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1.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 590, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adult patients with coronavirus disease present primarily with respiratory symptoms, but children and some adults may display a more systemic inflammatory syndrome with rash, fever, mucosal changes, and elevated inflammatory biomarkers. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report the case of a 29-year-old Hispanic patient presenting with significant rash and multisystem inflammation. We describe his clinical course, review dermatological manifestations of coronavirus disease, and summarize the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease-associated multisystem inflammation. CONCLUSION: This case should alert physicians to the atypical nature of presenting rash with minimal respiratory symptoms in coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exanthema , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Child , Exanthema/etiology , Fever/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
3.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 8(8): 1745-1749, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303224

ABSTRACT

Many survivors from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) suffer from persistent dyspnea and fatigue long after resolution of the active infection. In a cohort of 21 consecutive severe post-COVID-19 survivors admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital, 16 (76%) of them had at least one sonographic abnormality of diaphragm muscle structure or function. This corresponded to a significant reduction in diaphragm muscle contractility as represented by thickening ratio (muscle thickness at maximal inspiration/end-expiration) for the post-COVID-19 compared to non-COVID-19 cohorts. These findings may shed new light on neuromuscular respiratory dysfunction as a contributor to prolonged functional impairments after hospitalization for post-COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diaphragm , Ultrasonography/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Diaphragm/pathology , Diaphragm/physiopathology , Female , Hospitals, Rehabilitation , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Middle Aged
4.
J Clin Invest ; 131(4)2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172781

ABSTRACT

Alveolar macrophages orchestrate the response to viral infections. Age-related changes in these cells may underlie the differential severity of pneumonia in older patients. We performed an integrated analysis of single-cell RNA-Seq data that revealed homogenous age-related changes in the alveolar macrophage transcriptome in humans and mice. Using genetic lineage tracing with sequential injury, heterochronic adoptive transfer, and parabiosis, we found that the lung microenvironment drove an age-related resistance of alveolar macrophages to proliferation that persisted during influenza A viral infection. Ligand-receptor pair analysis localized these changes to the extracellular matrix, where hyaluronan was increased in aged animals and altered the proliferative response of bone marrow-derived macrophages to granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Our findings suggest that strategies targeting the aging lung microenvironment will be necessary to restore alveolar macrophage function in aging.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , Cellular Microenvironment/immunology , Lung/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Aging/pathology , Animals , Humans , Lung/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , RNA-Seq
5.
J Ultrasound Med ; 41(2): 285-299, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151946

ABSTRACT

The diaphragm, the principle muscle of inspiration, is an under-recognized contributor to respiratory disease. Dysfunction of the diaphragm can occur secondary to lung disease, prolonged ventilation, phrenic nerve injury, neuromuscular disease, and central nervous system pathology. In light of the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there has been growing interest in the utility of ultrasound for evaluation of respiratory symptoms including lung and diaphragm sonography. Diaphragm ultrasound can be utilized to diagnose diaphragm dysfunction, assess severity of dysfunction, and monitor disease progression. This article reviews diaphragm and phrenic nerve ultrasound and describes clinical applications in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diaphragm/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Phrenic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
7.
Nature ; 590(7847): 635-641, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019856

ABSTRACT

Some patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) develop severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome1 (ARDS). Distinct clinical features in these patients have led to speculation that the immune response to virus in the SARS-CoV-2-infected alveolus differs from that in other types of pneumonia2. Here we investigate SARS-CoV-2 pathobiology by characterizing the immune response in the alveoli of patients infected with the virus. We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from 88 patients with SARS-CoV-2-induced respiratory failure and 211 patients with known or suspected pneumonia from other pathogens, and analysed them using flow cytometry and bulk transcriptomic profiling. We performed single-cell RNA sequencing on 10 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples collected from patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) within 48 h of intubation. In the majority of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the alveolar space was persistently enriched in T cells and monocytes. Bulk and single-cell transcriptomic profiling suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infects alveolar macrophages, which in turn respond by producing T cell chemoattractants. These T cells produce interferon-γ to induce inflammatory cytokine release from alveolar macrophages and further promote T cell activation. Collectively, our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 causes a slowly unfolding, spatially limited alveolitis in which alveolar macrophages containing SARS-CoV-2 and T cells form a positive feedback loop that drives persistent alveolar inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Cohort Studies , Humans , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/metabolism , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Time Factors
8.
Radiology ; 298(3): E117-E130, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951875

ABSTRACT

With surging numbers of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) throughout the world, neuromuscular complications and rehabilitation concerns are becoming more apparent. Peripheral nerve injury can occur in patients with COVID-19 secondary to postinfectious inflammatory neuropathy, prone positioning-related stretch and/or compression injury, systemic neuropathy, or nerve entrapment from hematoma. Imaging of peripheral nerves in patients with COVID-19 may help to characterize nerve abnormality, to identify site and severity of nerve damage, and to potentially elucidate mechanisms of injury, thereby aiding the medical diagnosis and decision-making process. This review article aims to provide a first comprehensive summary of the current knowledge of COVID-19 and peripheral nerve imaging.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/complications , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Patient Positioning/methods , Peripheral Nerves/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
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