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J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(8): 745-753, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398166


The detrimental impact of the heavy metal lead (Pb) on human health has been studied for years. The fact that Pb impairs human body has been established from countless painful and sad historical events. Nowadays, World Health Organization and many developmental countries have established regulations concerning the use of Pb. Measuring the blood lead level (BLL) is so far the only way to officially evaluate the degree of Pb exposure, but the so-called safety value (10 µg/dL in adults and 5 µg/dL in children) seems unreliable to represent the security checkpoint for children through daily intake of drinking water or physical contact with a lower contaminated level of Pb contents. In general, unsolved mysteries about the Pb toxicological mechanisms still remain. In this review article, we report on the methods to prevent Pb poison for further Pb toxicological research. We establish high-sensitivity Pb monitoring, and also report on the use of fluorescent biosensors such as genetically-encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensors built for various large demands such as the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We also contribute to the development and optimization of the FRET-based Pb biosensors. Our well-performed version of Met-lead 1.44 M1 has achieved a limit of detection of 10 nM (2 ppb; 0.2 µg/dL) and almost 5-fold in dynamic range (DR) supported for the real practical applications-that is, the in-cell Pb sensing device for blood and blood-related samples, and the Pb environmental detections in vitro. The perspective of our powerful Pb biosensor incorporated with a highly sensitive bio-chip of the portable device for quick Pb measurements will be addressed for further manipulation.

Biosensing Techniques/methods , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/methods , Lead/analysis , Environment
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(3): 245-247, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132635


The rapid spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in many countries has caused inconvenience in conducting daily life activities, and even deaths. Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid applied in clinical medicine since 1957, especially in immune therapy fields. Herein, we present the characteristics of Dexamethasone, from molecular mechanisms such as genomic and nongenomic pathways by cellular signal regulations, to clinical applications in various phases of the disease. During COVID-19 pandemic, Dexamethasone given to patients who required oxygen or ventilation therapy showed improved life efficacy.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(1): 9-13, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010670


The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has brought an unprecedented impact upon the global economy and public health. Although the SARS-CoV-2 virology has been gradually investigated, measures to combat this new threat in public health are still absent. To date, no certificated drug or vaccine has been developed for the treatment or prevention of coronavirus disease Extensive researches and international coordination has been conducted to rapidly develop novel vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Several major breakthroughs have been made through the identification of the genetic sequence and structural/non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, which enabled the development of RNA-, DNA-based vaccines, subunit vaccines, and attenuated viral vaccines. In this review article, we present an overview of the recent advances of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the challenges that may be encountered in the development process, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches that may help in effectively countering COVID-19.

COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology