Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 21
Filter
1.
Heart Rhythm O2 ; 3(1): 8-14, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620698

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has encompassed the globe since it was first observed just under 2 years ago. Although the disease is predominantly a respiratory illness, there have been observed complications throughout the various organ systems. Namely, cardiovascular complications, and, more specifically, arrhythmic complications have been described throughout the pandemic in patients with COVID-19. Management of atrial arrhythmias, ventricular arrhythmias, and bradyarrhythmias in patients with COVID-19 infection has been largely guided by our prior experience in the management of these arrhythmias in similar patient populations without infection. However, this review aims to highlight the specific considerations as they pertain to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the various arrhythmic manifestations observed with this disease.

2.
HeartRhythm Case Rep ; 8(3): 143-146, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536584
3.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 322(1): C1-C11, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533102

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly spread across the globe and infected hundreds of millions of people worldwide. As our experience with this virus continues to grow, our understanding of both short-term and long-term complications of infection with SARS-CoV-2 continues to grow as well. Just as there is heterogeneity in the acute infectious phase, there is heterogeneity in the long-term complications seen following COVID-19 illness. The purpose of this review article is to present the current literature with regards to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and proposed management algorithms for the various long-term sequelae that have been observed in each organ system following infection with SARS-CoV-2. We will also consider future directions, with regards to newer variants of the virus and their potential impact on the long-term complications observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , COVID-19/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Central Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Disease Progression , Hematologic Diseases/etiology , Humans
4.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517636

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
5.
Heart Rhythm ; 19(2): 206-216, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation rates as well as the clinical and procedural characteristics and outcomes in patients with known active coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to gather information regarding CIED procedures during active COVID-19, performed with personal protective equipment, based on an international survey. METHODS: Fifty-three centers from 13 countries across 4 continents provided information on 166 patients with known active COVID-19 who underwent a CIED procedure. RESULTS: The CIED procedure rate in 133,655 hospitalized COVID-19 patients ranged from 0 to 16.2 per 1000 patients (P <.001). Most devices were implanted due to high-degree/complete atrioventricular block (112 [67.5%]) or sick sinus syndrome (31 [18.7%]). Of the 166 patients in the study survey, the 30-day complication rate was 13.9% and the 180-day mortality rate was 9.6%. One patient had a fatal outcome as a direct result of the procedure. Differences in patient and procedural characteristics and outcomes were found between Europe and North America. An older population (76.6 vs 66 years; P <.001) with a nonsignificant higher complication rate (16.5% vs 7.7%; P = .2) was observed in Europe vs North America, whereas higher rates of critically ill patients (33.3% vs 3.3%; P <.001) and mortality (26.9% vs 5%; P = .002) were observed in North America vs Europe. CONCLUSION: CIED procedure rates during known active COVID-19 disease varied greatly, from 0 to 16.2 per 1000 hospitalized COVID-19 patients worldwide. Patients with active COVID-19 infection who underwent CIED implantation had high complication and mortality rates. Operators should take these risks into consideration before proceeding with CIED implantation in active COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Atrioventricular Block , COVID-19 , Infection Control , Postoperative Complications , Prosthesis Implantation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sick Sinus Syndrome , Aged , Atrioventricular Block/epidemiology , Atrioventricular Block/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Defibrillators, Implantable/statistics & numerical data , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pacemaker, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/mortality , Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects , Prosthesis Implantation/instrumentation , Prosthesis Implantation/mortality , Risk Factors , Sick Sinus Syndrome/epidemiology , Sick Sinus Syndrome/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e216842, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198342

ABSTRACT

Importance: Critical illness, a marked inflammatory response, and viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 may prolong corrected QT interval (QTc). Objective: To evaluate baseline QTc interval on 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) and ensuing changes among patients with and without COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 3050 patients aged 18 years and older who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing and had ECGs at Columbia University Irving Medical Center from March 1 through May 1, 2020. Patients were analyzed by treatment group over 5 days, as follows: hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, and neither hydroxychloroquine nor azithromycin. ECGs were manually analyzed by electrophysiologists masked to COVID-19 status. Multivariable modeling evaluated clinical associations with QTc prolongation from baseline. Exposures: COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean QTc prolongation, percentage of patients with QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater. Results: A total of 965 patients had more than 2 ECGs and were included in the study, with 561 (58.1%) men, 198 (26.2%) Black patients, and 191 (19.8%) aged 80 years and older. There were 733 patients (76.0%) with COVID-19 and 232 patients (24.0%) without COVID-19. COVID-19 infection was associated with significant mean QTc prolongation from baseline by both 5-day and 2-day multivariable models (5-day, patients with COVID-19: 20.81 [95% CI, 15.29 to 26.33] milliseconds; P < .001; patients without COVID-19: -2.01 [95% CI, -17.31 to 21.32] milliseconds; P = .93; 2-day, patients with COVID-19: 17.40 [95% CI, 12.65 to 22.16] milliseconds; P < .001; patients without COVID-19: 0.11 [95% CI, -12.60 to 12.81] milliseconds; P = .99). COVID-19 infection was independently associated with a modeled mean 27.32 (95% CI, 4.63-43.21) millisecond increase in QTc at 5 days compared with COVID-19-negative status (mean QTc, with COVID-19: 450.45 [95% CI, 441.6 to 459.3] milliseconds; without COVID-19: 423.13 [95% CI, 403.25 to 443.01] milliseconds; P = .01). More patients with COVID-19 not receiving hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin had QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater compared with patients without COVID-19 (34 of 136 [25.0%] vs 17 of 158 [10.8%], P = .002). Multivariable analysis revealed that age 80 years and older compared with those younger than 50 years (mean difference in QTc, 11.91 [SE, 4.69; 95% CI, 2.73 to 21.09]; P = .01), severe chronic kidney disease compared with no chronic kidney disease (mean difference in QTc, 12.20 [SE, 5.26; 95% CI, 1.89 to 22.51; P = .02]), elevated high-sensitivity troponin levels (mean difference in QTc, 5.05 [SE, 1.19; 95% CI, 2.72 to 7.38]; P < .001), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels (mean difference in QTc, 5.31 [SE, 2.68; 95% CI, 0.06 to 10.57]; P = .04) were associated with QTc prolongation. Torsades de pointes occurred in 1 patient (0.1%) with COVID-19. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 infection was independently associated with significant mean QTc prolongation at days 5 and 2 of hospitalization compared with day 0. More patients with COVID-19 had QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater compared with patients without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin , COVID-19 , Electrocardiography , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/statistics & numerical data , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Long QT Syndrome/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
7.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 601-615, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147038

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has resulted in global healthcare crises and strained health resources. As the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is paramount to establish an understanding of the healthcare issues surrounding them. COVID-19 is now recognized as a multi-organ disease with a broad spectrum of manifestations. Similarly to post-acute viral syndromes described in survivors of other virulent coronavirus epidemics, there are increasing reports of persistent and prolonged effects after acute COVID-19. Patient advocacy groups, many members of which identify themselves as long haulers, have helped contribute to the recognition of post-acute COVID-19, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms and/or delayed or long-term complications beyond 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on post-acute COVID-19, its pathophysiology and its organ-specific sequelae. Finally, we discuss relevant considerations for the multidisciplinary care of COVID-19 survivors and propose a framework for the identification of those at high risk for post-acute COVID-19 and their coordinated management through dedicated COVID-19 clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Humans , Patient Advocacy , Syndrome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1325, 2021 02 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104490

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can result in a hyperinflammatory state, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), myocardial injury, and thrombotic complications, among other sequelae. Statins, which are known to have anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties, have been studied in the setting of other viral infections, but their benefit has not been assessed in COVID-19. This is a retrospective analysis of patients admitted with COVID-19 from February 1st through May 12th, 2020 with study period ending on June 11th, 2020. Antecedent statin use was assessed using medication information available in the electronic medical record. We constructed a multivariable logistic regression model to predict the propensity of receiving statins, adjusting for baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and outpatient medications. The primary endpoint includes in-hospital mortality within 30 days. A total of 2626 patients were admitted during the study period, of whom 951 (36.2%) were antecedent statin users. Among 1296 patients (648 statin users, 648 non-statin users) identified with 1:1 propensity-score matching, statin use is significantly associated with lower odds of the primary endpoint in the propensity-matched cohort (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.36-0.62, p < 0.001). We conclude that antecedent statin use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 is associated with lower inpatient mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Am J Cardiol ; 147: 52-57, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091965

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that COVID-19 can cause cardiovascular complications. However, there are limited data on the characteristics and importance of atrial arrhythmia (AA) in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Data from 1,029 patients diagnosed with of COVID-19 and admitted to Columbia University Medical Center between March 1, 2020 and April 15, 2020 were analyzed. The diagnosis of AA was confirmed by 12 lead electrocardiographic recordings, 24-hour telemetry recordings and implantable device interrogations. Patients' history, biomarkers and hospital course were reviewed. Outcomes that were assessed were intubation, discharge and mortality. Of 1,029 patients reviewed, 82 (8%) were diagnosed with AA in whom 46 (56%) were new-onset AA 16 (20%) recurrent paroxysmal and 20 (24%) were chronic persistent AA. Sixty-five percent of the patients diagnosed with AA (n=53) died. Patients diagnosed with AA had significantly higher mortality compared with those without AA (65% vs 21%; p < 0.001). Predictors of mortality were older age (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.12, [95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.04 to 1.22]); male gender (OR=6.4 [95% CI, 1.3 to 32]); azithromycin use (OR=13.4 [95% CI, 2.14 to 84]); and higher D-dimer levels (OR=2.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 7.3]). In conclusion, patients diagnosed with AA had 3.1 times significant increase in mortality rate versus patients without diagnosis of AA in COVID-19 patients. Older age, male gender, azithromycin use and higher baseline D-dimer levels were predictors of mortality.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Management , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(1): 2, 2020 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac arrhythmias are known complications in patients with COVID-19 infection that may persist even after recovery from infection. A review of the spectrum of cardiac arrhythmias due to COVID-19 infection and current guidelines and assessment or risk and benefit of management considerations is necessary as the population of patients infected and covering from COVID-19 continues to grow. RECENT FINDINGS: Cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, complete heart block, and ventricular tachycardia occur in patients infected, recovering and recovered from COVID-19. Personalized care while balancing risk/benefit of medical or invasive therapy is necessary to improve care of patients with arrhythmias. Providers must provide thorough follow-up care and use necessary precaution while caring for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Tachycardia, Supraventricular , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/therapy
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(1): e018476, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917839

ABSTRACT

Background Cardiovascular involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common and leads to worsened mortality. Diagnostic cardiovascular studies may be helpful for resource appropriation and identifying patients at increased risk for death. Methods and Results We analyzed 887 patients (aged 64±17 years) admitted with COVID-19 from March 1 to April 3, 2020 in New York City with 12 lead electrocardiography within 2 days of diagnosis. Demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory testing, including high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT), were abstracted. At 30 days follow-up, 556 patients (63%) were living without requiring mechanical ventilation, 123 (14%) were living and required mechanical ventilation, and 203 (23%) had expired. Electrocardiography findings included atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (AF/AFL) in 46 (5%) and ST-T wave changes in 306 (38%). 27 (59%) patients with AF/AFL expired as compared to 181 (21%) of 841 with other non-life-threatening rhythms (P<0.001). Multivariable analysis incorporating age, comorbidities, AF/AFL, QRS abnormalities, and ST-T wave changes, and initial hs-cTnT ≥20 ng/L showed that increased age (HR 1.04/year), elevated hs-cTnT (HR 4.57), AF/AFL (HR 2.07), and a history of coronary artery disease (HR 1.56) and active cancer (HR 1.87) were associated with increased mortality. Conclusions Myocardial injury with hs-cTnT ≥20 ng/L, in addition to cardiac conduction perturbations, especially AF/AFL, upon hospital admission for COVID-19 infection is associated with markedly increased risk for mortality than either diagnostic abnormality alone.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electrocardiography , Heart Rate/physiology , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin T/blood , Atrial Fibrillation/blood , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(12): 3086-3096, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-817706

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Electrocardiographic characteristics in COVID-19-related mortality have not yet been reported, particularly in racial/ethnic minorities. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed demographics, laboratory and cardiac tests, medications, and cardiac rhythm proximate to death or initiation of comfort care for patients hospitalized with a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in three New York City hospitals between March 1 and April 3, 2020 who died. We described clinical characteristics and compared factors contributing toward arrhythmic versus nonarrhythmic death. Of 1258 patients screened, 133 died and were enrolled. Of these, 55.6% (74/133) were male, 69.9% (93/133) were racial/ethnic minorities, and 88.0% (117/133) had cardiovascular disease. The last cardiac rhythm recorded was VT or fibrillation in 5.3% (7/133), pulseless electrical activity in 7.5% (10/133), unspecified bradycardia in 0.8% (1/133), and asystole in 26.3% (35/133). Most 74.4% (99/133) died receiving comfort measures only. The most common abnormalities on admission electrocardiogram included abnormal QRS axis (25.8%), atrial fibrillation/flutter (14.3%), atrial ectopy (12.0%), and right bundle branch block (11.9%). During hospitalization, an additional 17.6% developed atrial ectopy, 14.7% ventricular ectopy, 10.1% atrial fibrillation/flutter, and 7.8% a right ventricular abnormality. Arrhythmic death was confirmed or suspected in 8.3% (11/133) associated with age, coronary artery disease, asthma, vasopressor use, longer admission corrected QT interval, and left bundle branch block (LBBB). CONCLUSIONS: Conduction, rhythm, and electrocardiographic abnormalities were common during COVID-19-related hospitalization. Arrhythmic death was associated with age, coronary artery disease, asthma, longer admission corrected QT interval, LBBB, ventricular ectopy, and usage of vasopressors. Most died receiving comfort measures.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/ethnology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Prognosis , Race Factors , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Time Factors
13.
Indian Pacing Electrophysiol J ; 20(6): 250-256, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly altered the practice of cardiac electrophysiology around the world for the foreseeable future. Professional organizations have provided guidance for practitioners, but real-world examples of the consults and responsibilities cardiac electrophysiologists face during a surge of COVID-19 patients is lacking. METHODS: In this observational case series we report on 29 consecutive inpatient electrophysiology consultations at a major academic medical center in New York City, the epicenter of the pandemic in the United States, during a 2 week period from March 30-April 12, 2020, when 80% of hospital beds were occupied by COVID-19 patients, and the New York City metropolitan area accounted for 10% of COVID-19 cases worldwide. RESULTS: Reasons for consultation included: Atrial tachyarrhythmia (31%), cardiac implantable electronic device management (28%), bradycardia (14%), QTc prolongation (10%), ventricular arrhythmia (7%), post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement conduction abnormality (3.5%), ventricular pre-excitation (3.5%), and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (3.5%). Twenty-four patients (86%) were positive for COVID-19 by nasopharyngeal swab. All elective procedures were canceled, and only one urgent device implantation was performed. Thirteen patients (45%) required in-person evaluation and the remainder were managed remotely. CONCLUSION: Our experience shows that the application of a massive alteration in workflow and personnel forced by the pandemic allowed our team to efficiently address the intersection of COVID-19 with a range of electrophysiology issues. This experience will prove useful as guidance for emerging hot spots or areas affected by future waves of the pandemic.

15.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(10): 1278-1284, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence of cardiovascular complications associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there are few data regarding the performance of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and the spectrum of echocardiographic findings in this disease. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed among adult patients admitted to a quaternary care center in New York City between March 1 and April 3, 2020. Patients were included if they underwent TTE during the hospitalization after a known positive diagnosis for COVID-19. Demographic and clinical data were obtained using chart abstraction from the electronic medical record. RESULTS: Of 749 patients, 72 (9.6%) underwent TTE following positive results on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 polymerase chain reaction testing. The most common clinical indications for TTE were concern for a major acute cardiovascular event (45.8%) and hemodynamic instability (29.2%). Although most patients had preserved biventricular function, 34.7% were found to have left ventricular ejection fractions ≤ 50%, and 13.9% had at least moderately reduced right ventricular function. Four patients had wall motion abnormalities suggestive of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Using Spearman rank correlation, there was an inverse relationship between high-sensitivity troponin T and left ventricular ejection fraction (ρ = -0.34, P = .006). Among 20 patients with prior echocardiograms, only two (10%) had new reductions in LVEF of >10%. Clinical management was changed in eight individuals (24.2%) in whom TTE was ordered for concern for acute major cardiovascular events and three (14.3%) in whom TTE was ordered for hemodynamic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the clinical indications for use and diagnostic performance of TTE, as well as findings seen on TTE, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. In appropriately selected patients, TTE can be an invaluable tool for guiding COVID-19 clinical management.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , Young Adult
16.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(10): 2099-2109, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713288

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study whether combining vital signs and electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis can improve early prognostication. METHODS: This study analyzed 1258 adults with coronavirus disease 2019 who were seen at three hospitals in New York in March and April 2020. Electrocardiograms at presentation to the emergency department were systematically read by electrophysiologists. The primary outcome was a composite of mechanical ventilation or death 48 hours from diagnosis. The prognostic value of ECG abnormalities was assessed in a model adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and vital signs. RESULTS: At 48 hours, 73 of 1258 patients (5.8%) had died and 174 of 1258 (13.8%) were alive but receiving mechanical ventilation with 277 of 1258 (22.0%) patients dying by 30 days. Early development of respiratory failure was common, with 53% of all intubations occurring within 48 hours of presentation. In a multivariable logistic regression, atrial fibrillation/flutter (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 6.2), right ventricular strain (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.1), and ST segment abnormalities (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.8) were associated with death or mechanical ventilation at 48 hours. In 108 patients without these ECG abnormalities and with normal respiratory vitals (rate <20 breaths/min and saturation >95%), only 5 (4.6%) died or required mechanical ventilation by 48 hours versus 68 of 216 patients (31.5%) having both ECG and respiratory vital sign abnormalities. CONCLUSION: The combination of abnormal respiratory vital signs and ECG findings of atrial fibrillation/flutter, right ventricular strain, or ST segment abnormalities accurately prognosticates early deterioration in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and may assist with patient triage.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Arrhythm ; 36(5): 827-836, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676847

ABSTRACT

The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a major global public health concern. Although SARS-CoV-2 causes primarily respiratory problems, concurrent cardiac injury cannot be ignored since it may be an independent predictor for adverse outcomes. Cardiac arrhythmias are often observed in patients with COVID-19, especially in severe cases, and more likely contribute to the high risk of adverse outcomes. Arrhythmias should be regarded as one of the main complications of COVID-19. Mechanistically, a number of ion channels can be adversely affected in COVID-19, leading to alterations in cardiac conduction and/or repolarization properties, as well as calcium handling, which can predispose to cardiac arrhythmogenesis. In addition, several antimicrobials that are currently used as potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19, such as chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin, have uncertain benefit, and yet may induce electrocardiographic QT prolongation with potential ventricular pro-arrhythmic effects. Continuous electrocardiogram monitoring, accurate and prompt recognition of arrhythmias are important. The present review focuses on cardiac arrhythmias in patients with COVID-19, its underlying mechanisms, and proposed preventive and therapeutic strategies.

18.
Nat Med ; 26(7): 1017-1032, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639177

ABSTRACT

Although COVID-19 is most well known for causing substantial respiratory pathology, it can also result in several extrapulmonary manifestations. These conditions include thrombotic complications, myocardial dysfunction and arrhythmia, acute coronary syndromes, acute kidney injury, gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatocellular injury, hyperglycemia and ketosis, neurologic illnesses, ocular symptoms, and dermatologic complications. Given that ACE2, the entry receptor for the causative coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is expressed in multiple extrapulmonary tissues, direct viral tissue damage is a plausible mechanism of injury. In addition, endothelial damage and thromboinflammation, dysregulation of immune responses, and maladaptation of ACE2-related pathways might all contribute to these extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19. Here we review the extrapulmonary organ-specific pathophysiology, presentations and management considerations for patients with COVID-19 to aid clinicians and scientists in recognizing and monitoring the spectrum of manifestations, and in developing research priorities and therapeutic strategies for all organ systems involved.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Organ Specificity , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adaptive Immunity/physiology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology , Virus Internalization
20.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 19(3): 105-111, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-119522

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 crisis is a global pandemic of a novel infectious disease with far-ranging public health implications. With regard to cardiac electrophysiology (EP) services, we discuss the "real-world" challenges and solutions that have been essential for efficient and successful (1) ramping down of standard clinical practice patterns and (2) pivoting of workflow processes to meet the demands of this pandemic. The aims of these recommendations are to outline: (1) essential practical steps to approaching procedures, as well as outpatient and inpatient care of EP patients, with relevant examples, (2) successful strategies to minimize exposure risk to patients and clinical staff while also balancing resource utilization, (3) challenges related to redeployment and restructuring of clinical and support staff, and (4) considerations regarding continued collaboration with clinical and administrative colleagues to implement these changes. While process changes will vary across practices and hospital systems, we believe that these experiences from 4 different EP sections in a large New York City hospital network currently based in the global epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic will prove useful for other EP practices adapting their own practices in preparation for local surges.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/trends , Cardiac Electrophysiology , Coronavirus Infections , Hospital Restructuring , Infection Control , Pandemics , Patient Care Management , Pneumonia, Viral , Telemedicine/trends , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cardiac Electrophysiology/methods , Cardiac Electrophysiology/organization & administration , Cardiac Electrophysiology/trends , Change Management , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Pathways/trends , Hospital Restructuring/methods , Hospital Restructuring/organization & administration , Hospitalization/trends , Hospitals, Urban/organization & administration , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , New York City , Patient Care Management/methods , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Patient Care Management/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL