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1.
Health Expect ; 25(4): 1954-1966, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895979

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected people living with dementia and their carers. Its effects on health and social care systems necessitated a rapid-response approach to care planning and decision-making in this population, with reflexivity and responsiveness to changing individual and system needs at its core. Considering this, a decision-aid to help families of persons with dementia was developed. OBJECTIVES: To coproduce with people living with dementia, and the people who care for them, a decision-aid for family carers of people living with dementia, to support decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken in 2020 with: (1) staff from two English national end-of-life and supportive care organizations; and (2) people living with dementia and family carers. Simultaneously, a rapid review of current evidence on making decisions with older people at the end of life was undertaken. Evidence from these inputs was combined to shape the decision-aid through a series of workshops with key stakeholders, including our patient and public involvement group, which consisted of a person living with dementia and family carers; a group of clinical and academic experts and a group of policy and charity leads. RESULTS: The rapid review of existing evidence highlighted the need to consider both process and outcome elements of decision-making and their effects on people living with dementia and their families. The qualitative interviews discussed a wide range of topics, including trust, agency and confusion in making decisions in the context of COVID-19. The decision-aid primarily focussed on care moves, legal matters, carer wellbeing and help-seeking. CONCLUSIONS: Combining different sources and forms of evidence was a robust and systematic process that proved efficient and valuable in creating a novel decision-aid for family carers within the context of COVID-19. The output from this process is an evidence-based practical decision-aid coproduced with people living with dementia, family carers, clinical and academic experts and leading national dementia and palliative care organizations. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: We worked with people living with dementia and family carers and other key stakeholders throughout this study, from study development and design to inclusion in stakeholder workshops and dissemination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Aged , Caregivers , Decision Making , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Pandemics
2.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 37(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664408

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: People from ethnic minority backgrounds living with dementia are more likely to be diagnosed later and have less access to health and social care support than their White counterparts in the United Kingdom (UK). Covid-19 has exacerbated health inequalities and diminished trust from underserved communities in the government and health services. The wider aim of the study was to explore the impact of covid-19 on Black and South-Asian people living with dementia and their carers as well as exploring the experiences of dementia care. The present paper specifically explores their views on trust and mistrust using an ecological model. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 family carers and four people living with dementia from South Asian or Black communities living in the community. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data. DESIGN: An exploratory qualiative design was used. RESULTS: Four main themes were developed exploring trust at the structural, organisational, community and individual level. At the structural level, participants discussed the inequity of Covid-19, some lack of trust in the UK Government and confusion in its messaging, and the anxiety sometimes leading to curtailment of media usage. At the organisational level, there was some evidence of a perceived lack of person-centred and culturally sensitive care from healthcare professionals, as well as concerns around care homes as places of safety. At the neighbourhood community level, participants discussed both a distrust as well as a strengthening of relationships and, at the individual level, factors such as knowledge of services, identity, and faith influenced their experience of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: People living with dementia need support at all levels and this study highlights how the pandemic impacted each level. Ways to improve trust in the Government and health professionals alongside culturally adapted health messaging should be explored. Alongside this, an examination of how cultural values and norms may influence help-seeking responses to dementia and increase trust in services may be helpful post-pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Dementia/epidemiology , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust , United Kingdom
3.
Trials ; 22(1): 865, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most people living with dementia want to remain living in their own homes and are supported to do so by family carers. No interventions have consistently demonstrated improvements to people with dementia's life quality, functioning, or other indices of living as well as possible with dementia. We have co-produced, with health and social care professionals and family carers of people with dementia, a new intervention (NIDUS-family). To our knowledge, NIDUS-family is the first manualised intervention that can be tailored to personal goals of people living with dementia and their families and is delivered by facilitators without clinical training. The intervention utilizes components of behavioural management, carer support, psychoeducation, communication and coping skills training, enablement, and environmental adaptations, with modules selected to address dyads' selected goals. We will evaluate the effect of NIDUS-family and usual care on goal attainment, as measured by Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) rated by family carers, compared to usual care alone at 12-month follow-up. We will also determine whether NIDUS-family and usual care is more cost-effective than usual care alone over 12 months. METHODS: A randomised, two-arm, single-masked, multi-site clinical trial involving 297 people living with dementia-family carer dyads. Dyads will be randomised 2:1 to receive the NIDUS-family intervention with usual care (n = 199) or usual care alone (n = 98). The intervention group will be offered, over 1 year, via 6-8 video call or telephone sessions (or face to face if COVID-19 restrictions allow in the recruitment period) in the initial 6 months, followed by telephone follow-ups every 1-2 months to support implementation, with a trained facilitator. DISCUSSION: Increasing the time lived at home by people living with dementia is likely to benefit lives now and in the future. Our intervention, which we adapted to include remote delivery prior to trial commencement due to the COVID-19 pandemic, aims to address barriers to living as well and as independently as possible that distress people living with dementia, exacerbate family carer(s) stress, negatively affect relationships, lead to safety risks, and frequently precipitate avoidable moves to a care home. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number ISRCTN11425138 . Registered on 7 October 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Psychosocial Intervention , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS Med ; 18(11): e1003826, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults from minority ethnic backgrounds are at increased risk of contracting COVID-19 and developing severe infection and have increased risk of mortality. Whilst an age-based vaccination approach prioritising older groups is being implemented worldwide, vaccine hesitancy is high amongst minority ethnic groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and convergent synthesis to systematically examine perceptions of vaccinations amongst older adults from minority ethnic backgrounds. We included studies that reported on perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes towards vaccinations in older adults aged ≥65 years from a minority ethnic background. We excluded studies of vaccinations in investigation or development, studies focused on specific medical conditions, studies where ethnic background or age group was unidentifiable, systematic reviews, editorials, and conference abstracts. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Virtual Health Library, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, medRxiv, and PROSPERO databases from inception to 15 July 2021. Risk of bias for studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. The quality of evidence of collective outcomes was estimated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation-Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research (GRADE-CERQual) framework. A total of 28 eligible studies conducted between 1997 and 2020 were included in the final analysis (17 quantitative surveys, 8 focus group or interview studies, 2 mixed methods studies, and 1 case-control study). The majority were US studies in English or Spanish, except for 6 studies set in Hong Kong, 2 studies in Japan, 1 study in Brazil, and 1 multi-centre study (including China, Indonesia, Turkey, South Korea, Greece, UK, Brazil, and Nigeria). In total, 28,262 individuals with an estimated mean age of 69.8 years were included, 63.2% of whom were female. We summarised the common concepts and themes across studies and populations using a convergent synthesis analysis. Thirteen themes categorised as barriers or facilitators were identified and grouped into structural factors-healthcare provider and system related, patient related, and policy and operational-and were analysed by minority ethnic group. The main limitation of the study was the predominance of studies from the US and East Asia. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review, we found that factors influencing vaccination uptake involve healthcare provider and system, patient-related, and governance-level factors that are specific to the older ethnic minority community being served. The evidence included in this review is supported by high or moderate certainty and can be translated to practice and policy. A tailored, multi-level approach combining increased education, access, and culturally competent discussions with trusted healthcare professionals to address health beliefs can maximise the potential impact of widespread vaccination policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Minority Groups , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e050066, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234306

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite community efforts to support and enable older and vulnerable people during the COVID-19 pandemic, many people with dementia and their family carers are still finding it difficult to adjust their daily living in light of the disruption that the pandemic has caused. There may be needs specific to black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) populations in these circumstances that remain thus far unexplored. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on people living with dementia and their family carers of BAME backgrounds, in relation to their experiences of community dementia care and the impact on their daily lives. DESIGN: 15 participants (persons with dementia and carers) were recruited for semistructured qualitative interviews. Respondents were of South Asian and Afro-Caribbean backgrounds. We used thematic analysis to analyse our data from a constructivist perspective, which emphasises the importance of multiple perspectives, contexts and values. RESULTS: There were a number of ways that the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted BAME persons with dementia and carers with regard to their experiences of dementia community care and the impact on their everyday lives. In particular we identified eight key themes, with subthemes: fear and anxiety, food and eating (encompassing food shopping and eating patterns), isolation and identity, community and social relationships, adapting to COVID-19, social isolation and support structures, and medical interactions. Fear and anxiety formed an overarching theme that encompassed all others. DISCUSSION: This paper covers unique and underexplored topics in a COVID-19-vulnerable group. There is limited work with these groups in the UK and this is especially true in COVID-19. The results showed that such impacts were far-reaching and affected not only day-to-day concerns, but also care decisions with long-ranging consequences, and existential interests around fear, faith, death and identity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , African Americans , Caregivers , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 301, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of COVID-19 restrictions on people living with dementia and their carers is an emerging focus of recent research determining how we can best support this population. People living with dementia have faced service curtailment, increased risk for COVID-19, as well as potential heightened deterioration. This study reports the experiences of people living with dementia and their family carers during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic in England and the impact on them. METHODS: We recruited and remotely interviewed 30 people living with dementia in their own homes and 31 family carers, via video or telephone call in mid-2020. Data were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: People living with dementia often had a basic understanding of COVID-19 restrictions but could have difficulty translating this into personalised risk-appraisal of their own actions. Managing COVID-19 risks facing people living with dementia at home was largely done by family carers, exemplified by changes to living arrangements, which could strain or sustain caring relationships. Well-established familial caring relationships contributed to the wellbeing of the person living with dementia and their carer, as well as keeping to simple routines that included leaving the home for exercise and stimulation. People living with dementia reported some negative psychological and cognitive effects due to the imposed restrictions, such as increased apathy, irritability, or anxiety, which were fuelled by lack of social engagement. CONCLUSIONS: Structuring routine (remote) social interactions where possible could increase social engagement and improve wellbeing for people living with dementia, especially those with limited familial support in a post-COVID-19 context. As some care relationships had been restructured to manage COVID-19 risks, additional carer strain may emerge as a result of the impact on the independence of the person living with dementia and come to the attention of professionals in health and care services. People living with dementia and their carers highlighted the importance of maintaining or adapting routines which may be useful learning for professionals, although additional support may be necessary for those who are impacted by more severe or worsening symptoms of dementia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Communicable Disease Control , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a period of global economic uncertainty. Financial strain, personal debt, recent job loss and housing insecurity are important risk factors for the mental health of working-age adults. Community interventions have the potential to attenuate the mental health impact of these stressors. We examined the effectiveness of community interventions for protecting and promoting the mental health of working-age adults in high-income countries during periods of financial insecurity. METHODS: Eight electronic databases were systematically screened for experimental and observational studies published since 2000 measuring the effectiveness of community interventions on mental health outcomes. We included any non-clinical intervention that aimed to address the financial, employment, food or housing insecurity of participants. A review protocol was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42019156364) and results are reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS: From 2326 studies screened, 15 met our inclusion criteria. Five categories of community intervention were identified: advice services colocated in healthcare settings; link worker social prescribing; telephone debt advice; food insecurity interventions; and active labour market programmes. In general, the evidence for effective and cost-effective community interventions delivered to individuals experiencing financial insecurity was lacking. From the small number of studies without a high risk of bias, there was some evidence that financial insecurity and associated mental health problems were amenable to change and differences by subpopulations were observed. CONCLUSION: There is a need for well-controlled studies and trials to better understand effective ingredients and to identify those interventions warranting wider implementation.

9.
Dementia (London) ; 20(8): 2779-2801, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207590

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Covid-19 pandemic reduced access to social activities and routine health care that are central to dementia prevention. We developed a group-based, video-call, cognitive well-being intervention; and investigated its acceptability and feasibility; exploring through participants' accounts how the intervention was experienced and used in the pandemic context. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: We recruited adults aged 60+ years with memory concerns (without dementia). Participants completed baseline assessments and qualitative interviews/focus groups before and after the 10-week intervention. Qualitative interview data and facilitator notes were integrated in a thematic analysis. RESULTS: 12/17 participants approached completed baseline assessments, attended 100/120 (83.3%) intervention sessions and met 140/170 (82.4%) of goals set. Most had not used video calling before. In the thematic analysis, our overarching theme was social connectedness. Three sub-themes were as follows: Retaining independence and social connectedness: social connectedness could not be at the expense of independence; Adapting social connectedness in the pandemic: participants strived to compensate for previous social connectedness as the pandemic reduced support networks; Managing social connections within and through the intervention: although there were tensions, for example, between sharing of achievements feeling supportive and competitive, participants engaged with various lifestyle changes; social connections supported group attendance and implementation of lifestyle changes. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Our intervention was acceptable and feasible to deliver by group video-call. We argue that dementia prevention is both an individual and societal concern. For more vulnerable populations, messages that lifestyle change can help memory should be communicated alongside supportive, relational approaches to enabling lifestyle changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Br J Gen Pract ; 71(709): e574-e582, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102556

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has accelerated remote healthcare provision in primary care, with changes potentially permanent. The implementation of remote provision of health care needs to be informed by vulnerable populations, such as people living with dementia. AIM: To understand the remote healthcare experiences of patients living with dementia and their family carers during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative interviews with community-based patients living with dementia and their carers were carried out between May-August 2020, while the COVID-19 pandemic was ongoing in England. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted remotely by telephone or video call with 30 patients living with dementia and 31 carers. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three main themes were derived relating to: proactive care at the onset of COVID-19 restrictions; avoidance of healthcare settings and services; and difficulties with remote healthcare encounters. People living with dementia and their carers felt check-up calls were reassuring but limited in scope and content. Some avoided healthcare services, wishing to minimise COVID-19 risk or reduce NHS burden, or encountering technological barriers. Difficulties in remote consultations included lack of prompts to remember problems, dealing with new emerging difficulties, rescheduling/missed calls, and inclusion of the voice of the person with dementia. CONCLUSION: While remote consultations could be effective, proactive calls could be more structured around needs. Consideration should be given to replace non-verbal prompts to describe problems, particularly for new health concerns. In continuing remote consultations, it is important to facilitate engagement with patients living with dementia and their carers to ensure good practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Remote Consultation , Caregivers , Dementia/epidemiology , Dementia/therapy , England/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
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