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Pacific Review ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2297580
2nd International Conference on New Energy Technology and Industrial Development, NETID 2021 ; 292, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2186206
28th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, KDD 2022 ; : 1202-1212, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020399
Environ Pollut ; 308: 119674, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905564


The widespread use of disposable face masks as a preventative strategy to address transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has been a key environmental concern since the pandemic began. This has led to an unprecedented new form of contamination from improperly disposed masks, which liberates significant amounts of heavy metals and toxic chemicals in addition to volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Therefore, this study monitored the liberation of heavy metals, VOCs, and microfibers from submerged disposable face masks at different pH (4, 7 and 12), to simulate distinct environmental conditions. Lead (3.238% ppb), cadmium (0.672 ppb) and chromium (0.786 ppb) were found in the analyzed leachates. By pyrolysis, 2,4-dimethylhept-1-ene and 4-methylheptane were identified as the VOCs produced by the samples. The chemically degraded morphology in the FESEM images provided further evidence that toxic heavy metals and volatile organic compounds had been leached from the submerged face masks, with greater degradation observed in samples submerged at pH 7 and higher. The results are seen to communicate the comparable danger of passively degrading disposable face masks and the release of micro- or nanofibers into the marine environment. The toxicity of certain heavy metals and chemicals released from discarded face masks warrants better, more robust manufacturing protocols and increased public awareness for responsible disposal to reduce the adverse impact on ecology and human health.

COVID-19 , Metals, Heavy , Volatile Organic Compounds , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Masks , Metals, Heavy/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Volatile Organic Compounds/toxicity
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(5):17-18, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868716
medrxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.05.04.21256655


Background: The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant which was first identified in the United Kingdom (U.K.) has increased sharply in numbers worldwide and was reported to be more contagious. On January 17, 2021, a COVID-19 clustered outbreak caused by B.1.1.7 variant occurred in a community in Daxing District, Beijing, China. Three weeks prior, another non-variant (lineage B.1.470) COVID-19 outbreak occurred in Shunyi District, Beijing. This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of B.1.1.7 variant infection. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on COVID-19 cases admitted to Ditan hospital since January 2020. Data of 74 COVID-19 cases from two independent COVID-19 outbreaks in Beijing were extracted as study subjects from a Cloud Database established in Ditan hospital, which included 41 Shunyi cases (Shunyi B.1.470 group) and 33 Daxing cases (Daxing B.1.1.7 group) that have been hospitalized since December 25, 2020 and January 17, 2021, respectively. We conducted a comparison of the clinical characteristics, RT-qPCR results and genomic features between the two groups. Findings: Cases from Daxing B.1.1.7 group (15 [45.5%] male; median age, 39 years [range, 30.5, 62.5]) and cases from Shunyi B.1.470 group (25 [61.0%] male; median age, 31 years [range, 27.5, 41.0]) had a statistically significant difference in median age (P =0.014). Seven clinical indicators of Daxing B.1.1.7 group were significantly higher than Shunyi B.1.470 group including patients having fever over 38 (14/33 [46.43%] in Daxing B.1.1.7 group vs. 9/41 (21.95%) in Shunyi B.1.470 group [P = 0 .015]), C-reactive protein ([CRP, mg/L], 4.30 [2.45, 12.1] vs. 1.80, [0.85, 4.95], [P = 0.005]), Serum amyloid A ([SAA, mg/L], 21.50 [12.50, 50.70] vs. 12.00 [5.20, 26.95], [P = 0.003]), Creatine Kinase ([CK, U/L]), 110.50 [53.15,152.40] vs. 70.40 [54.35,103.05], [P = 0.040]), D-dimer ([DD, mg/L], 0.31 [0.20, 0.48] vs. 0.24 [0.17,0.31], [P = 0.038]), CD4+ T lymphocyte ([CD4+ T, mg/L], [P = 0.003]) , and Ground-glass opacity (GGO) in lung (15/33 [45.45%] vs. 5/41 [12.20%], [P =0.001]). After adjusting for the age factor, B.1.1.7 variant infection was the risk factor for CRP (P = 0.045, Odds ratio [OR] 2.791, CI [1.025, 0.8610]), SAA (0.011, 5.031, [1.459, 17.354]), CK (0.034, 4.34, [0.05, 0.91]), CD4+ T ( 0.029, 3.31, [1.13, 9.71]), and GGO (0.005, 5.418, [1.656, 17.729]) of patients. The median Ct value of RT-qPCR tests of the N-gene target in the Daxing B.1.1.7 group was significantly lower than the Shunyi B.1.470 group (P=0.036). The phylogenetic analysis showed that only 2 amino acid mutations in spike protein were detected in B.1.470 strains while B.1.1.7 strains had 3 deletions and 7 mutations. Interpretation: Clinical features including a more serious inflammatory response, pneumonia and a possible higher viral load were detected in the cases infected with B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant. It could therefore be inferred that the B.1.1.7 variant may have increased pathogenicity.

Fever , Pneumonia , COVID-19
Br J Biomed Sci ; 77(4): 168-184, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975140


The COVID-19 disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is highly infective within the human population. The virus is widely disseminated to almost every continent with over twenty-seven million infections and over ninety-thousand reported deaths attributed to COVID-19 disease. SARS-CoV-2 is a single stranded RNA virus, comprising three main viral proteins; membrane, spike and envelope. The clinical features of COVID-19 disease can be classified according to different degrees of severity, with some patients progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome, which can be fatal. In addition, many infections are asymptomatic or only cause mild symptoms. As there is no specific treatment for COVID-19 there is considerable endeavour to raise a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, in addition to engineering neutralizing antibody interventions. In the absence of an effective vaccine, movement controls of varying stringencies have been imposed. Whilst enforced lockdown measures have been effective, they may be less effective against the current strain of SARS-CoV-2, the G614 clade. Conversely, other mutations of the virus, such as the Δ382 variant could reduce the clinical relevance of infection. The front runners in the race to develop an effective vaccine focus on the SARS-Co-V-2 Spike protein. However, vaccines that produce a T-cell response to a wider range of SARS-Co-V-2 viral proteins, may be more effective. Population based studies that determine the level of innate immunity to SARS-CoV-2, from prior exposure to the virus or to other coronaviruses, will have important implications for government imposed movement control and the strategic delivery of vaccination programmes.

COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use