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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 846601, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776057

ABSTRACT

Background: Myopia is one of the most common causes of vision impairment in children and adults and has become a public health priority with its growing prevalence worldwide. This study aims to identify and evaluate the global trends in myopia research of the past century and visualize the frontiers using bibliometric analysis. Methods: The literature search was conducted on the Web of Science for myopia studies published between 1900 and 2020. Retrieved publications were analyzed in-depth by the annual publication number, prolific countries and institutions, core author and journal, and the number of citations through descriptive statistics. Collaboration networks and keywords burst were visualized by VOSviewer and CiteSpace. Myopia citation network was visualized using CitNetExplorer. Results: In total, 11,172 publications on myopia were retrieved from 1900 to 2020, with most published by the United States. Saw SM, from the National University of Singapore, contributed the most publications and citations. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science was the journal with highest number of citations. Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery with the maximum number of publications. The top 10 cited papers mainly focused on the epidemiology of myopia. Previous research emphasized myopia-associated experimental animal models, while recent keywords include "SMILE" and "myopia control" with the stronger burst, indicating a shift of concern from etiology to therapy and coincided with the global increment of incidence. Document citation network was clustered into six groups: "prevalence and risk factors of myopia," "surgical control of myopia," "pathogenesis of myopia," "optical interventions of myopia," "myopia and glaucoma," and "pathological myopia." Conclusions: Bibliometrics analysis in this study could help scholars comprehend global trends of myopia research frontiers better. Hundred years of myopia research were clustered into six groups, among which "prevalence and risk factors of myopia" and "surgical control of myopia" were the largest groups. With the increasing prevalence of myopia, interventions of myopia control are a potential research hotspot and pressing public health issue.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Myopia , Bibliometrics , Biomedical Research/trends , Humans , Myopia/epidemiology , Public Health
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 710209, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775826

ABSTRACT

Most cervical cancers were closely associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Therefore, understanding the ecological diversity of HPV prevalence and genotype distribution among various populations in different geographical regions was essential for optimizing HPV vaccination and maximizing the vaccination effects. A total of 12,053 patient data from the three-level hospitals in Hengyang city were retrospectively analyzed. In this study, the HPV prevalence was 10.16% overall, and the multiple-type infection rate was 1.83%. The HR-HPV infection rate was 8.52%. The top six HPV genotypes were as follows in descending order: HPV16, HPV58, HPV52, HPV39, HPV51, and HPV53. The HPV prevalence in the group above 60 years old was the most, and their HR-HPV infection rate corresponded to the most too. The infection rates of HPV and HR-HPV among outpatients were both lower than those among the hospitalized-patients, respectively. Among the hospitalized-patients, the infection rates of HPV and HR-HPV among the 50-60 years group were the most in both. The HR-HPV ratio-in-positive among HPV-positive patients with the histopathologic examination was higher than that among those patients without. Among 52 HPV-positive patients with cervical squamous carcinoma, the ratio-in-positive of HPV16 was 61.54%. This study demonstrated that the HPV prevalence varied with age among women from Hengyang district of Hunan province in China and showed that HPV16, HPV58, HPV52, HPV39, HPV51, and HPV53 genotypes were more popularly distributed in this region, which could provide the experimental basis for Chinese public health measures on cervical cancer prevention.


Subject(s)
Papillomavirus Infections , China/epidemiology , Female , Genotype , Humans , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327770

ABSTRACT

A booster vaccination is called for constraining the evolving epidemic of SARS-CoV-2. However, the necessity of a new COVID-19 vaccine is currently unclear. To compare the effect of an Omicron-matched S DNA vaccine and an ancestral S DNA vaccine in boosting cross-reactive immunities, we firstly immunized mice with two-dose of a DNA vaccine encoding the spike protein of the ancestral Wuhan strain. Then the mice were boosted with DNA vaccines encoding spike proteins of either the Wuhan strain or the Omicron variant. Specific antibody and T cell responses were measured at 4 weeks post boost. Our data showed that the Omicron-matched vaccine efficiently boosted RBD binding antibody and neutralizing antibody responses against both the Delta and the Omicron variants. Of note, antibody responses against the Omicron variant elicited by the Omicron-matched vaccine were much stronger than those induced by the ancestral S DNA vaccine. Meanwhile, CD8+ T cell responses against both the ancestral Wuhan strain and the Omicron strain also tended to be higher in mice boosted by the Omicron-matched vaccine than those in mice boosted with the ancestral S DNA vaccine, albeit no significant difference was observed. Our findings suggest that an Omicron-matched vaccine is preferred for boosting cross-reactive immunities.

4.
Internet Research ; 31(6):2055-2075, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1515140

ABSTRACT

PurposeThis paper aims to reveal the factors patients consider when choosing a doctor for consultation on an online medical consultation (OMC) platform and how these factors influence doctors' consultation volumes.Design/methodology/approachIn Study 1, influencing factors reflected as service features were identified by applying a feature extraction method to physician reviews, and the importance of each feature was determined based on word frequencies and the PageRank algorithm. Sentiment analysis was used to analyze patient satisfaction with each service feature. In Study 2, regression models were used to analyze the relationships between the service features obtained from Study 1 and the doctor's consultation volume.FindingsThe study identified 14 service features of patients' concerns and found that patients mostly care about features such as trust, phraseology, overall service experience, word of mouth and personality traits, all of which describe a doctor's soft skills. These service features affect patients' trust in doctors, which, in turn, affects doctors' consultation volumes.Originality/valueThis research is important as it informs doctors about the features they should improve, to increase their consultation volume on OMC platforms. Furthermore, it not only enriches current trust-related research in the field of OMC, which has a certain reference significance for subsequent research on establishing trust in online doctor–patient relationships, but it also provides a reference for research concerning the antecedents of trust in general.

5.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1071, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally, causing an unprecedented pandemic. However, there is no specific antiviral therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a clinical trial to compare the effectiveness of three antiviral treatment regimens in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. METHODS: This was a single-center, randomized, open-labeled, prospective clinical trial. Eligible patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 were randomized into three groups: ribavirin (RBV) plus interferon-α (IFN-α), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus IFN-α, and RBV plus LPV/r plus IFN-α at a 1:1:1 ratio. Each patient was invited to participate in a 28-d follow-up after initiation of an antiviral regimen. The outcomes include the difference in median interval to SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negativity, the proportion of patients with SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negativity at day 14, the mortality at day 28, the proportion of patients re-classified as severe cases, and adverse events during the study period. RESULTS: In total, we enrolled 101 patients in this study. Baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients were comparable among the three groups. In the analysis of intention-to-treat data, the median interval from baseline to SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negativity was 12 d in the LPV/r+IFN-α-treated group, as compared with 13 and 15 d in the RBV+IFN-α-treated group and in the RBV+LPV/r+ IFN-α-treated group, respectively (p=0.23). The proportion of patients with SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid negativity in the LPV/r+IFN-α-treated group (61.1%) was higher than the RBV+ IFN-α-treated group (51.5%) and the RBV+LPV/r+IFN-α-treated group (46.9%) at day 14; however, the difference between these groups was calculated to be statistically insignificant. The RBV+LPV/r+IFN-α-treated group developed a significantly higher incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events than the LPV/r+ IFN-α-treated group and the RBV+ IFN-α-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that there are no significant differences among the three regimens in terms of antiviral effectiveness in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Furthermore, the combination of RBV and LPV/r is associated with a significant increase in gastrointestinal adverse events, suggesting that RBV and LPV/r should not be co-administered to COVID-19 patients simultaneously. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: ChiCTR2000029387. Registered on January 28, 2019.

6.
Industrial Management & Data Systems ; 120(12):2423-2446, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-953059

ABSTRACT

PurposeOnline trust is a key factor for successful online transactions. To some extent, online health consultation can be considered an online transaction. Owing to the unique physician–patient relationship, patients' choice of physicians within an online health consultation setting may not only be based on rational judgments but also considerably affected by their feelings. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore which physicians' attributes affect patients' cognitive and affective trust in physicians, as well as how these two variables and their association affect patients' willingness to choose.Design/methodology/approachBased on the broad conceptual framework of online trust, this paper proposed a set of hypotheses that were tested through analyzing survey data using structural equation modeling techniques.FindingsResults showed that physicians' ability had a significant positive influence on patients' cognitive trust in the physician;physicians' integrity and benevolence had a significant positive influence on patients' affective trust in the physician;cognitive and affective trust had a significant positive impact on patients' willingness to choose and there were significant positive interactions between affective and cognitive trust.Originality/valueThis study theoretically enriches the generic model of online trust. From the practical perspective, it will provide physicians working in online health consultation platforms and relevant practitioners with baseline information on the topic and advice for decision-making toward service enhancement and clientele improvements.

7.
Lancet ; 395(10236): 1569-1578, 2020 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No specific antiviral drug has been proven effective for treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleoside analogue prodrug, has inhibitory effects on pathogenic animal and human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro, and inhibits Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 replication in animal models. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial at ten hospitals in Hubei, China. Eligible patients were adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with an interval from symptom onset to enrolment of 12 days or less, oxygen saturation of 94% or less on room air or a ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intravenous remdesivir (200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg on days 2-10 in single daily infusions) or the same volume of placebo infusions for 10 days. Patients were permitted concomitant use of lopinavir-ritonavir, interferons, and corticosteroids. The primary endpoint was time to clinical improvement up to day 28, defined as the time (in days) from randomisation to the point of a decline of two levels on a six-point ordinal scale of clinical status (from 1=discharged to 6=death) or discharged alive from hospital, whichever came first. Primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and safety analysis was done in all patients who started their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04257656. FINDINGS: Between Feb 6, 2020, and March 12, 2020, 237 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a treatment group (158 to remdesivir and 79 to placebo); one patient in the placebo group who withdrew after randomisation was not included in the ITT population. Remdesivir use was not associated with a difference in time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio 1·23 [95% CI 0·87-1·75]). Although not statistically significant, patients receiving remdesivir had a numerically faster time to clinical improvement than those receiving placebo among patients with symptom duration of 10 days or less (hazard ratio 1·52 [0·95-2·43]). Adverse events were reported in 102 (66%) of 155 remdesivir recipients versus 50 (64%) of 78 placebo recipients. Remdesivir was stopped early because of adverse events in 18 (12%) patients versus four (5%) patients who stopped placebo early. INTERPRETATION: In this study of adult patients admitted to hospital for severe COVID-19, remdesivir was not associated with statistically significant clinical benefits. However, the numerical reduction in time to clinical improvement in those treated earlier requires confirmation in larger studies. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Emergency Project of COVID-19, National Key Research and Development Program of China, the Beijing Science and Technology Project.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Negative Results , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Open Med (Wars) ; 15(1): 805-814, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760726

ABSTRACT

AIM: Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for the survival of severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, but data with regard to risk factors for disease progression from milder COVID-19 to severe COVID-19 remain scarce. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis on 116 patients. RESULTS: Three factors were observed to be independently associated with progression to severe COVID-19 during 14 days after admission: (a) age 65 years or older (hazard ratio [HR] = 8.456; 95% CI: 2.706-26.426); (b) creatine kinase (CK) ≥ 180 U/L (HR = 3.667; 95% CI: 1.253-10.733); and (c) CD4+ T-cell counts <300 cells/µL (HR = 4.695; 95% CI: 1.483-14.856). The difference in rates of severe COVID-19 development was found to be statistically significant between patients aged 65 years or older (46.2%) and those younger than 65 years (90.2%), between patients with CK ≥ 180 U/L (55.6%) and those with CK < 180 U/L (91.5%), and between patients with CD4+ T-cell counts <300 cells/µL (53.8%) and those with CD4+ cell counts ≥300 cells/µL (83.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Age ≥ 65 years, CK ≥ 180 U/L, and CD4+ T-cell counts <300 cells/µL at admission were risk factors independently associated with disease progression to severe COVID-19 during 14 days after admission and are therefore potential markers for disease progression in patients with milder COVID-19.

10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(12): 11238-11244, 2020 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-608387

ABSTRACT

Our study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the prognosis of patients with mental disorders with COVID-19. All patients with mental disorders who were diagnosed with COVID-19 at the intensive care unit of Wuhan Mental Health Center during the period January 3 to March 1, 2020 were selected. The influence of the baseline characteristics, clinical symptoms, laboratory parameters and the types of mental disorders on prognosis were analyzed. According to their final prognosis, the patients were divided into the deceased group (5 patients) and the cured group (25 patients). The mortality rate of patients with dementia was significantly higher than that of patients with other mental disorders (P = 0.001). The levels of certain laboratory parameters in the serum of dementia patients were significantly increased compared with levels in nondementia patients (WBC count: 10.100±6.147 vs. 5.694±3.383, p = 0.029; neutrophil count: 8.504± 5.993 vs. 3.764 ± 2.733, P = 0.008; BUN: 8.300± 4.072 vs. 4.364 ± 1.196, P = 0.001). Our research indicated that the mortality rate of dementia patients with COVID-19 was higher than that of patients with other mental disorders. A focus on the inflammatory response of dementia patients may provide novel ideas for reducing mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dementia/complications , Mental Disorders/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(3): 480-485, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437068

ABSTRACT

The efficient transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) from patients to health care workers or family members has been a worrisome and prominent feature of the ongoing outbreak. On the basis of clinical practice and in-vitro studies, we postulated that post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) using Arbidol is associated with decreased infection among individuals exposed to confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on family members and health care workers who were exposed to patients confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time RT-PCR and chest computed tomography (CT) from January 1 to January 16, 2020. The last follow-up date was Feb. 26, 2020. The emergence of fever and/or respiratory symptoms after exposure to the primary case was collected. The correlations between post-exposure prophylaxis and infection in household contacts and health care workers were respectively analyzed. A total of 66 members in 27 families and 124 health care workers had evidence of close exposure to patients with confirmed COVID-19. The Cox regression based on the data of the family members and health care workers with Arbidol or not showed that Arbidol PEP was a protective factor against the development of COVID-19 (HR 0.025, 95% CI 0.003-0.209, P=0.0006 for family members and HR 0.056, 95% CI 0.005-0.662, P=0.0221 for health care workers). Our findings suggest Arbidol could reduce the infection risk of the novel coronavirus in hospital and family settings. This treatment should be promoted for PEP use and should be the subject of further investigation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Indoles/administration & dosage , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Family , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Indoles/pharmacology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
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