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1.
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci ; : 1-24, 2020 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-651370

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak of pneumonia of unknown origin was reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Pneumonia cases were epidemiologically linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. Inoculation of respiratory samples into human airway epithelial cells, Vero E6 and Huh7 cell lines, led to the isolation of a novel respiratory virus whose genome analysis showed it to be a novel coronavirus related to SARS-CoV, and therefore named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus belonging to the subgenus Sarbecovirus. The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 and the thousands of deaths caused by coronavirus disease (COVID-19) led the World Health Organization to declare a pandemic on 12 March 2020. To date, the world has paid a high toll in this pandemic in terms of human lives lost, economic repercussions and increased poverty. In this review, we provide information regarding the epidemiology, serological and molecular diagnosis, origin of SARS-CoV-2 and its ability to infect human cells, and safety issues. Then we focus on the available therapies to fight COVID-19, the development of vaccines, the role of artificial intelligence in the management of the pandemic and limiting the spread of the virus, the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on our lifestyle, and preparation for a possible second wave.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11887, 2020 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650165

ABSTRACT

Recently, the recurrence of positive SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in recovered COVID-19 patients is receiving more attention. Herein we report a cohort study on the follow-up of 182 recovered patients under medical isolation observation. Twenty (10.99%) patients out of the 182 were detected to be SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive (re-positives), although none showed any clinical symptomatic recurrence, indicating that COVID-19 responds well to treatment. Patients aged under 18 years had higher re-positive rates than average, and none of the severely ill patients re-tested positive. There were no significant differences in sex between re-positives and non-re-positives. Notably, most of the re-positives turned negative in the following tests, and all of them carried antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. This indicates that they might not be infectious, although it is still important to perform regular SARS-CoV-2 RNA testing and follow-up for assessment of infectivity. The findings of this study provide information for improving the management of recovered patients, and for differentiating the follow-up of recovered patients with different risk levels.

3.
Front. Pediatr. ; (8)20200623.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-641869

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing globally. Limited data are available for children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: A retrospective case study was conducted in one designated hospital for children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Wuhan. Results: Out of the 74 children with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, the median age was 5.8 years, with no notable variation based on gender. All of the children had had direct exposure to at least one family member with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most common symptoms were cough in 41 (55.4%) and fever in 38 (51.4%). Typical CT patterns of viral pneumonia were exhibited in 40 (54.1%) children, including ground-glass opacity and interstitial abnormalities. However, 17 (23.0%) children were classified as asymptomatic carriers, with neither symptoms nor radiological findings. Also, 68 (91.9%) children recovered fully and showed negative results on RT-PCR assay by nasopharyngeal swabs during our observation period. In contrast to the negative result for nasopharyngeal swab, 34% of the anal swabs showed a continued positive result. The mean hospitalization days of the children discharged after full recovery was 10.0 days. Conclusion: Within family clusters that had SARS-CoV-2 infection, children had mild or even asymptomatic illness. Although CT is highly sensitive, it should be avoided in follow-up of the disease in consideration of the radiological hazards and limited clinical benefits for mild illness in children. Furthermore, it is advocated that both nasopharyngeal and anal swabs should be confirmed negative for viral load prior to declaring full recovery so as to avoid oral-fecal transmission. Asymptomatic children with family clusters are potentially a little-known source of COVID-19. This therefore warrants an urgent reassessment of the transmission dynamics of the current outbreak.

4.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2020 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-605894

ABSTRACT

Objectives The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Task Force on COVID-19 conducted a global survey to understand how biochemistry laboratories manage the operational challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Materials and methods An electronic survey was distributed globally to record the operational considerations to mitigate biosafety risks in the laboratory. Additionally, the laboratories were asked to indicate the operational challenges they faced. Results A total of 1210 valid submissions were included in this analysis. Most of the survey participants worked in hospital laboratories. Around 15% of laboratories restricted certain tests on patients with clinically suspected or confirmed COVID-19 over biosafety concerns. Just over 10% of the laboratories had to restrict their test menu or services due to resource constraints. Approximately a third of laboratories performed temperature monitoring, while two thirds of laboratories increased the frequency of disinfection. Just less than 50% of the laboratories split their teams. The greatest reported challenge faced by laboratories during the COVID-19 pandemic is securing sufficient supplies of personal protective equipment (PPE), analytical equipment, including those used at the point of care, as well as reagents, consumables and other laboratory materials. This was followed by having inadequate staff, managing their morale, anxiety and deployment. Conclusions The restriction of tests and services may have undesirable clinical consequences as clinicians are deprived of important information to deliver appropriate care to their patients. Staff rostering and biosafety concerns require longer-term solutions as they are crucial for the continued operation of the laboratory during what may well be a prolonged pandemic.

5.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2020 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-605893

ABSTRACT

Objectives A global survey was conducted by the IFCC Task Force on COVID-19 to better understand how general biochemistry laboratories manage the pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical processes to mitigate biohazard risks during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Methods An electronic survey was developed to record the general characteristics of the laboratory, as well as the pre-analytical, analytical, post-analytical and operational practices of biochemistry laboratories that are managing clinical samples of patients with COVID-19. Results A total of 1210 submissions were included in the analysis. The majority of responses came from hospital central/core laboratories that serve hospital patient groups and handle moderate daily sample volumes. There has been a decrease in the use of pneumatic tube transport, increase in hand delivery and increase in number of layers of plastic bags for samples of patients with clinically suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Surgical face masks and gloves are the most commonly used personal protective equipment (PPE). Just >50% of the laboratories did not perform an additional decontamination step on the instrument after analysis of samples from patients with clinically suspected or confirmed COVID-19. A fifth of laboratories disallowed add-on testing on these samples. Less than a quarter of laboratories autoclaved their samples prior to disposal. Conclusions The survey responses showed wide variation in pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical practices in terms of PPE adoption and biosafety processes. It is likely that many of the suboptimal biosafety practices are related to practical local factors, such as limited PPE availability and lack of automated instrumentation.

6.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(7): e91-e94, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-590561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is spreading globally. Little is known about the risk factors for the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in children. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was taken in children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronary virus-2 infection in Wuhan Children's Hospital. Risk factors associated with the development of COVID-19 and progression were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Eight of 260 children diagnosed with severe COVID-19 pneumonia were included in the study. Thirty-five children with COVID-19 infection matched for age, sex and date of admission, and who classified as non-severe type, were randomly selected from the hospital admissions. For cases with severe pneumonia caused by COVID-19, the most common symptoms were dyspnea (87.5%), fever (62.5%) and cough (62.5%). In laboratory, white blood cells count was significantly higher in severe children than non-severe children. Levels of inflammation bio-makers such as hsCRP, IL-6, IL-10 and D-dimer elevated in severe children compared with non-severe children on admission. The level of total bilirubin and uric acid clearly elevated in severe children compared with non-severe children on admission. All of severe children displayed the lesions on chest CT, more lung segments were involved in severe children than in non-severe children, which was only risk factor associated with severe COVID-19 pneumonia in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: More than 3 lung segments involved were associated with greater risk of development of severe COVID-19 in children. Moreover, the possible risk of the elevation of IL-6, high total bilirubin and D-dimer with univariable analysis could identify patients to be severe earlier.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fever/virology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocyte Count , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2020 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-577064
8.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2020 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548385

ABSTRACT

Laboratory-based diagnostic measures including virological and serological tests are essential for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (rRT-PCR) can detect SARS-COV-2 by targeting open reading frame-1 antibodies (ORF1ab), envelope protein, nucleocapsid protein, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes, and the N1, N2, and N3 (3N) target genes. Therefore, rRT-PCR remains the primary method of diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 despite being limited by false-negative results, long turnaround, complex protocols, and a need for skilled personnel. Serological diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is simple and does not require complex techniques and equipment, rendering it suitable for rapid detection and massive screening. However, serological tests cannot confirm SARS-CoV-2, and results will be false-negative when antibody concentrations fall below detection limits. Balancing the increased use of laboratory tests, risk of testing errors, need for tests, burden on healthcare systems, benefits of early diagnosis, and risk of unnecessary exposure is a significant and persistent challenge in diagnosing COVID-19.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2806, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-459009

ABSTRACT

Given the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, identification of immunogenic targets against the coronavirus spike glycoprotein will provide crucial advances towards the development of sensitive diagnostic tools and potential vaccine candidate targets. In this study, using pools of overlapping linear B-cell peptides, we report two IgG immunodominant regions on SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein that are recognised by sera from COVID-19 convalescent patients. Notably, one is specific to SARS-CoV-2, which is located in close proximity to the receptor binding domain. The other region, which is localised at the fusion peptide, could potentially function as a pan-SARS target. Functionally, antibody depletion assays demonstrate that antibodies targeting these immunodominant regions significantly alter virus neutralisation capacities. Taken together, identification and validation of these neutralising B-cell epitopes will provide insights towards the design of diagnostics and vaccine candidates against this high priority coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
11.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(7): 1037-1052, 2020 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-382089

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has presented major challenges for clinical laboratories, from initial diagnosis to patient monitoring and treatment. Initial response to this pandemic involved the development, production, and distribution of diagnostic molecular assays at an unprecedented rate, leading to minimal validation requirements and concerns regarding their diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings. In addition to molecular testing, serological assays to detect antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are now becoming available from numerous diagnostic manufacturers. In both cases, the lack of peer-reviewed data and regulatory oversight, combined with general misconceptions regarding their appropriate use, have highlighted the importance of laboratory professionals in robustly validating and evaluating these assays for appropriate clinical use. The International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Task Force on COVID-19 has been established to synthesize up-to-date information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and laboratory diagnosis and monitoring of COVID-19, as well as to develop practical recommendations on the use of molecular, serological, and biochemical tests in disease diagnosis and management. This review summarizes the latest evidence and status of molecular, serological, and biochemical testing in COVID-19 and highlights some key considerations for clinical laboratories operating to support the global fight against this ongoing pandemic. Confidently this consolidated information provides a useful resource to laboratories and a reminder of the laboratory's critical role as the world battles this unprecedented crisis.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers , Clinical Laboratory Services/trends , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Humans , Laboratories/trends , Pandemics , Sensitivity and Specificity
12.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-382149

ABSTRACT

As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a substantial global public health threat, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was used in 91 50% of the COVID-19 cases in China, showing encouraging results in improving symptom management and reducing the deterioration, mortality, and recurrence rates A total of 166 modified herbal formulae consisting of 179 single herbal medicines were collected for treating COVID-19 in China Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizome, Scutellariae Radix, and Armeniacae Semen Amarum are the most frequently utilized in clinics, most of which are antipyretic (47, 26 26%), expectorant and cough-suppressing (22, 12 29%), and dampness-resolving (21, 11 73%) from traditional descriptions A total of 1212 chemical components containing β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and quercetin were primarily selected Additionally, using complex system entropy and unsupervised hierarchical clustering, 8 core herbal combinations and 10 new formulae emerged as potentially useful candidates for COVID-19 Finally, following scaffold analysis, self-organizing mapping (SOM) and cluster analysis, 12 clusters of molecules yielded 8 pharmacophore families of structures that were further screened as pharmacological targets in human metabolic pathways for inhibiting coronavirus This article aims to make more easily accessible and share historical herbal knowledge used in contemporary treatments in a modern manner to assist researchers contain the global spread of COVID-19

13.
Brain Behav Immun ; 88: 39-43, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-361461

ABSTRACT

Self-reported depression has been observed in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients, infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), during discharge from the hospital. However, the cause of this self-reported depression during the convalescent period remains unclear. Here, we report the mental health status of 96 convalescent COVID-19 patients who were surveyed using an online questionnaire at the Shenzhen Samii Medical Center from March 2 to March 12, 2020 in Shenzhen, China. After obtaining their informed consent, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients, including routine blood and biochemical data. The results suggested that patients with self-reported depression exhibited increased immune response, as indicated by increased white blood cell and neutrophil counts, as well as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. However, the mechanism linking self-reported depression to these cellular changes needs further study. In conclusion, self-reported depression occurred at an early stage in convalescent COVID-19 patients, and changes in immune function were apparent during short-term follow-up of these patients after discharge. Appropriate psychological interventions are necessary, and changes in immune function should be emphasized during long-term follow up of these patients.

15.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2020 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-343540

ABSTRACT

Co-infection has been reported in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome, but there is limited knowledge on co-infection among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The prevalence of co-infection was variable among COVID-19 patients in different studies, however, it could be up to 50% among non-survivors. Co-pathogens included bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila and Acinetobacter baumannii; Candida species and Aspergillus flavus; and viruses such as influenza, coronavirus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, parainfluenza, metapneumovirus, influenza B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. Influenza A was one of the most common co-infective viruses, which may have caused initial false-negative results of real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Laboratory and imaging findings alone cannot help distinguish co-infection from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Newly developed syndromic multiplex panels that incorporate SARS-CoV-2 may facilitate the early detection of co-infection among COVID-19 patients. By contrast, clinicians cannot rule out SARS-CoV-2 infection by ruling in other respiratory pathogens through old syndromic multiplex panels at this stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, clinicians must have a high index of suspicion for coinfection among COVID-19 patients. Clinicians can neither rule out other co-infections caused by respiratory pathogens by diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection nor rule out COVID-19 by detection of non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory pathogens. After recognizing the possible pathogens causing co-infection among COVID-19 patients, appropriate antimicrobial agents can be recommended.

16.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(7): 1053-1062, 2020 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245500

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the third coronavirus outbreak that has emerged in the past 20 years, after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). One important aspect, highlighted by many global health organizations, is that this novel coronavirus outbreak may be especially hazardous to healthcare personnel, including laboratory professionals. Therefore, the aim of this document, prepared by the COVID-19 taskforce of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), is to provide a set of recommendations, adapted from official documents of international and national health agencies, on biosafety measures for routine clinical chemistry laboratories that operate at biosafety levels 1 (BSL-1; work with agents posing minimal threat to laboratory workers) and 2 (BSL-2; work with agents associated with human disease which pose moderate hazard). We believe that the interim measures proposed in this document for best practice will help minimazing the risk of developing COVID-19 while working in clinical laboratories.


Subject(s)
Containment of Biohazards/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Clinical Laboratory Services , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Laboratories , Laboratory Personnel
17.
Chin. Med ; 1(15)20200513.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-245698

ABSTRACT

Background: Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis (DC) is a well-known tonic herbal medicine worldwide and has favorable immunomodulatory activity. Various material specifications of DC are available in herbal markets, and DC is ingested by different edible methods. However, whether these specifications and edible methods are suitable or not remains unknown. Methods: In this study, we evaluated the suitability of four material specifications (fresh stem, dried stem, fengdou and powder) and three edible methods (making tea, soup and medicinal liquor) based on holistic polysaccharide marker (HPM), the major polysaccharide components in DC. First, the HPMs were extracted from the four specifications of DC by the three edible methods in different conditions. Second, qualitative and quantitative characterization of the extracted HPMs was performed using high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Third, immunomodulatory activities of the extracted HPMs were evaluated in vivo. Results: The results showed that the HPMs were found to be quantitatively different from various specification of DC and edible methods. In vivo analysis indicated that the HPMs exerted positive effects on innate immune responses by increment in proliferation of splenocytes, secretion of IL-2 and cytotoxicity activity of NK cells. Moreover, the dosage amount of HPM should be defined as a certain range, but not the larger the better, for exerting strong immunological activities. Conclusion: According to the both chemical and biological results, fengdou by boiling with water for 4 h is the most recommended specification and edible method for DC.

19.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 55(6): 106001, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133395

ABSTRACT

In addition to the absolute case number, a rapid increase in the number of COVID-19 cases within a short time results in insufficiency of healthcare systems and further negatively affects patient outcomes. This study was conducted to investigate the association between the outcomes of COVID-19 patients and daily cumulative index (DCI), which was defined as the average daily number of new cases of COVID-19 and calculated by cumulative cases/number of days between the first reported case and March 6, 2020, by country. Spearman's rank correlation analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between mortality, incidence, and DCI. In this study, DCI was positively correlated with incidence (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-1.02, P < 0.01). Higher correlation was observed between mortality and DCI (mortality rate: r = 0.397, P = 0.018; mortality per 1 000 000 people: r = 0.0.428, P = 0.004) than between disease incidence and DCI. DCI remained statistically significantly associated with mortality per 1 000 000 people after adjustment of Health Care Index (aRR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01-1.03, P < 0.001) or Healthcare Access and Quality Index (aRR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01-1.04, P < 0.01. Reducing DCI through strict infection control measures can help slow the number of new COVID-19 cases and further improve outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
20.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(4): 299-304, 2020 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-103522

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started in December 2019 in China and the epidemic is still going on at present. Since children are the susceptible population, the number of cases is gradually increasing. In addition to the typical respiratory symptoms, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection also has the clinical symptoms of cardiovascular system damage. Based on a literature review, this article discusses the possible cardiovascular system damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 in children and related mechanisms, in order to provide help for the timely treatment and prevention of cardiovascular system damage caused by SARS-CoV-2 in children.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Cardiovascular System/physiopathology , Child , China , Humans , Pandemics
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