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BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063919, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119454


ObjectiveTwo COVID-19 outbreaks occurred in Henan province in early 2022-one was a Delta variant outbreak and the other was an Omicron variant outbreak. COVID-19 vaccines used at the time of the outbreak were inactivated, 91.8%; protein subunit, 7.5%; and adenovirus5-vectored, 0.7% vaccines. The outbreaks provided an opportunity to evaluate variant-specific breakthrough infection rates and relative protective effectiveness of homologous inactivated COVID-19 vaccine booster doses against symptomatic infection and pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: We evaluated relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) with a retrospective cohort study of close contacts of infected individuals using a time-dependent Cox regression model. Demographic and epidemiologic data were obtained from the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; clinical and laboratory data were obtained from COVID-19-designated hospitals. Vaccination histories were obtained from the national COVID-19 vaccination dataset. All data were linked by national identification number. RESULTS: Among 784 SARS-CoV-2 infections, 379 (48.3%) were caused by Delta and 405 (51.7%) were caused by Omicron, with breakthrough rates of 9.9% and 17.8%, respectively. Breakthrough rates among boosted individuals were 8.1% and 4.9%. Compared with subjects who received primary vaccination series ≥180 days before infection, Cox regression modelling showed that homologous inactivated booster vaccination was statistically significantly associated with protection from symptomatic infection caused by Omicron (rVE 59%; 95% CI 13% to 80%) and pneumonia caused by Delta (rVE 62%; 95% CI 34% to 77%) and Omicron (rVE 87%; 95% CI 3% to 98%). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination in China provided good protection against symptomatic COVID-19 and COVID-19 pneumonia caused by Delta and Omicron variants. Protection declined 6 months after primary series vaccination but was restored by homologous inactivated booster doses given 6 months after the primary series.

COVID-19 , United States , Humans , Vaccines, Inactivated , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , Vaccine Efficacy , SARS-CoV-2
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1950-1958, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937611


Using a three-prefecture, two-variant COVID-19 outbreak in Henan province in January 2022, we evaluated the associations of primary and booster immunization with China-produced COVID-19 vaccines and COVID-19 pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 viral load among persons infected by Delta or Omicron variant. We obtained demographic, clinical, vaccination, and multiple Ct values of infections ≥3 years of age. Vaccination status was either primary series ≥180 days prior to infection; primary series <180 days prior to infection, or booster dose recipient. We used logistic regression to determine odds ratios (OR) of Delta and Omicron COVID-19 pneumonia by vaccination status. We analysed minimum Ct values by vaccination status, age, and variant. Of 826 eligible cases, 405 were Delta and 421 were Omicron cases; 48.9% of Delta and 19.0% of Omicron cases had COVID-19 pneumonia. Compared with full primary vaccination ≥180 days before infection, the aOR of pneumonia was 0.48 among those completing primary vaccination <180 days and 0.18 among booster recipients among these Delta infections. Among Omicron infections, the corresponding aOR was 0.34 among those completing primary vaccination <180 days. There were too few (ten) Omicron cases among booster dose recipients to calculate a reliable OR. There were no differences in minimum Ct values by vaccination status among the 356 Delta cases or 70 Omicron cases. COVID-19 pneumonia was less common among Omicron cases than Delta cases. Full primary vaccination reduced pneumonia effectively for 6 months; boosting six months after primary vaccination resulted in further reduction. We recommend accelerating the pace of booster dose administration.

COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
MedComm (2020) ; 2(2): 247-255, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1176294


Recent studies reported sex differences in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). We aim to analyze sex differences in clinical characteristics and risk factors for disease severity of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Beijing. All adults (185 cases) diagnosed with COVID-19 and admitted to Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University were included in samples. The median age of all patients was 41 years. The mean body mass index (BMI) of males was relatively higher compared to females (p < 0.001). The proportion of male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), history of smoking and drinking was higher than females. Male patients developed more clinical symptoms, obtained more abnormal laboratory test results, while they were less aware of care-seeking than female patients. There were no significant differences in clinical complications and outcomes between two groups. Age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.082; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.034-1.132; p = 0.001) and BMI (OR: 1.237; 95% CI: 1.041-1.47; p = 0.016) were considered risk factors for refractory pneumonia in multivariate regression analysis. The findings of the current study showed that SARS-CoV-2 was more likely to affect older males with comorbidities. Further researches into factors underlying obesity and disease severity may provide mechanistic insight into COVID-19 development.