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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 296, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has attracted great public health efforts across the world. Few studies, however, have described the potential impact of these measures on other important infectious diseases. METHODS: The incidence of 19 major infectious diseases in Zhejiang Province was collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System from January 2017 to October 2020. The entire epidemic control phase was divided into three stages. The government deployed the first level response from 24 January to 2 March (the most rigorous measures). When the outbreak of COVID-19 was under control, the response level changed to the second level from 3 to 23 March, and then the third level response was implemented after 24 March. We compared the epidemiological characteristics of 19 major infectious diseases during different periods of the COVID-19 epidemic and previous years. RESULTS: A total of 1,814,881 cases of 19 infectious diseases were reported in Zhejiang from January 2017 to October 2020, resulting in an incidence rate of 8088.30 cases per 1,000,000 person-years. After the non-pharmaceutical intervention, the incidence of 19 infectious diseases dropped by 70.84%, from 9436.32 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 2751.51 cases per 1,000,000 person-years, with the large decrease in the first response period of influenza. However, we observed that the daily incidence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and leptospirosis increased slightly (from 1.11 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 1.82 cases per 1,000,000 person-years for SFTS and 0.30 cases per 1,000,000 person-years to 1.24 cases per 1,000,000 person-years for leptospirosis). There was no significant difference in the distribution of epidemiological characteristic of most infectious diseases before and during the implementation of COVID-19 control measures. CONCLUSION: Our study summarizes the epidemiological characteristics of 19 infectious diseases and indicates that the rigorous control measures for COVID-19 are also effective for majority of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Humans , Incidence
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742453

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess the prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms and its associated factors during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among primary students in China. We included 386,924 students aged 6-12 years from three cities in Henan province, China, over the period 21-27 May 2021. The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was 5.8%. Participants with high depressive symptoms were more likely to be senior urban primary students, and exhibited an insignificant increase in hand washing frequency, non-mask wearing behavior, higher error rates of cognition tests, and greater levels of worry and fear. The associated factors for high depressive symptoms were found to include age, sex, grade, location, worry level, fear level, cognitive status, and change in lifestyle after gaining knowledge about COVID-19. Our results suggest that governments need to focus on factors affecting the mental health of school-age children while combating COVID-19, as it would facilitate better decision making on the international and national level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Students/psychology
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306694

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental health regional differences during pregnancy through the COVID-19 pandemic are understudied. The first phase of CONCEPTION cohort aims to compare country-specific mental health status in pregnant women following the start of the pandemic.Methods: Pregnant women, >18 years were recruited, and data collected using a web-based strategy. Although Canadian women were primarily targeted, pregnant women worldwide were eligible. The current analysis includes data on women enrolled between 06/2020-11/2020. Self-reported data included COVID-19 testing/diagnosis, mental health measures (Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Generalized Anxiety Disorders (GAD-7)), prenatal care/birth plan changes. We compared maternal mental health stratifying on country/continents of residence;and identified determinants of mental health with multivariable linear regression models.Findings: Of 2,109 pregnant women recruited (mean gestational age, 24·7 weeks (SD 9·7)), 1,932 were from Canada, 48 the United States (US), 73 Europe, 35 Africa, and 21 Asia/Oceania. Among the 226 pregnant women who were tested for SARS-CoV-2, 26 were positive (11·5% test positivity rate);COVID-19 prevalence was 1·2% (26/2,109). Mean depressive symptom scores were lower in Canada (EPDS 8·2, SD 5·2) compared to the US (EPDS 10·5, SD 4·8) and Europe (EPDS 10·4, SD 6·5) (p<0·05). Maternal anxiety, stress, decreased income and access to health care due to the pandemic were independently increasing maternal depression. Mean anxiety symptoms were higher in the US (GAD-7 6·5, SD 4·3) than Canada (GAD-7 4·3, SD 3·8) (p<0·05). Maternal depression, stress, and earlier recruitment during the pandemic were independently associated with increased maternal anxiety.Interpretation: In this first international study on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, CONCEPTION has shown significant country/continent-specific variations in depression and anxiety during pregnancy. Given that gestational depression/anxiety have been associated with preterm birth and childhood cognitive problems, strategies are needed to reduce COVID-19’s mental health burden. Funding: Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, Canada.Declaration of Interests: We declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the CHU Sainte-Justine's Research Ethics Committee, which autorized worldwide recruitment of subjects.

4.
J Psychosom Res ; 153: 110709, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587152

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the association between mask wearing practice and the risk of anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 epidemic among Chinese students aged 12-18 years old. METHODS: Totally, 386,432 junior and senior high school students were recruited using a cluster sampling method across three cities of Henan Province in China during February 4-12, 2020. Mask wearing practice was defined according to its type and the behavior exhibited in relation to wearing a mask. Presence of anxiety symptoms was determined by Generalized Anxiety Disorder tool (GAD-7). Multiple logistic regression was performed to estimate the association between mask wearing and anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Among the participants, compared with students who completely adhered to the all the mask wearing practice, students who did not adhere to all the mask wearing practice had 1.97 times more likely to suffer from anxiety symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.74-2.22). Furthermore, compared with students who did not know the proper type of mask, students who knew the proper type of mask had a lower risk of anxiety symptoms (aOR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.76-0.80). Students who adhered to proper behavior of mask wearing was associated with 34% decreased odds for anxiety symptoms (aOR = 0.68; 95%CI: 0.62-0.74). CONCLUSIONS: To conclude, proper mask wearing may be an important attribute that play a significant role in reducing the risk of anxiety symptoms among junior and senior school student. However, since this study is a cross-sectional study, prospective studies are needed to further verify.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Psychiatry Res ; 305: 114251, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559298

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted on elementary school students in Henan Province, China, from February 4th to 11th, 2020, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of anxiety among students and identify the related risk factors contributing to anxiety. Demographic information and psychological status were assessed by using self-reported measures. The generalized anxiety disorder tool (GAD-7) and a multiple logistic regression model were used to assess anxiety and identify potential influencing factors. Cross-sectional data indicated that the overall anxiety prevalence was 13.4%. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was highest among rural primary school students and lowest among city students. Three groups of students in different regions were surveyed, and the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was significantly higher among students with poor knowledge of COVID-19 than among students with good knowledge of COVID-19. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, it was found that location, knowledge, and practice were related to anxiety. This study showed that the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was higher among Chinese primary school students. The influencing factors found in this study may help relevant staff improve the mental health of children during the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Internet , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e052823, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its antimicrobial resistance is increasing in many countries. Antibacterial mouthwash may reduce gonorrhoea transmission without using antibiotics. We modelled the effect that antiseptic mouthwash may have on the incidence of gonorrhoea. DESIGN: We developed a mathematical model of the transmission of gonorrhoea between each anatomical site (oropharynx, urethra and anorectum) in men who have sex with men (MSM). We constructed four scenarios: (1) mouthwash had no effect; (2) mouthwash increased the susceptibility of the oropharynx; (3) mouthwash reduced the transmissibility from the oropharynx; (4) the combined effect of mouthwash from scenarios 2 and 3. SETTING: We used data at three anatomical sites from 4873 MSM attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in 2018 and 2019 to calibrate our models and data from the USA, Netherlands and Thailand for sensitivity analyses. PARTICIPANTS: Published available data on MSM with multisite infections of gonorrhoea. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of gonorrhoea. RESULTS: The overall incidence of gonorrhoea was 44 (95% CI 37 to 50)/100 person-years (PY) in scenario 1. Under scenario 2 (20%-80% mouthwash coverage), the total incidence increased (47-60/100 PY) and at all three anatomical sites by between 7.4% (5.9%-60.8%) and 136.6% (108.1%-177.5%). Under scenario 3, with the same coverage, the total incidence decreased (20-39/100 PY) and at all anatomical sites by between 11.6% (10.2%-13.5%) and 99.8% (99.2%-100%). Under scenario 4, changes in the incidence depended on the efficacy of mouthwash on the susceptibility or transmissibility. The effect on the total incidence varied (22-55/100 PY), and at all anatomical sites, there were increases of nearly 130% and large declines of almost 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of mouthwash on gonorrhoea incidence is largely predictable depending on whether it increases susceptibility to or reduces the transmissibility of gonorrhoea.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Gonorrhea , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Incidence , Male , Models, Theoretical , Mouthwashes , Neisseria gonorrhoeae
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18783, 2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434150

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in severity of anxiety and depression symptoms, stress and sleeping quality after three months of mass quarantine for COVID-19 among undergraduate fresh students compared to their pre-COVID-19 measures. We used participants from the Chinese Undergraduate Cohort (CUC), a national prospective longitudinal study to examine the changes in anxiety and depression symptoms severity, stress and sleep quality after being under mass quarantine for three months. Wilcoxon matched pair signed-rank test was used to compare the lifestyle indicators. Severity of anxiety, depression symptoms, stress and sleep quality were compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) to further quantify the change in mental health indicators and sleep quality after the COVID-19 mass quarantine compared to baseline. This study found that there was no deterioration in mental health status among Chinese new undergraduate students in 2020 after COVID-19 mass quarantine compared with the baseline measures in 2019. There was an improvement in sleep quality and anxiety symptoms. After adjusting for age, sex, exercise habit, time spent on mobile gadgets, and time spent outdoors, year 2020 was significantly associated with severity of depression symptoms in males (OR:1.52. 95%CI:1.05-2.20, p-value = 0.027). Year 2020 was significantly associated with the improvement of sleeping quality in total (OR:0.45, 95%CI:0.38-0.52, p < 0.001) and in all the subgroups. This longitudinal study found no deterioration in mental health status among Chinese new undergraduate students after three months of mass quarantine for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , China , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Life Style , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Prospective Studies , Quarantine/psychology , Sleep , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of college students remains limited. Our aim is to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and explore the potential risk and protective factors of anxiety. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was adopted and a total of 24,678 college students were included from Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China, during February, 2020. Anxiety was assessed by using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder tool (GAD-7). Multiple logistic regression models were established for exploring potential factors of anxiety. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anxiety was 7.3%. After adjusting for potential confounders, sex, place of residence, worried level, fear level, cognitive levels, and behavior status were found to be associated with anxiety (p < 0.05). Students with positive preventive behaviors showed a protective effect against the anxiety symptoms compared to those with negative preventive behaviors. In contrast to the high-cognition category, participants at a low cognitive level were 14.9% more likely to present anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: This large-scale study assessed the prevalence of anxiety and its potential influencing factors among college students. It suggests that the government could strengthen health education related to COVID-19 and supervise the performance of preventive behaviors to handle anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
J Affect Disord ; 288: 17-22, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increasing menace of the COVID-19 epidemic led to an atmosphere of anxiety around the world, however the evidence among Chinese students aged 12 to 18 years has been limited. METHODS: A total of 373216 junior and senior high school students were recruited using a cluster sampling method in Zhengzhou, Xinxiang, Xinyang city of Henan Province, China, during February 4-12, 2020. Presence of anxiety symptoms was determined by Generalized Anxiety Disorder tool (GAD-7). Multiple logistic regression was performed to estimate the potential risk factors. RESULTS: Among the participants, junior and senior high school students were found to have anxiety symptoms, producing an overall prevalence of 9.89%. The prevalence was lower in female than in male (9.66% vs. 10.11%) and the prevalence was higher for junior high school students than senior high school students (13.89% vs. 12.93%). The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was highest among rural students and lowest among urban students (11.33% vs. 8.77%). The cognitive level was negatively associated with the prevalence of anxiety symptoms. After adjusting for potential confounders, age, gender, residential location, worried level, fear level and behavior status were found to be associated with anxiety symptoms. LIMITATIONS: Prevalence may be skewed by assessing anxiety symptoms using self-reported scales rather than clinical interviews. CONCLUSIONS: This large-scale study assesses the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and its potential influencing factors in junior and senior high school students. These findings suggest that governments need to pay more attention to the mental health of young people in combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
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