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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323543

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the impact of respiratory infectious disease pandemics in the new millennium on mental health, behavioral responses, and parenting practices in children, and provide further intervention directions to mitigate negative effects of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods We conducted a systemic literature review of researches from January 2003 to May 2020 with three mainstream electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Quality of included studies were assessed using Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS), and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) according to different study design. Further directions were identified for developing appropriate interventions. Results Twenty-four studies conducted in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (n = 10), influenza A (H1N1) (n = 3), and COVID-19 (n = 11) pandemics met the inclusion criteria. Children showed emotional conditions such as anxiety, fear, and depression, while psychological responses varied across age and gender groups. Children with mental illness history experienced an exacerbation of psychological symptoms. The pandemics changed hygiene habits and learning styles, and led to the increased participation in unfavorable lifestyles. For families with pediatric patients, the pandemic decreased parents’ participation in providing family-centered care and threatened to supportive family relationship and effective parents-child communication. Conclusion The emerging virus outbreaks and subsequent disease-control measures have impacts on mental health status, behavioral responses, and parenting practices in children. In response to COVID-19, greater efforts taking into account children’s developmental stage should be made to implement evidence-based psychological interventions, enhance effective communication, and encourage collaboration.

2.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(2): 106055, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593424

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), similar to SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which belong to the same Betacoronavirus genus, induces severe acute respiratory disease that is a threat to human health. Since the outbreak of infection by SARS-CoV-2 began, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease has rapidly spread worldwide. Thus, a search for effective drugs able to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pursuit. The 3C-like protease (3CLpro), which hydrolyses viral polyproteins to produce functional proteins, is essential for coronavirus replication and is considered an important therapeutic target for diseases caused by coronaviruses, including COVID-19. Many 3CLpro inhibitors have been proposed and some new drug candidates have achieved success in preclinical studies. In this review, we briefly describe recent developments in determining the structure of 3CLpro and its function in coronavirus replication and summarise new insights into 3CLpro inhibitors and their mechanisms of action. The clinical application prospects and limitations of 3CLpro inhibitors for COVID-19 treatment are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Structure , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
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