 11.8 to 6.7 months. However, the severity of the economic impact is spatially heterogeneous, and certain communities are more affected than the average and could take more than a year to recover. Overall, this model is a first step in quantifying the household-level impacts of COVID-19 at a regional scale. This study can be extended to explore the impact of indirect macroeconomic effects, the role of uncertainty in households' decision-making and the potential effect of simultaneous exogenous shocks (e.g., natural disasters).

13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 717-725, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276408

ABSTRACT

Global health care is experiencing an unprecedented surge in the number of critically ill patients who require mechanical ventilation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The requirement for relatively long periods of ventilation in those who survive means that many are considered for tracheostomy to free patients from ventilatory support and maximise scarce resources. COVID-19 provides unique challenges for tracheostomy care: health-care workers need to safely undertake tracheostomy procedures and manage patients afterwards, minimising risks of nosocomial transmission and compromises in the quality of care. Conflicting recommendations exist about case selection, the timing and performance of tracheostomy, and the subsequent management of patients. In response, we convened an international working group of individuals with relevant expertise in tracheostomy. We did a literature and internet search for reports of research pertaining to tracheostomy during the COVID-19 pandemic, supplemented by sources comprising statements and guidance on tracheostomy care. By synthesising early experiences from countries that have managed a surge in patient numbers, emerging virological data, and international, multidisciplinary expert opinion, we aim to provide consensus guidelines and recommendations on the conduct and management of tracheostomy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Internationality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Tracheostomy/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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