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1.
mBio ; : e0157722, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909595

ABSTRACT

Persistent SARS-CoV-2 replication and systemic dissemination are linked to increased COVID-19 disease severity and mortality. However, the precise immune profiles that track with enhanced viral clearance, particularly from systemic RNAemia, remain incompletely defined. To define whether antibody characteristics, specificities, or functions that emerge during natural infection are linked to accelerated containment of viral replication, we examined the relationship of SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune evolution in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 plasma RNAemia, which is tightly associated with disease severity and death. On presentation to the emergency department, S-specific IgG3, IgA1, and Fc-γ-receptor (Fcγ R) binding antibodies were all inversely associated with higher baseline plasma RNAemia. Importantly, the rapid development of spike (S) and its subunit (S1/S2/receptor binding domain)-specific IgG, especially FcγR binding activity, were associated with clearance of RNAemia. These results point to a potentially critical and direct role for SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune clearance on viral dissemination, persistence, and disease outcome, providing novel insights for the development of more effective therapeutics to resolve COVID-19. IMPORTANCE We showed that persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is an independent predictor of severe COVID-19. We observed that SARS-CoV-2-targeted antibody maturation, specifically Fc-effector functions rather than neutralization, was strongly linked with the ability to rapidly clear viremia. This highlights the critical role of key humoral features in preventing viral dissemination or accelerating viremia clearance and provides insights for the design of next-generation monoclonal therapeutics. The main key points will be that (i) persistent SARS-CoV-2 plasma RNAemia independently predicts severe COVID-19 and (ii) specific humoral immune functions play a critical role in halting viral dissemination and controlling COVID-19 disease progression.

2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327776

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP), a passive polyclonal antibody therapeutic, has exhibited mixed results in the treatment of COVID-19. Given that the therapeutic effect of CCP may extend beyond the ability of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody binding and neutralization to influence the evolution of the endogenous antibody response, we took a systematic and comprehensive approach to analyze SARS-CoV-2 functional antibody profiles of participants in a randomized controlled trial of CCP treatment of individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia where CCP was associated with both decreased mortality and improved clinical severity. Using systems serology, we found that the clinical benefit of CCP is related to a shift towards reduced inflammatory Spike (S) responses and enhanced Nucleocapsid (N) humoral responses. We found CCP had the greatest clinical benefit in participants with low pre-existing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody function, rather than S or N antibody levels or participant demographic features. Further, CCP induced immunomodulatory changes to recipient humoral profiles persisted for at least two months, marked by the selective evolution of anti-inflammatory Fc-glycan profiles and persistently expanded nucleocapsid-specific humoral immunity following CCP therapy. Together, our findings identify a novel mechanism of action of CCP, suggest optimal patient characteristics for CCP treatment, identify long-last immunomodulatory effects of CCP, and provide guidance for development of novel N-focused antibody therapeutics for severe COVID-19 hyperinflammation.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6853, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537313

ABSTRACT

Transfer of convalescent plasma (CP) had been proposed early during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic as an accessible therapy, yet trial results worldwide have been mixed, potentially due to the heterogeneous nature of CP. Here we perform deep profiling of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody titer, Fc-receptor binding, and Fc-mediated functional assays in CP units, as well as in plasma from hospitalized COVID-19 patients before and after CP administration. The profiling results show that, although all recipients exhibit expanded SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immune responses, CP units contain more functional antibodies than recipient plasma. Meanwhile, CP functional profiles influence the evolution of recipient humoral immunity in conjuncture with the recipient's pre-existing SARS-CoV2-specific antibody titers: CP-derived SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid-specific antibody functions are associated with muted humoral immune evolution in patients with high titer anti-spike IgG. Our data thus provide insights into the unexpected impact of CP-derived functional anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies on the evolution of SARS-CoV-2-specific response following severe infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Immunity , Immunization, Passive/methods , Plasma/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Blood Donors , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
4.
Sci Immunol ; 6(64): eabj2901, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470496

ABSTRACT

The introduction of vaccines has inspired hope in the battle against SARS-CoV-2. However, the emergence of viral variants, in the absence of potent antivirals, has left the world struggling with the uncertain nature of this disease. Antibodies currently represent the strongest correlate of immunity against SARS-CoV-2, thus we profiled the earliest humoral signatures in a large cohort of acutely ill (survivors and nonsurvivors) and mild or asymptomatic individuals with COVID-19. Although a SARS-CoV-2­specific immune response evolved rapidly in survivors of COVID-19, nonsurvivors exhibited blunted and delayed humoral immune evolution, particularly with respect to S2-specific antibodies. Given the conservation of S2 across ß-coronaviruses, we found that the early development of SARS-CoV-2­specific immunity occurred in tandem with preexisting common ß-coronavirus OC43 humoral immunity in survivors, which was also selectively expanded in individuals that develop a paucisymptomatic infection. These data point to the importance of cross-coronavirus immunity as a correlate of protection against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Survivors , Young Adult
5.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 454-462, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319036

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues to spread relentlessly, associated with a high frequency of respiratory failure and mortality. Children experience largely asymptomatic disease, with rare reports of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Identifying immune mechanisms that result in these disparate clinical phenotypes in children could provide critical insights into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Using systems serology, in this study we observed in 25 children with acute mild COVID-19 a functional phagocyte and complement-activating IgG response to SARS-CoV-2, similar to the acute responses generated in adults with mild disease. Conversely, IgA and neutrophil responses were significantly expanded in adults with severe disease. Moreover, weeks after the resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, children who develop MIS-C maintained highly inflammatory monocyte-activating SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, distinguishable from acute disease in children but with antibody levels similar to those in convalescent adults. Collectively, these data provide unique insights into the potential mechanisms of IgG and IgA that might underlie differential disease severity as well as unexpected complications in children infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Carrier State/blood , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Cell ; 183(6): 1508-1519.e12, 2020 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898562

ABSTRACT

The urgent need for an effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has forced development to progress in the absence of well-defined correlates of immunity. While neutralization has been linked to protection against other pathogens, whether neutralization alone will be sufficient to drive protection against SARS-CoV-2 in the broader population remains unclear. Therefore, to fully define protective humoral immunity, we dissected the early evolution of the humoral response in 193 hospitalized individuals ranging from moderate to severe. Although robust IgM and IgA responses evolved in both survivors and non-survivors with severe disease, non-survivors showed attenuated IgG responses, accompanied by compromised Fcɣ receptor binding and Fc effector activity, pointing to deficient humoral development rather than disease-enhancing humoral immunity. In contrast, individuals with moderate disease exhibited delayed responses that ultimately matured. These data highlight distinct humoral trajectories associated with resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the need for early functional humoral immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , HL-60 Cells , Humans , Male
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