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1.
Psychology in the Schools ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2148449

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a global crisis resulting in lockdowns worldwide. Studies found that these could amplify negative affects predictive of disturbances in time perception. However, all existing studies on this topic concentrated on the general population during a lockdown at home. There was no research on university students living in dormitories. This study fills a gap in the literature by investigating the affective states and awareness of the passage of time of Chinese university students during an exceptional dormitory lockdown. Using a snowball sampling approach, this web-based study recruited 225 volunteers (136 girls, 17-27 years old) during a dormitory lockdown. The online survey consisted of questions on demographic information, affective states (the Chinese version of the depression anxiety stress scales-21 (DASS-21) on depression, anxiety, and stress), and sense of the passage of time (the translated version of the assessment of passage of time over daily, weekly and yearly periods). The researchers shared the questionnaire link via the social media application WeChat. The study applied descriptive statistics and column charts to represent students' affective states and sense of the passage of time under extreme conditions and Pearson's correlation analysis to examine the impact of affective states on their sense of time. The study's results indicate that the dormitory lockdown caused a significant increase in all depression, anxiety, and stress categories of the DASS-21, as well as a distortion of the sense of time passing. However, the direction of the distortion differed from that in previous studies. Moreover, a Pearson correlation analysis showed that none of the three negative affects could be associated with students' sense of time. The findings of this study indicate an increased vulnerability of students due to the lockdown. Their emotions were strongly affected, requiring particular interventions to preserve their mental well-being. In addition, they showed a different distortion direction of time passage. Finally, they differed in the correlations between negative affect and the sense of passage of time compared to the general population in lockdown at home. This shows a need to investigate the impact of psychological states on students' routines and quality of life in emergencies. This study's scope should be expanded by incorporating additional factors pertaining to the passage of time and by integrating cross-cultural comparisons. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

2.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(45): 9349-9368, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117996

ABSTRACT

Undesirable adhesion of microbes such as bacteria, fungi and viruses onto surfaces affects many industries such as marine, food, textile, and healthcare. In particular in healthcare and food packaging, the effects of unwanted microbial contamination can be life-threatening. With the current global COVID-19 pandemic, interest in the development of surfaces with superior anti-viral and anti-bacterial activities has multiplied. Polymers carrying anti-microbial properties are extensively used to functionalize material surfaces to inactivate infection-causing and biocide-resistant microbes including COVID-19. This review aims to introduce the fabrication of polymer-based antimicrobial surfaces through physical and chemical modifications, followed by the discussion of the inactivation mechanisms of conventional biocidal agents and new-generation antimicrobial macromolecules in polymer-modified antimicrobial surfaces. The advanced applications of polymer-based antimicrobial surfaces on personal protective equipment against COVID-19, food packaging materials, biomedical devices, marine vessels and textiles are also summarized to express the research trend in academia and industry.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Polymers/pharmacology , Polymers/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Bacteria
3.
Trials ; 23(1): 161, 2022 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Science-driven storytelling and entertainment-education (E-E) media demonstrate potential for promoting improved attitudes and behavioral intent towards health-related practices. Months after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerging research highlights the essential role of interventions to improve public confidence in the COVID-19 vaccine. To improve vaccine confidence, we designed three short, animated videos employing three research-informed pedagogical strategies. These can be distributed globally through social media platforms, because of their wordless and culturally accessible design. However, the effectiveness of short, animated storytelling videos, deploying various pedagogic strategies, needs to be explored across different global regions. METHODS/DESIGN: The present study is a multi-site, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the effectiveness of (i) a storytelling-instructional-humor approach, (ii) a storytelling-analogy approach, (iii) a storytelling-emotion-focused approach, and (iv) no video. For our primary outcomes, we will measure vaccine hesitancy, and for secondary outcomes, we will measure behavioral intent to seek vaccination and hope. Using online platforms, we will recruit 12,000 participants (aged 18-59 years) from the USA and China, respectively, yielding a total sample size of 24,000. DISCUSSION: This trial uses innovative online technology, reliable randomization algorithms, validated survey instruments, and list experiments to establish the effectiveness of three short, animated videos employing various research-informed pedagogical strategies. Results will be used to scientifically support the broader distribution of these short, animated video as well as informing the design of future videos for rapid, global public health communication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS #00023650 . Date of registration: 2021/02/09.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(4)2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043111

ABSTRACT

Owing to condensed development processes, expanding evidence and differences in healthcare system characteristics, many COVID-19 guidelines differ in their quality and treatment recommendations, which has consequences for clinical practice. This review aimed to identify COVID-19 treatment guidelines, assess their quality and summarise their recommendations. Guidelines were identified for five therapies most commonly used among inpatients with COVID-19 (remdesivir, dexamethasone, tocilizumab, baricitinib and casirivimab/imdevimab) from 11 countries. Guideline quality was assessed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE-II) tool. Full details of recommendations and supporting evidence were analysed for high-quality guidelines, defined as those scoring ≥50% in Domain 3 (Rigour of Development) of AGREE-II. Overall, guidelines differed substantially in their quality and, even among high-quality guidelines using the same evidence, recommendations regarding specific therapeutics varied. Potential reasons for this heterogeneity, including the availability and consistency of clinical data, visibility of trial end-points and context-specific factors, are discussed.

7.
Blood Rev ; 55: 100948, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031169

ABSTRACT

Immunodeficiency syndromes represent a diverse group of inherited and acquired disorders, characterized by a spectrum of clinical manifestations, including recurrent infections, autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation and malignancy. Autoantibodies against various self-antigens reflect the immune dysregulation underlying these disorders, and could contribute to certain clinical findings, such as susceptibility to opportunistic infections, cytopenia of different hematopoietic lineages, and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. The mechanism of autoantibody production in the context of immunodeficiency remains largely unknown but is likely shaped by both intrinsic genetic aberrations and extrinsic exposures to possible infectious agents. These autoantibodies if harbor neutralizing activities and reach certain levels in the circulation, could disrupt the biological functions of their targets, resulting in specific clinical manifestations. Herein, we reviewed the prevalence of autoantibodies against cytokines, hematopoietic cells and organ-specific antigens in immunodeficiency syndromes and examined their associations with certain clinical findings. Moreover, the potential mechanism of autoantibody production was also discussed. These may shed light on the development of mechanism-based therapies to reset the dysregulated immune system in immunodeficient patients.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , Autoimmune Diseases , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Autoimmunity , Cytokines , Humans , Syndrome
8.
J Clin Med ; 11(17)2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of multifaceted quality improvement intervention based on the clinical decision support system (CDSS) in VTE prophylaxis in hospitalized patients. METHODS: A randomized, department-based clinical trial was conducted in the department of respiratory and critical care medicine, orthopedic, and general surgery wards. Patients aged ≥18 years, without VTE in admission, were allocated to the intervention group and received regular care combined with multifaceted quality improvement intervention based on CDSS during hospitalization. VTE prophylaxis rate and the occurrence of hospital-associated VTE events were analyzed as primary and secondary outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 3644 eligible residents were enrolled in this trial. With the implementation of the multifaceted quality improvement intervention based on the CDSS, the VTE prophylaxis rate of the intervention group increased from 22.93% to 34.56% (p < 0.001), and the incidence of HA-VTE events increased from 0.49% to 1.00% (p = 0.366). In the nonintervention group, the VTE prophylaxis rate increased from 24.49% to 27.90% (p = 0.091), and the incidence of HA-VTE events increased from 0.47% to 2.02% (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Multifaceted quality improvement intervention based on the CDSS strategy is feasible and expected to facilitate implementation of the recommended VTE prophylaxis strategies and reduce the incidence of HA-VTE in hospital. However, it is necessary to conduct more multicenter clinical trials in the future to provide more reliable real-world evidence.

10.
Chinese Journal of Nosocomiology ; 32(8):1271-1275, 2022.
Article in English, Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2011252

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 continues to spread globally, which poses a significant threat to global public health security. Recently, the emergence of new variant strains of SARS-CoV-2 complicates the containment of COVID-19 due to its rapid transmission, high infectivity, high viral load, atypical symptoms and high number of severe cases. In order to further understand the transmission route, pathogenesis and pathological changes of COVID-19, and accelerate the research and development of antiviral drugs and vaccines, animal models of COVID-19 have played an important role in this process. The status of research on different animal models of COVID-19 was reviewed, the characteristics were compared among the models so as to provide theoretical basis for selecting appropriate animal models of COVID-19.

11.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 376, 2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adopting healthy lifestyles and staying mentally health are two cost-effective modifiable strategies that cancer survivors can implement in self-management. We aimed to evaluate the independent, mediation, interaction, and joint associations of combined lifestyle and mental health with mortality in cancer survivors. METHODS: We performed a cohort study including 3145 cancer survivors from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2018). A healthy lifestyle score was constructed based on post-diagnosis body mass index, physical activity, diet, smoking, and drinking. Post-diagnosis mental health was assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause, cancer, and non-cancer mortality were computed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: After 20,900 person-years of follow-up (median, 6.3 years), cancer survivors with higher lifestyle score had decreased mortality, independent of mental health. Compared to participants with lower lifestyle score (0-1), HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause and non-cancer mortality among those with higher lifestyle score (3-5) were 0.68 (0.52-0.89) and 0.69 (0.56-0.85), respectively. 6.2-10.3% of the associations were mediated by mental health. Similar trends were observed among participants categorized by mental health, those with better mental health had lower mortality, independent of lifestyle. Participants with better mental health benefited more from adopting healthy lifestyles, and vice versa. Combinations of higher healthy lifestyle score and better mental health were associated with significant decreased mortality, the lowest mortality was seen in participants with highest healthy lifestyle score and concurrently with best mental health. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, in this cohort study with a nationally representative sample of US cancer survivors, we comprehensively explored the complex associations of lifestyle, mental health, and mortality. Evidence derived from this study may give much confidence to cancer survivors and healthcare providers that, changing one's lifestyle and/or staying mentally healthy after cancer diagnosis can improve survival.


Subject(s)
Cancer Survivors , Neoplasms , Cohort Studies , Humans , Life Style , Mental Health , Neoplasms/complications , Nutrition Surveys , Risk Factors
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(32): e29718, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The negative impacts of COVID-19 (ImpactCOVID) on public health are commonly assessed using the cumulative numbers of confirmed cases (CNCCs). However, whether different mathematical models yield disparate results based on varying time frames remains unclear. This study aimed to compare the differences in prediction accuracy between 2 proposed COVID-19 models, develop an angle index that can be objectively used to evaluate ImpactCOVID, compare the differences in angle indexes across countries/regions worldwide, and examine the difference in determining the inflection point (IP) on the CNCCs between the 2 models. METHODS: Data were downloaded from the GitHub website. Two mathematical models were examined in 2 time-frame scenarios during the COVID-19 pandemic (the early 20-day stage and the entire year of 2020). Angle index was determined by the ratio (=CNCCs at IP÷IP days). The R2 model and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were used to evaluate the model's prediction accuracy in the 2 time-frame scenarios. Comparisons were made using 3 visualizations: line-chart plots, choropleth maps, and forest plots. RESULTS: Exponential growth (EXPO) and item response theory (IRT) models had identical prediction power at the earlier outbreak stage. The IRT model had a higher model R2 and smaller MAPE than the EXPO model in 2020. Hubei Province in China had the highest angle index at the early stage, and India, California (US), and the United Kingdom had the highest angle indexes in 2020. The IRT model was superior to the EXPO model in determining the IP on an Ogive curve. CONCLUSION: Both proposed models can be used to measure ImpactCOVID. However, the IRT model (superior to EXPO in the long-term and Ogive-type data) is recommended for epidemiologists and policymakers to measure ImpactCOVID in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 238: 114508, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982957

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 posed a serious threat to human life and health, and SARS-CoV-2 Mpro has been considered as an attractive drug target for the treatment of COVID-19. Herein, we report 2-(furan-2-ylmethylene)hydrazine-1-carbothioamide derivatives as novel inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro developed by in-house library screening and biological evaluation. Similarity search led to the identification of compound F8-S43 with the enzymatic IC50 value of 10.76 µM. Further structure-based drug design and synthetic optimization uncovered compounds F8-B6 and F8-B22 as novel non-peptidomimetic inhibitors of Mpro with IC50 values of 1.57 µM and 1.55 µM, respectively. Moreover, enzymatic kinetic assay and mass spectrometry demonstrated that F8-B6 was a reversible covalent inhibitor of Mpro. Besides, F8-B6 showed low cytotoxicity with CC50 values of more than 100 µM in Vero and MDCK cells. Overall, these novel SARS-CoV-2 Mpro non-peptidomimetic inhibitors provide a useful starting point for further structural optimization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Furans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Discovery/methods , Furans/chemistry , Furans/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrazines/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(12): 5746-5757, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976742

ABSTRACT

We evaluated and compared humoral immune responses after inactivated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination among naïve individuals, asymptomatically infected individuals, and recovered patients with varying severity. In this multicenter, prospective cohort study, blood samples from 666 participants were collected before and after 2 doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccination. Among 392 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-naïve individuals, the seroconversion rate increased significantly from 51.8% (median antispike protein pan-immunoglobulins [S-Igs] titer: 0.8 U/ml) after the first dose to 96% (median S-Igs titer: 79.5 U/ml) after the second dose. Thirty-two percent of naïve individuals had detectable neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the original strain but all of them lost neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant. In 274 individuals with natural infection, humoral immunity was significantly improved after a single vaccine dose, with median S-Igs titers of 596.7, 1176, 1086.5, and 1828 U/ml for asymptomatic infections, mild cases, moderate cases, and severe/critical cases, respectively. NAb titers also improved significantly. However, the second dose did not substantially increase antibody levels. Although a booster dose is needed for those without infection, our findings indicate that recovered patients should receive only a single dose of the vaccine, regardless of the clinical severity, until there is sufficient evidence to confirm the benefits of a second dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated
15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 135(10): 1135-1137, 2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973291
16.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 188, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the humoral immunity of patients with underlying diseases after being infected with SARS-CoV-2 is essential for adopting effective prevention and control strategies. The purpose of this study is to analyze the seroprevalence of people with underlying diseases and the dynamic change features of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. METHODS: We selected 100 communities in Wuhan using the probability-proportional-to-size sampling method. From these 100 communities, we randomly selected households according to a list provided by the local government. Individuals who have lived in Wuhan for at least 14 days since December 2019 and were ≥ 40 years old were included. From April 9-13, 2020, community staff invited all selected individuals to the community healthcare center in batches by going door-to-door or telephone. All participants completed a standardized electronic questionnaire simultaneously. Finally, 5 ml of venous blood was collected from all participants. Blood samples were tested for the presence of pan-immunoglobulins, IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and neutralising antibodies were assessed. During the period June 11-13, 2020 and October 9-December 5, 2020, all family members of a positive family and matched negative families were followed up twice. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in people with underlying diseases was 6.30% (95% CI [5.09-7.52]), and that of people without underlying diseases was 6.12% (95% CI [5.33-6.91]). A total of 313 people were positive for total antibodies at baseline, of which 97 had underlying disease. At the first follow-up, a total of 212 people were positive for total antibodies, of which 66 had underlying disease. At the second follow-up, a total of 238 people were positive for total antibodies, of which 68 had underlying disease. A total of 219 participants had three consecutive serum samples with positive total antibodies at baseline. The IgG titers decreased significantly with or without underlying diseases (P < 0.05) within the 9 months at least, while the neutralizing antibody titer remained stable. The titer of asymptomatic patients was lower than that of symptomatic patients (baseline, P = 0.032, second follow-up, P = 0.018) in the underlying diseases group. CONCLUSION: Our research focused on the serological changes of people with and without underlying diseases in a state of single natural infection. Regardless of the underlying diseases, the IgG titer decreased significantly over time, while there was no significant difference in the decline rate of IgG between with and without underlying diseases. Moreover, the neutralizing antibody titer remained relatively stable within the 9 months at least.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Longitudinal Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies
17.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 234, 2022 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The application of prone position (PP) in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) supported by venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is controversial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of application of PP during VV-ECMO in patients with ARDS. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study of patients who met the Berlin definition of ARDS, and were supported with VV-ECMO. We divided the patients into two groups. The prone group included patients who were supported by VV-ECMO, and experienced at least one period of PP, while those without PP during VV-ECMO were defined as the supine group. Propensity score matching (PSM) at a ratio of 1:1 was introduced to minimize potential confounders. The primary outcomes were the complications of PP and the change of arterial oxygen pressure/fraction of the inspiration (PaO2/FiO2) ratio after PP. The secondary outcomes were hospital survival, ICU survival, and ECMO weaning rate. RESULTS: From April 2013 to October 2020, a total of 91 patients met the diagnostic criteria of ARDS who were supported with ECMO. 38 patients (41.8%) received at least one period of PP during ECMO, while 53 patients (58.2%) were maintained in supine position during ECMO. 22 minor complications were reported in the prone group and major complications were not found. The other ECMO-related complications were similar between two groups. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio significantly improved after PP compared with before (174.50 (132.40-228.25) mmHg vs. 158.00 (122.93-210.33) mmHg, p < 0.001). PSM selected 25 pairs of patients with similar characteristics. Hospital survival or ICU survival did not differ between the two groups (40% vs. 28%, p = 0.370; 40% vs. 32%, p = 0.556). Significant difference of ECMO weaning rate between two groups was not found (56% vs. 32%, p = 0.087). CONCLUSIONS: PP during VV-ECMO was safe and could improve oxygenation. A large-scale and well-designed RCT is needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Patient Positioning , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies
18.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 6(1): 72, 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic evolves, more information is needed on its long-term impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and social determinants of health (SDoH). The aim of the study was to assess HRQoL and SDoH among a predominantly Latino population of COVID-19 survivors and to compare effects in Latinos versus non-Latinos. METHODS: This cross-sectional study consisted of a survey (in English and Spanish) of COVID-19 survivors from December 2020 to July 2021. The study assessed sociodemographic data, clinical characteristics, and SDoH, consisting of 10 COVID-19-related concerns. The PROMIS-29 + 2 (PROPr) measure, which captures 8 HRQoL domains and a preference-based health utility, was used to assess HRQoL. Bivariate analyses included chi-square tests and t-tests. Generalized linear models were conducted for multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Of 230 respondents (6.3% response rate), the mean [SD] age was 43.1 [14.3] years; 83.0% were Latino; the mean [SD] time since diagnosis was 8.1 [3.2] months; and 12.6% had a history of hospitalization with COVID-19. HRQoL scores were slightly worse than population norms on all domains, especially anxiety; the mean [SD] PROPr health utility was 0.36 [0.25]. Domain scores were similar by ethnicity except for cognitive function-abilities, where scores were lower in Latinos. Multivariable analyses revealed that: (1) financial concerns were associated with worse health utility, as well as worse scores on all 8 PROMIS domains; (2) interpersonal conflict was associated with worse health utility and worse scores on 6 of the 8 PROMIS domains (anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance, social function, and pain interference); and (3) Latino ethnicity was only associated with 1 PROMIS domain (cognitive function-abilities) after controlling for covariates. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection is associated with HRQoL decrements long after the acute infection, and financial concerns and interpersonal conflict are particularly associated with worse HRQoL.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884182

ABSTRACT

The 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic has resulted in a significant increase in the incidence and prevalence of mental health problems such as anxiety and depression, posing a threat to peoples' lives and health safety all over the world. Research suggests some potential relationships among perceived risk, discrimination, security, and depression symptoms. However, little attention has been paid to the complex mechanisms of the associations between these variables. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of security and moderation role of perceived discrimination in the prediction of perceived epidemic risk on depression symptoms. Thus, we aimed to identify if perceived epidemic risk is a positive predictor of depression. A cross-sectional study was conducted through an anonymous online survey in China during the COVID-19 pandemic which measured perceived epidemic risk, discrimination, security, and depression symptoms. A total of 3443 valid questionnaires were obtained. The results indicated that depression symptoms were predicted by perceived epidemic risk through the mediating role of security, and this mediating role of security was moderated by perceived discrimination. Specifically, high levels of perceived discrimination may lead to a significant decrease in personal security, thus clustering depressive symptoms. These findings shed light on the influence of the perceived risk of the epidemic on depression symptoms in the context of the epidemic situation, which may help to develop targeted interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Perceived Discrimination , SARS-CoV-2
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