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1.
International Journal of Gerontology ; 16(2):144-146, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1884654

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a threat to global public health. The disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and characterized by high transmission, high mortality, lack of effective treatment, and prolonged hospitalization. Currently, there is no clear management strategy for COVID-19 infection. Some clinical evidence suggests that the use of inhaled ciclesonide and enoxaparin subcutaneous injection maybe helpful for disease treatment. In this article, we report the successful treatment of a 65-year-old male with COVID-19 pneumonia with Inhaled corticosteroid and enoxaparin subcutaneously, which also shortened the course of the disease without significant complications. Copyright (C) 2022, Taiwan Society of Geriatric Emergency & Critical Care Medicine.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884431

ABSTRACT

Policies such as border closures and quarantines have been widely used during the COVID-19 pandemic. Policy modifications and updates, however, must be adjusted as global vaccination rates increase. We calculated the risks of individual travelers based on their expected transmission and benchmarked them against that of an unvaccinated traveler quarantined for 14 days without testing. All individuals with a negative preboarding test can be released with a negative arrival test, when both tests have a sensitivity ≥ 90% and a specificity ≥ 97%, performance characteristics that could be accomplished by rapid antigen tests. This assumption is valid for an incidence rate up to 0.1 (prior to testing) and effective reproduction number (Rt) up to 4 in the arrival country. In a sensitivity analysis scenario where the incidence rate is 0.4 and Rt is 16, a negative preboarding test and a negative arrival test, both with a sensitivity ≥ 98% and a specificity ≥ 97%, can ensure that a traveler has a lower expected transmission than an unvaccinated person who is quarantined for 14 days. In most cases, fully vaccinated travelers (with or without booster) and a negative preboarding test can be released with a negative rapid antigen test upon arrival, allowing travelers to depart the airport within 30 min.

3.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):174, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1881008

ABSTRACT

Background: Remdesivir (RDV), a potent nucleotide inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, effectively reduces COVID-19 related hospitalization in outpatients at high risk for progression to severe disease. However, limited data exist on the safety profile of RDV in this population. Methods: We conducted a Phase III placebo-controlled study evaluating a 3-day regimen of RDV in non-hospitalized patients who are at risk for disease progression (age>60 years or underlying comorbid condition). Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive intravenous RDV (200 mg on day 1, 100 mg on days 2 to 3) or placebo (PBO). The primary safety endpoint was the proportion of patients with treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs). AEs were evaluated through day 28 and lab abnormalities were evaluated through day 14. Results: 562 patients were randomized and initiated treatment (279, RDV;283, placebo). Baseline characteristics were balanced between groups. Thirty percent were ≥60 years old and most common comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (62%), obesity (56%;median BMI, 30.7 kg/m2), and hypertension (48%). RDV was well tolerated with a similar rate of any AEs between groups (Table). Patients treated with RDV had fewer Grade ≥3 and serious AEs (SAEs) compared to PBO, but had more study-drug related AEs, with the most common one being nausea (18 [6.5%] in RDV vs. 10 [3.5%] in PBO). Grade 3 or higher ALT elevation was reported in 1 (0.4%) RDV vs. 2 (0.7%) PBO treated patients. Median change from baseline in AST, ALT, and bilirubin was similar between groups (Table). Grade 3 or higher decrease in creatinine clearance (CrCl) occurred more often in RDV vs. to PBO treated patients (5.6% vs 1.9% respectively). Most decreases in creatinine clearance occurred within the normal serum creatinine range, occurred after completion of RDV therapy, and resolved on follow-up. Median changes in CrCl from baseline were similar between groups and no renal AEs were reported (Table). Incidence of cardiac-related AEs was similar between RDV and PBO groups. All bradycardia events occurred in the PBO group. No patient experienced a serious AE or drug discontinuation due to hypersensitivity. Conclusion: Treatment with RDV was safe and well tolerated in non-hospitalized patients with risk factors for COVID-19 disease progression. Patients in the RDV group had similar type, incidence, and severity of AEs and lab abnormalities as those receiving PBO.

4.
Journal of Research in Education Sciences ; 66(4):1-33, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876094

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose of Research Adolescents use their smartphones for various purposes, for example, following distance/online learning, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, staying in touch with friends, having fun using social media tools. According to the social ecological model, risk behaviors, like substance consumption, are regarded as behavior problems. Relatively, etiology is derived of youths’ embeddedness surrounded by their social networks, mainly throughout sensitive development periods (Bishop et al., 2020). Given the prevalence of smartphone addiction among young students, previous studies have explored the relationships between smartphone addiction and students’ learning and indicated there is negative outcomes of smartphone resulting from overuse of mobile phones, including poor sleep quality. However, there some antecedents of smartphone addiction which has not extendedly studied, for example, parenting style, thus, the present study aimed to explore the correlates between parenting styles, academic achievement and smartphone addiction. Parenting that reflects a combination of support and behavioral control has been linked to numerous indices of academic well-being and live functioning from early childhood through adolescence. In regarding the term helicopter parenting indicated that parents involve hovering behaviors and are potentially over-involved in the lives of their child or in their academic work (Padilla-Walker & Nelson, 2012). But empirical research has not adequately used these two construct from other controlling parenting practices to predict children’s smartphone addiction, thus, the present study applied two types of helicopter parenting: Live hovering and academic hovering of parenting for of emerging adults, to explain the prediction of children’s smartphone addiction. According to Bronfenbrenner (1979) micro ecological system that discusses the association between person-process-content (PPC), who described “person-process-context model” (PPCM) that occurs variability in development procedure as considered in this paper as a functional context (mobile phone usage), person (parenting styles) and process (academic achievement). Not only has cultural ecology be likely to pursue its complications in issues originating from social and cultural topics, but intricate schools of understanding of culture-nature relationship have developed for certain risk behavior. For example, helicopter parenting is more obvious in Chinese families than Western ones, even though the parents want their children to grow up to be independent and think for themselves. Particularly, Chinese parents are more concerned about their children’s schoolwork when they are teenagers, which leads to increased helicopter parenting problems, exacerbating issues such as lack of independence, lack of control, and not knowing how to self-manage smartphone use, which can in turn lead to smartphone addiction. If parents are in constant hovering of their children’s lives or schoolwork, children develop dependent behaviors. Some studies have indicated that a child’s dependent behaviors result in lower motivation to learn and reduced academic achievement. In line with this, drawn on PPCM to understanding the role of academic hovering and live hovering affect participants’ smartphone addiction mediated by academic achievement, hypotheses are proposed as follows. Hypotheses (1) Live hovering has a negative effect on academic achievement. (2) Academic hovering has a negative effect on academic achievement. (3) Academic achievement has a negative effect on smartphone addiction. (4) Live hovering has a positive effect on smartphone addiction. (5) Academic hovering has a positive effect on smartphone addiction. Methodology Questionnaire was designed by adapting and translated from previous researched and gave to domain experts to ensure the content validity. Afterward, a purposive sampling was adapted in this study, a total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to 4 vocational senior high schools located in Taipei City. 354 of which were collected, resulting in a questionnaire collection rate of 88.5%. After 64 invalid questionnaires were excluded, 290 valid questionnaires remained, resulting in a valid questionnaire collection rate of 81.92%. Factor analysis was conducted on the valid questionnaires. Results First, helicopter parenting, live and academic hovering had a negative association with academic achievement, with an explanatory power of 20.8%. Second, academic achievement had a negative association with smartphone addiction, with an explanatory power of 38.6%. Third, helicopter parenting had a negative association with smartphone addiction. Fourth, academic hovering had a negative association with smartphone addiction mediated by academic achievement, with an explanatory power of 20.8%. The results of the study thus indicate that young people who are not independent in life or schoolwork tend to rely on their parents, are less able to control their smartphone use, and are more likely to develop smartphone addiction. By contrast, young people who are independent in life and schoolwork and do not need to rely on their parents have control over their smartphone use and are less likely to develop smartphone addiction. Conclusions and Recommendations The results of this study demonstrate that if vocational senior high school students are overly dependent on their parents in life or schoolwork, they may have lower academic achievement and therefore, they are not motivated to achieve strong academic results and will not restrain their desire to spend time on using smartphone, resulting in a tendency toward smartphone addiction. However, when vocational senior high school students do not have to rely on their parents to a great extent in life or schoolwork, they are able to act independently, attain high academic achievement, determine what they want to achieve, and arrange how they will accomplish their goals. Therefore, they have the ability to control the time they spend using their phones and will not develop smartphone addiction. This study suggests that parents should let their children learn to be independent and autonomous, which should help to effectively reduce the problem of smartphone addiction. Finally, conducting this study highlighted possibilities for future research. Some studies suggest that fathers and mothers do not necessarily share the same parenting style, and hence, it is suggested that in a questionnaire survey, the hovering styles of fathers and mothers could be differentiated and then analyzed through a differential analysis. In addition, some smartphone use can be designed with time of use to control using time (e.g., Chinese government limited the hours for children to use smartphone). However, how is the effect of the regulation to students’ smartphone addiction should be further studied. © 2021, National Taiwan Normal University. All rights reserved.

5.
Event Management ; 26(4):867-882, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875834

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has caused the event industry and providers of tertiary event management courses to reflect on the nature of future events and the form they will take. With hybrid, virtual, and innovative events being foreseen for the coming years, skills taught in the relevant programs and courses also need to be reassessed and restructured. Using qualitative, semistructured interviews, this research explores the viewpoints on requisite future skills from three groups of event stakeholders—professionals, lecturers, and students—across three countries: China, Germany, and Australia. The results show agreement on what event management skills will be needed, among which technical and digital expertise, communication, innovation, and leadership are seen as the most important. Copyright © 2022 Cognizant, LLC.

6.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872261

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 antibodies have been found in breast milk following natural SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 vaccination. This is a prospective study to evaluate the temporal changes in amount and neutralization capacity of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in breast milk stimulated by natural infection and vaccination by collecting serial breast milk samples from conveniently recruited postnatal individuals. This study found a rapid increase in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in breast milk from the study subjects. Our results have demonstrated a gradual drop in their neutralization capacity and that the booster dose is able to re-trigger the secretion of neutralizing IgA in breast milk. This highlights the importance of the booster dose in order to sustain neutralizing antibody levels in breast milk which may potentially provide protection for very young children who cannot receive the COVID-19 vaccine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Cambridge Journal of Regions Economy and Society ; : 25, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1853006

ABSTRACT

For regions that are deeply integrated into the global economy, the question of how to remain competitive and resilient in times of uncertainty is a key concern. While strategic coupling is a useful concept for understanding local-global economic dynamics, the idea that a region can simultaneously couple into multiple production networks organised at different spatial scales and that regional actors can increase their autonomy by creatively combining different coupling scenarios has been little explored. This paper explores how regional institutional innovations can facilitate such multiple couplings. We focus on the industrial chain chief model in China's Zhejiang province, which emerged against the backdrop of the U.S.-China trade war and the COVID-19 pandemic. We argue that this institutional innovation offers a different way of thinking for regions that have long been exposed to the influence of globalisation, and that it increases the agency of local actors in global production networks.

9.
Hong Kong Journal of Paediatrics ; 27(2):118-125, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1843202

ABSTRACT

Since the first report of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, the disease has rapidly spread to many countries worldwide. The initial reports showed that the incidence rate in adults was higher, while children and adolescents had fewer cases of infection. However, the number of COVID-19 cases has gradually increased in children and adolescents. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the percentage of children and/or adolescents of the total patients diagnosed with COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched to find relevant studies. All statistical analyses were conducted using StataMP 14 software. A total of 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. The final results showed that the percentage of children and/or adolescents of all COVID-19 cases was 0.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.04-0.07], which meant an average of 6 cases in children per 10,000 COVID-19 cases. The percentage of children and/or adolescents with COVID-19 was 0.03 (95% CI, 0.01-0.05), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.08-0.09), 0.09 (95% CI, 0.03-0.16) and 0.04 (95% CI, 0.00-0.10) in Asia, South America, North America and Europe, respectively. The present study showed a low percentage of COVID-19 cases of children and/or adolescents, but not without infection risk. Therefore, we should pay attention to the cases of children and/or adolescents during the COVID-19 period and raise our vigilance. © 2022, Medcom Limited. All rights reserved.

10.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335728

ABSTRACT

There is strong evidence for brain-related abnormalities in COVID-191-13. It remains unknown however whether the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection can be detected in milder cases, and whether this can reveal possible mechanisms contributing to brain pathology. Here, we investigated brain changes in 785 UK Biobank participants (aged 51-81) imaged twice, including 401 cases who tested positive for infection with SARS-CoV-2 between their two scans, with 141 days on average separating their diagnosis and second scan, and 384 controls. The availability of pre-infection imaging data reduces the likelihood of pre-existing risk factors being misinterpreted as disease effects. We identified significant longitudinal effects when comparing the two groups, including: (i) greater reduction in grey matter thickness and tissue-contrast in the orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus, (ii) greater changes in markers of tissue damage in regions functionally-connected to the primary olfactory cortex, and (iii) greater reduction in global brain size. The infected participants also showed on average larger cognitive decline between the two timepoints. Importantly, these imaging and cognitive longitudinal effects were still seen after excluding the 15 cases who had been hospitalised. These mainly limbic brain imaging results may be the in vivo hallmarks of a degenerative spread of the disease via olfactory pathways, of neuroinflammatory events, or of the loss of sensory input due to anosmia. Whether this deleterious impact can be partially reversed, or whether these effects will persist in the long term, remains to be investigated with additional follow up.

11.
Multidisciplinary Microfluidic and Nanofluidic Lab-on-a-Chip: Principles and Applications ; : 199-233, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1838476

ABSTRACT

Microfluidic- and nanofluidics-based nucleic acid sensing and analysis have become of interest to the public, especially during the current COVID pandemic. In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive review of recent research dedicated to the advances of nucleic acid analysis and detection including various polymerase chain reaction platforms, isothermal target amplification methods, and emerging amplification-free methods, such as optofluidics sensing, electrochemical sensing, thermal sensing, and advanced microscopy for label-free DNA/RNA analysis. The future advancement and prospects of nucleic acid analysis are also discussed. © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

12.
Kuei Suan Jen Hsueh Pao/Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society ; 50(4):1143-1159, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1835964

ABSTRACT

Scintillators as the core materials of radiation detection play an important role in industrial nondestructive testing, medical imaging, high energy physics and safety inspection, etc.. Theexisting scintillator research faces both opportunities and challenges, especially in the context of COVID-19 pandemic period. It is of great practical significance to develop cost-effective scintillators and optimize their overall performance. The nano-glass composites (i.e., glass ceramics) have some advantages like high emission efficiency of scintillator crystals, simple preparation and low cost as an effective star scintillator. Based on the different luminescence centers, such scintillators can be broadly divided into rare-earth element ions doped or rare-earth-free luminescent nanocrystals embedded materials. This review represented recent development on the preparation of these materials, the relationship between the types of nanocrystals and their luminescence properties, and the potential applications of these materials in high-energy X-ray and gamma-ray detection. In addition, the existing problems in the research were discussed and the future development direction of nano-glass composite scintillators was also prospected. © 2022, Editorial Department of Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society. All right reserved.

13.
IEEE International Conference on Recent Advances in Systems Science and Engineering (RASSE) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822041

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 covers many countries around the world, Chest X-ray is the mainstream method for identifying COVID-19 infection. Traditional Chest X-ray detection requires professional medical personnel, which is time-consuming and laborious. Accurate medical segmentation can be used as an auxiliary means to detect COVID-19, which not only greatly reduces the cost and time, but also greatly improves the applicability. With the rapid development of deep learning, a network model based on U-NET has been proposed and widely used in medical image segmentation in recent years. However, in U-NET network, multiple convolutional pooling operations cause the loss of image spatial information features, and each channel of output features is treated equally, thus lacking flexibility in processing different information. Therefore, in this paper, we add gray bars to the samples to avoid the distortion and feature reduction caused by clipping and resize. the U-NET model architecture is taken as the main body to improve the weight of each channel in the U-NET encoding layer to increase the semantic information of the feature map and improve the segmentation accuracy of the network. In the decoding channel, feature information is restored by up-sampling. Finally, convolution and Softmax function are used to obtain the predictive segmentation image with the same size as the original image. The results show that the improved model has better performance than the traditional U-NET network.

14.
IEEE International Conference on Recent Advances in Systems Science and Engineering (RASSE) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822040

ABSTRACT

As Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) emerged at the end of 2019, traditional detection is mainly carried out using four methods: coronavirus screening detection strips, COVID-19 antibody detection kits, COVID-19 nucleic acid detection and CT detection, and the problem of low efficiency exists. In order to solve the problem of using neural network to detection a large number of data, slow speed, low efficiency, high cost, complex algorithm structure and low accuracy of detection of large data sets at present. In this paper, by collecting known public COVID-19 CT image data sets, a convolutional neural network algorithm based on residual network is proposed to reduce parameter complexity, modify weights and biases associated with neurons, and simplify the overall network structure. This algorithm is used to improve the accuracy of COVID-19 case classification detection and the convergence speed of the model. Through model verification, the accuracy of the proposed algorithm model is 0.985, the precision is 0.805, the area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve is found to be 0.852, and the recall rate is 0.897. The results show that the classification detection algorithm model proposed in this paper has higher accuracy than the general image classification model, is more concise in the network model, reduces the complexity, and can be more effectively applied to the detection of COVID-19. The combination of traditional medical imaging diagnosis and deep learning technology helps medical personnel to make more rapid, accurate and effective diagnosis.

15.
J Frailty Aging ; 11(2): 214-223, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frailty in older adults is a rapidly growing unmet medical need. It is an aging-related syndrome characterized by physical decline leading to higher risk of adverse health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of Lomecel-B, an allogeneic medicinal signaling cell (MSC) formulation, in older adults with frailty. DESIGN: This multicenter, randomized, parallel-arm, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled phase 2b trial is designed to evaluate dose-range effects of Lomecel-B for frailty on physical functioning, patient-reported outcomes (PROs), frailty status, and biomarkers. SETTING: Eight enrolling clinical research centers, including the Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Target enrollment is 150 subjects aged 70-85 years of any race, ethnicity, or gender. Enrollment criteria include a Clinical Frailty Score of 5 ("mild") or 6 ("moderate"), a 6MWT of 200-400 m, and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) ≥2.5 pg/mL. INTERVENTION: A single intravenous infusion of Lomecel-B (25, 50, 100, or 200 million cells) or placebo (N=30/arm). Patients are followed for 365 days for safety, and the efficacy assessments performed at 90, 180, and 270 days. MEASUREMENTS: The primary endpoint is change in 6MWT in the Lomecel-B-treated arms versus placebo at 180 days post-infusion. Secondary and exploratory endpoints include change in: 6MWT and other physical function measures at all time points; PROs; frailty status; cognitive status; and an inflammatory biomarkers panel. A pre-specified sub-study examines vascular/endothelial biomarkers. Safety is evaluated throughout the trial. RESULTS: The trial is conducted under a Food and Drug Administration Investigational New Drug (IND), with Institutional Review Board approval, and monitoring by an NIH-appointed independent Data Safety Monitoring Board. CONCLUSION: This clinical trial investigates the use of a regenerative medicine strategy for frailty in older adults. The results will further the understanding of the potential for Lomecel-B in the geriatric condition of frailty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Aged , Biomarkers , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
16.
Data Technologies and Applications ; : 19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1806795

ABSTRACT

Purpose The COVID-19 has become a global pandemic, which has caused large number of deaths and huge economic losses. These losses are not only caused by the virus but also by the related rumors. Nowadays, online social media are quite popular, where billions of people express their opinions and propagate information. Rumors about COVID-19 posted on online social media usually spread rapidly;it is hard to analyze and detect rumors only by artificial processing. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel model called the Topic-Comment-based Rumor Detection model (TopCom) to detect rumors as soon as possible. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted COVID-19 rumor detection from Sina Weibo, one of the most widely used Chinese online social media. The authors constructed a dataset about COVID-19 from January 1 to June 30, 2020 with a web crawler, including both rumor and non-rumors. The rumor detection task is regarded as a binary classification problem. The proposed TopCom model exploits the topical memory networks to fuse latent topic information with original microblogs, which solves the sparsity problems brought by short-text microblogs. In addition, TopCom fuses comments with corresponding microblogs to further improve the performance. Findings Experimental results on a publicly available dataset and the proposed COVID dataset have shown superiority and efficiency compared with baselines. The authors further randomly selected microblogs posted from July 1-31, 2020 for the case study, which also shows the effectiveness and application prospects for detecting rumors about COVID-19 automatically. Originality/value The originality of TopCom lies in the fusion of latent topic information of original microblogs and corresponding comments with DNNs-based models for the COVID-19 rumor detection task, whose value is to help detect rumors automatically in a short time.

17.
Small Structures ; : 19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1802587

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and other major viral infectious diseases have become a significant threat to people's life and economic/social development. In recent years, with the development of nanotechnology, nanomaterial-based antiviral agents have been extensively studied. However, the clinical applications of antiviral nanomaterials are still limited. Herein, the recent advances in nanomaterial-based antiviral strategies, mainly including antiviral nanodrugs, drug nanocarriers, and nanovaccines, are summarized. The clinical challenges and prospects of nanomaterial-based antiviral strategies are also discussed.

18.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is primarily transmitted through aerosolized droplets;however, the virus can remain transiently viable on surfaces. OBJECTIVE: We examined transmission within hemodialysis facilities, with a specific focus on the possibility of indirect patient-to-patient transmission through shared dialysis chairs. DESIGN: We used real-world data from hemodialysis patients treated between February 1 st and June 8 th , 2020 to perform a case-control study matching each SARS-CoV-2 positive patient (case) to a non-SARS-CoV-2 patient (control) in the same dialysis shift and traced back 14 days to capture possible exposure from chairs sat in by SARS-CoV-2 patients. Cases and controls were matched on age, sex, race, facility, shift date, and treatment count. SETTING: 2,600 hemodialysis facilities in the United States. PATIENTS: Adult (age >=18 years) hemodialysis patients. MEASUREMENTS: Conditional logistic regression models tested whether chair exposure after a positive patient conferred a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection to the immediate subsequent patient. RESULTS: Among 170,234 hemodialysis patients, 4,782 (2.8%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (mean age 64 years, 44% female). Most facilities (68.5%) had 0 to 1 positive SARS-CoV-2 patient. We matched 2,379 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases to 2,379 non-SARS-CoV-2 controls;1.30% (95%CI 0.90%, 1.87%) of cases and 1.39% (95%CI 0.97%, 1.97%) of controls were exposed to a chair previously sat in by a shedding SARS-CoV-2 patient. Transmission risk among cases was not significantly different from controls (OR=0.94;95%CI 0.57 to 1.54;p=0.80). Results remained consistent in adjusted and sensitivity analyses. LIMITATION: Analysis used real-world data that could contain errors and only considered vertical transmission associated with shared use of dialysis chairs by symptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of indirect patient-to-patient transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection from dialysis chairs appears to be low. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Fresenius Medical Care North America;National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (R01DK130067).

19.
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology ; 66(1):10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798967

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19 outbreak in a global scenario, mandatory mask-wearing and temperature control can effectively prevent its spread and realize self-protection. Therefore, real-time face-mask wearing and temperature measurement technology is of greater importance against the background of infectious disease prevention and control. The present study adopted MobileNet as the backbone of the single-stage RetinaFace framework for real-time face detection and mask-wearing detection. Moreover, the focal loss function of alpha dynamic value was adopted to avoid the class imbalance problem and improve the classification accuracy in the training stage. Regarding face temperature measurement technology, non-contact and uncooled temperature-sensitive elements were used for temperature measurement, but it was easily affected by environmental variables. Therefore, an SVR model was employed for temperature calibration with the constant temperature blackbody as reference. The alignment errors for the accuracy of face detection, mask wearing detection and temperature correction were 89.58%, 97.84% and 4.85%, respectively. The parameter quantity of the face mask wearing detection model reached 0.42 M, while the computation quantity arrived at 2.039 GFLOPs. The detection model proposed in this study combines real-time mask-wearing detection with face temperature measurement, which can help to quickly measure the body temperature and detect whether one wears face masks properly in the context of COVID-19, so as to reduce the risk of epidemic spread. (C) 2022 Society for Imaging Science and Technology.

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