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Neurology ; 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327958


OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboses and thrombocytopenia after vaccination with the adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca) have been linked to serum antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4)-polyanion complexes. We here report vaccine-induced isolated carotid arterial thrombosis. METHODS: Imaging and laboratory findings, treatment decisions and outcome of this case are presented. RESULTS: Eight days after having received the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine, a 31-year-old man was admitted to our stroke unit with acute headache, aphasia, and hemiparesis. D-dimers were slightly elevated, but platelet count and fibrinogen level were normal. MRI-confirmed mainstem occlusion of middle cerebral artery resolved within 1 hour after start of IV thrombolysis. A wall-adherent, non-occluding thrombus in the ipsilateral carotid bulb was identified as the source of embolism. Cardiac or paradoxical (venous) embolism was excluded. Screening for presence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia-related antibodies was positive, and highly elevated serum IgG antibodies against PF4-polyanion complexes were subsequently proven. Treatment with aspirin and subcutaneous danaparoid, followed by phenprocoumon, led to thrombus shrinkage and dissolution within 19 days, and favorable clinical outcome. DISCUSSION: Vaccine history is important in patients not only with venous but also with arterial thromboembolic events. Vaccine-induced immune thrombosis of brain-supplying arteries may well be handled.

J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(1): 35-43, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436447


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and development of coronavirus disease 2019 presents a major health care challenge of global dimensions. Laboratory diagnostics of infected patients, and the assessment of immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, presents a major cornerstone in handling the pandemic. Currently, there is an increase in demand for antibody testing and a large number of tests are already marketed or are in the late stage of development. However, the interpretation of test results depends on many variables and factors, including sensitivity, specificity, potential cross-reactivity and cross-protectivity, the diagnostic value of antibodies of different isotypes, and the use of antibody testing in identification of acutely ill patients or in epidemiological settings. In this article, the recently established COVID-19 Task Force of the German Society for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (DGKL) addresses these issues on the basis of currently available data sets in this rapidly moving field.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunologic Tests/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
Ageing Res Rev ; 62: 101091, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343168


Fighting the current COVID-19 pandemic, we must not forget to prepare for the next. Since elderly and frail people are at high risk, we wish to predict their vulnerability, and intervene if possible. For example, it would take little effort to take additional swabs or dried blood spots. Such minimally-invasive sampling, exemplified here during screening for potential COVID-19 infection, can yield the data to discover biomarkers to better handle this and the next respiratory disease pandemic. Longitudinal outcome data can then be combined with other epidemics and old-age health data, to discover the best biomarkers to predict (i) coping with infection & inflammation and thus hospitalization or intensive care, (ii) long-term health challenges, e.g. deterioration of lung function after intensive care, and (iii) treatment & vaccination response. Further, there are universal triggers of old-age morbidity & mortality, and the elimination of senescent cells improved health in pilot studies in idiopathic lung fibrosis & osteoarthritis patients alike. Biomarker studies are needed to test the hypothesis that resilience of the elderly during a pandemic can be improved by countering chronic inflammation and/or removing senescent cells. Our review suggests that more samples should be taken and saved systematically, following minimum standards, and data be made available, to maximize healthspan & minimize frailty, leading to savings in health care, gains in quality of life, and preparing us better for the next pandemic, all at the same time.

Aging/immunology , Biomarkers , Coronavirus Infections , Inflammation/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Frailty , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2