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1.
Discrete Dynamics in Nature & Society ; : 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1807685

ABSTRACT

With the multiple waves of COVID-19 in China and other countries, there is an urgent need to design effective containment, especially nonpharmaceutical interventions, to combat the transmission. Media reports on COVID-19—which can induce precautionary behaviour such as social distancing, by providing disease-related information to the public—are thought to be effective in containing the spread. We include the media-reporting data collected from authoritative and popular websites, along with the corresponding IP-visiting data, to study the effects of media reports in curbing the outbreak of COVID-19 in Beijing. To quantify how social distancing affects the spread of COVID-19, we differentiate the fully susceptible from those susceptibles who are media aware and practice social distancing or are quarantined. We propose a discrete compartment model with the fully susceptible, the media-aware susceptible, and the quarantined susceptible as three separate classes. We adopt functions dependent on the media reports and the contacts of media-aware susceptibles to describe the progression rate of susceptibles to media-aware susceptibles. By fitting the targeted model to data on the two Beijing outbreaks, we estimated the reproduction numbers for the two outbreaks as R 0 = 1.6818 and R 0 = 1.3251 , respectively. Cross-correlation analysis on our collected data suggests a strong correlation between the media reporting and epidemic case data. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis show that even with the intensified interventions in force, reducing either the social distancing uptake rate or the average duration of social distancing for media-aware susceptibles could aggravate the severity of the two outbreaks in Beijing by magnifying the final confirmed cases and lengthening the end time of the pandemic. Our findings demonstrate that enhancing social distancing and media reporting alone, if done in sufficient measures, are enough to alleviate the COVID-19 epidemic. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Discrete Dynamics in Nature & Society is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325373

ABSTRACT

Background: The global outbreak of COVID-19 has caused worrying concern amongst the public and health authorities. The first and foremost problem that many countries face is a shortage of medical resources. The experience of Wuhan, China, in fighting against COVID-19 provides a model for other countries to learn from. Methods: We formulated a piecewise smooth model to describe the limitation of hospital beds, based on the transmission progression of COVID-19, and the strengthening prevention and control strategies implemented in Wuhan, China. We used data of the cumulative numbers of confirmed cases, cured cases and deaths in Wuhan city from 10 January to 20 March, 2020 to estimate unknown parameters and the effective reproduction number. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the impact of a shortage of hospital beds on the COVID-19 outbreak. Results: Even with strong prevention and control measures in Wuhan, slowing down of the supply rate, reducing the maximum capacity and delaying the intervention time of supplementing hospital beds aggravated the outbreak severity by magnifying the cumulative numbers of confirmed cases and deaths, prolonging the period of the outbreak in Wuhan, enlarging the value of the effective reproduction number during the outbreak and postponing the time when the threshold value is reduced to 1. Conclusions: The quick establishment of the Huoshenshan and Leishenshan Hospitals in a short time and the deployment of mobile cabin hospitals played important roles in containing the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, providing a model for other countries to provide more hospital beds for COVID-19 patients faster and earlier.

3.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(2): 1388-1410, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593802

ABSTRACT

The large-scale infection of COVID-19 has led to a significant impact on lives and economies around the world and has had considerable impact on global public health. Social distancing, mask wearing and contact tracing have contributed to containing or at least mitigating the outbreak, but how public awareness influences the effectiveness and efficiency of such approaches remains unclear. In this study, we developed a discrete compartment dynamic model to mimic and explore how media reporting and the strengthening containment strategies can help curb the spread of COVID-19 using Shaanxi Province, China, as a case study. The targeted model is parameterized based on multi-source data, including the cumulative number of confirmed cases, recovered individuals, the daily number of media-reporting items and the imported cases from the rest of China outside Shaanxi from January 23 to April 11, 2020. We carried out a sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of media reporting and imported cases on transmission. The results revealed that reducing the intensity of media reporting, which would result in a significant increasing of the contact rate and a sizable decreasing of the contact-tracing rate, could aggravate the outbreak severity by increasing the cumulative number of confirmed cases. It also demonstrated that diminishing the imported cases could alleviate the outbreak severity by reducing the length of the epidemic and the final size of the confirmed cases; conversely, delaying implementation of lockdown strategies could prolong the length of the epidemic and magnify the final size. These findings suggest that strengthening media coverage and timely implementing of lockdown measures can significantly reduce infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(22)2020 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934496

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of COVID-19 has caused worrying concern amongst the public and health authorities. The first and foremost problem that many countries face during the outbreak is a shortage of medical resources. In order to investigate the impact of a shortage of hospital beds on the COVID-19 outbreak, we formulated a piecewise smooth model for describing the limitation of hospital beds. We parameterized the model while using data on the cumulative numbers of confirmed cases, recovered cases, and deaths in Wuhan city from 10 January to 12 April 2020. The results showed that, even with strong prevention and control measures in Wuhan, slowing down the supply rate, reducing the maximum capacity, and delaying the supply time of hospital beds all aggravated the outbreak severity by magnifying the cumulative numbers of confirmed cases and deaths, lengthening the end time of the pandemic, enlarging the value of the effective reproduction number during the outbreak, and postponing the time when the threshold value was reduced to 1. Our results demonstrated that establishment of the Huoshenshan, Leishenshan, and Fangcang shelter hospitals avoided 22,786 people from being infected and saved 6524 lives. Furthermore, the intervention of supplying hospital beds avoided infections in 362,360 people and saved the lives of 274,591 persons. This confirmed that the quick establishment of the Huoshenshan, Leishenshan Hospitals, and Fangcang shelter hospitals, and the designation of other hospitals for COVID-19 patients played important roles in containing the outbreak in Wuhan.


Subject(s)
Beds/supply & distribution , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Lancet ; 395(10236): 1569-1578, 2020 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: No specific antiviral drug has been proven effective for treatment of patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleoside analogue prodrug, has inhibitory effects on pathogenic animal and human coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro, and inhibits Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 replication in animal models. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial at ten hospitals in Hubei, China. Eligible patients were adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, with an interval from symptom onset to enrolment of 12 days or less, oxygen saturation of 94% or less on room air or a ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen of 300 mm Hg or less, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intravenous remdesivir (200 mg on day 1 followed by 100 mg on days 2-10 in single daily infusions) or the same volume of placebo infusions for 10 days. Patients were permitted concomitant use of lopinavir-ritonavir, interferons, and corticosteroids. The primary endpoint was time to clinical improvement up to day 28, defined as the time (in days) from randomisation to the point of a decline of two levels on a six-point ordinal scale of clinical status (from 1=discharged to 6=death) or discharged alive from hospital, whichever came first. Primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and safety analysis was done in all patients who started their assigned treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04257656. FINDINGS: Between Feb 6, 2020, and March 12, 2020, 237 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to a treatment group (158 to remdesivir and 79 to placebo); one patient in the placebo group who withdrew after randomisation was not included in the ITT population. Remdesivir use was not associated with a difference in time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio 1·23 [95% CI 0·87-1·75]). Although not statistically significant, patients receiving remdesivir had a numerically faster time to clinical improvement than those receiving placebo among patients with symptom duration of 10 days or less (hazard ratio 1·52 [0·95-2·43]). Adverse events were reported in 102 (66%) of 155 remdesivir recipients versus 50 (64%) of 78 placebo recipients. Remdesivir was stopped early because of adverse events in 18 (12%) patients versus four (5%) patients who stopped placebo early. INTERPRETATION: In this study of adult patients admitted to hospital for severe COVID-19, remdesivir was not associated with statistically significant clinical benefits. However, the numerical reduction in time to clinical improvement in those treated earlier requires confirmation in larger studies. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Emergency Project of COVID-19, National Key Research and Development Program of China, the Beijing Science and Technology Project.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Negative Results , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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