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1.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 863802, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938631

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic. Previous studies have reported dyslipidemia in patients with COVID-19. Herein, we conducted a retrospective study and a bioinformatics analysis to evaluate the essential data of the lipid profile as well as the possible mechanism in patients with COVID-19. Methods: First of all, the retrospective study included three cohorts: patients with COVID-19, a healthy population, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For each subject, serum lipid profiles in the biochemical data were compared, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Furthermore, bioinformatics analyses were performed for exploring the biological or immunological mechanisms. Results: In line with the biochemical data of the three cohorts, the statistical result displayed that patients with COVID-19 were more likely to have lower levels of TC and HDL-C as compared with healthy individuals. The differential proteins associated with COVID-19 are involved in the lipid pathway and can target and regulate cytokines and immune cells. Additionally, a heatmap revealed that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections were possibly involved in lipid metabolic reprogramming. The viral proteins, such as spike (S) and non-structural protein 2 (Nsp2) of SARS-CoV-2, may be involved in metabolic reprogramming. Conclusion: The metabolic reprogramming after SARS-CoV-2 infections is probably associated with the immune and clinical phenotype of patients. Hence, metabolic reprogramming may be targeted for developing antivirals against COVID-19.

2.
Cell ; 185(10): 1728-1744.e16, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767964

ABSTRACT

As the emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to drive the worldwide pandemic, there is a constant demand for vaccines that offer more effective and broad-spectrum protection. Here, we report a circular RNA (circRNA) vaccine that elicited potent neutralizing antibodies and T cell responses by expressing the trimeric RBD of the spike protein, providing robust protection against SARS-CoV-2 in both mice and rhesus macaques. Notably, the circRNA vaccine enabled higher and more durable antigen production than the 1mΨ-modified mRNA vaccine and elicited a higher proportion of neutralizing antibodies and distinct Th1-skewed immune responses. Importantly, we found that the circRNARBD-Omicron vaccine induced effective neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron but not the Delta variant. In contrast, the circRNARBD-Delta vaccine protected against both Delta and Omicron or functioned as a booster after two doses of either native- or Delta-specific vaccination, making it a favorable choice against the current variants of concern (VOCs) of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , RNA, Circular/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , mRNA Vaccines
3.
Legate, Nicole, Nguyen, Thuy-vy Thi, Weinstein, Netta, Moller, Arlen, Legault, Lisa, Maniaci, Michael, Ebersole, Charles, Adamkovic, Matus, Adetula, Gabriel Agboola, Agesin, Bamikole Bamikole, Ahlgren, Lina, Akkas, Handan, Almeida, Inês, Anjum, Gulnaz, Antoniadi, Maria, Arinze, Azuka Ikechukwu, Arvanitis, Alexios, Rana, Kafeel, Badalyan, Varduhi, Becker, Maja, Bernardo, Olivia, Bozdoc, Andreea Ioana, Campos, Olatz, Desai, Kermeka, Drexler, Shira Meir, Dursun, Pinar, Eudave, Luis, Filip, Katarzyna, Barría, Mauricio Espinoza, Garcia, Elkin Oswaldo Luis, Gialitaki, Zoi, Nardelli, Giusy, Štrukelj, Eva, Hausman Ozery, Daphna, Jackson, Emily, Jimenez-Leal, William, Krizanic, Valerija, Jurković, Anita Penić, Wilson, John Paul, Alarcon, Monica, udeh.oluchukwu@gmail.com, Betlehem, Ruben, Kushnir, Elizaveta, Bravo, Olalla Niño, Nauman, Rafia, Oosterlinck, Marlies, Pantazi, Myrto, Pilecka, Natalia, Szabelska, Anna, van Steenkiste, I. M. M.; Marcu, Gabriela Mariana, Roczniewska, Marta, Reyna, Cecilia, Kassianos, Angelos, Pöntinen, Sara Johanna, Ogbonnaya, Chisom, Ndukaihe, Izuchukwu Lawrence Gabriel, Dalgar, Ilker, Özdoğru, Asil Ali, Macapagal, Paulo Manuel Labalan, Lewis, Savannah, Metin-Orta, Irem, Foroni, Francesco, Willis, Megan, Santos, Anabela Caetano, Mokady, Aviv, Reggev, Niv, Vasilev, Martin, Nock, Nora, Parzuchowski, Michal, Vranka, Marek Albert, Braun Kohlová, Markéta, Ropovik, Ivan, Harutyunyan, Mikayel, Wang, Chunhui, Yao, Xiaohui, Manunta, Efisio, Kaminski, Gwenael, Findor, Andrej, Landry, Anais Thibault, Lewis, David, Vásquez, Julio Cruz, Ortiz, Manuel, Pronizius, Ekaterina, Voracek, Martin, Lamm, Claus, Grinberg, Maurice, Li, Ranran, Valentova, Jaroslava Varella, Mioni, Giovanna, Azouaghe, Soufian, Aruta, John Jamir Benzon, Atari, Mohammad, Azab, Habiba, Bavolar, Jozef, Beitner, Julia, Beaudry, Jennifer, Cellini, Nicola, Chen, Sau-Chin, Zickfeld, Janis, Moon, Karis, Karababa, Alper, Todsen, Anna Louise, van Schie, Kevin, Vintr, Jáchym, Kaliska, Lada, Pourafshari, Razieh, Geiger, Sandra Jeanette, Warmelink, Lara, Ross, Robert, Stephen, Ian David, Hostler, Tom, McCarthy, Randy, Szala, Anna, Grano, Caterina, Singh Solorzano, Claudio, Kácha, Ondřej, Xiao, Qinyu, Cárcamo, Rodrigo, Zorjan, Saša, Tajchman, Zuzanna Jagoda, Vilares, Iris, Pavlacic, Jeffrey Michael, Kunst, Jonas, Tamnes, Christian, von Bastian, Claudia Christina, Sharifian, Mohammad Hasan, Hricova, Monika, Kačmár, Pavol, Schrötter, Jana, Rahal, Rima-Maria, Cohen, Noga, s.fmodares@yahoo.com, Zakharov, Ilya, Koehn, Monica, Esteban Serna, Celia, Calin-Jageman, Robert, Krafnick, Anthony James, Khosla, Meetu, Isager, Peder Mortvedt, Urban, Jan, Silva, Jaime, Martončik, Marcel, Šakan, Dušana, Očovaj, Sanja Batić, Kuzminska, Anna, Djordjevic, Jasna Milosevic, Ferreira, Ana, Lazarevic, Ljiljana, Manley, Harry, Zambrano, Danilo, Monteiro, Renan, Zahra, Etebari, Musser, Erica, Dunleavy, Daniel, Chou, Weilun, Godbersen, Hendrik, Ruiz-Fernandez, Susana, Reeck, Crystal, Batres, Carlota, Kirgizova, Komila, Muminov, Abdumalik, Azevedo, Flavio, Alvarez, Daniela Serrato, Butt, Muhammad Mussaffa, Lee, Jeong Min, Chen, Zhang, Verbruggen, Frederick, Ziano, Ignazio, Tümer, Murat, Charyate, Abdelilah, Dubrov, Dmitrii, del Carmen, Maria, Aberson, Chris, Hubená, Barbora, Sacakli, Asli, Ceary, Chris, Richard, Karley, Singer, Gage Anthony, Perillo, Jennifer Torkildson, Ballantyne, Tonia, Cyrus-Lai, Wilson, Fedotov, Maksim, Du, Hongfei, Wielgus, Magdalena, Pit, Ilse, Hruška, Matej, Sousa, Daniela, Aczel, Balazs, Szaszi, Barnabas, Adamus, Sylwia, Barzykowski, Krystian, Micheli, Leticia, Schmidt, Nadya-Daniela, Zsido, Andras, Paruzel-Czachura, Mariola, Bialek, Michal, Kowal, Marta, Sorokowska, Agnieszka, Misiak, Michał, Ortiz, Maria Victoria, Correa, Pablo, Belaus, Anabel, Mola, Débora, Muchembled, Fany, Arriaga, Patricia, Oliveira, Raquel Alves, Ribeiro, Rafael Ramos, Vaughn, Leigh Ann, Abbas, Nida, Szwed, Paulina, Kossowska, Małgorzata, Czarnek, Gabriela, Kielińska, Julita, Antazo, Benedict Guzman, Stieger, Stefan, Nilsonne, Gustav, simonovic, Nicolle, Taber, Jennifer, Gourdon-Kanhukamwe, Amélie, Domurat, Artur, Ihaya, Keiko, Yamada, Yuki, Anu.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315055

ABSTRACT

Finding communication strategies that effectively motivate social distancing continues to be a global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-country, preregistered experiment (n = 25,718 from 89 countries) tested hypotheses concerning generalizable positive and negative outcomes of social distancing messages that promoted personal agency and reflective choices (i.e., an autonomy-supportive message) or were restrictive and shaming (i.e. a controlling message) compared to no message at all. Results partially supported experimental hypotheses in that the controlling message increased controlled motivation (a poorly-internalized form of motivation relying on shame, guilt, and fear of social consequences) relative to no message. On the other hand, the autonomy-supportive message reduced feelings of defiance relative to the controlling message. Unexpectedly, messages did not influence autonomous motivation (a highly-internalized form of motivation relying on one’s core values) or behavioral intentions. Results supported hypothesized associations between people’s existing autonomous and controlled motivations and self-reported behavioral intentions to engage in social distancing: Controlled motivation was associated with more defiance and less long-term behavioral intentions to engage in social distancing, whereas autonomous motivation was associated with less defiance and more short- and long-term intentions to social distance. Overall, this work highlights the potential harm of using shaming and pressuring language in public health communication, with implications for the current and future global health challenges.

4.
Advanced materials technologies ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564535

ABSTRACT

Wearable sensors are emerging as a new technology to detect physiological and biochemical markers for remote health monitoring. By measuring vital signs such as respiratory rate, body temperature, and blood oxygen level, wearable sensors offer tremendous potential for the noninvasive and early diagnosis of numerous diseases such as Covid‐19. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made to develop wearable sensors with high sensitivity, accuracy, flexibility, and stretchability, bringing to reality a new paradigm of remote health monitoring. In this review paper, the latest advances in wearable sensor systems that can measure vital signs at an accuracy level matching those of point‐of‐care tests are presented. In particular, the focus of this review is placed on wearable sensors for measuring respiratory behavior, body temperature, and blood oxygen level, which are identified as the critical signals for diagnosing and monitoring Covid‐19. Various designs based on different materials and working mechanisms are summarized. This review is concluded by identifying the remaining challenges and future opportunities for this emerging field. Wearable sensors have demonstrated grand potential for remote health monitoring recently, particularly after the Covid‐19 pandemic. The need for wearable telehealth systems capable of monitoring vital signs, such as respiratory rate, body temperature, and blood oxygen level has surged. In this review, the recent advances in creating these sensors and remaining challenges as well as prospects are presented.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(37): 43831-43854, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404873

ABSTRACT

Stretchable electronics that can elongate elastically as well as flex are crucial to a wide range of emerging technologies, such as wearable medical devices, electronic skin, and soft robotics. Critical to stretchable electronics is their ability to withstand large mechanical strain without failure while retaining their electrical conduction properties, a feat significantly beyond traditional metals and silicon-based semiconductors. Herein, we present a review of the recent advances in stretchable conductive polymer nanocomposites with exceptional stretchability and electrical properties, which have the potential to transform a wide range of applications, including wearable sensors for biophysical signals, stretchable conductors and electrodes, and deformable energy-harvesting and -storage devices. Critical to achieving these stretching properties are the judicious selection and hybridization of nanomaterials, novel microstructure designs, and facile fabrication processes, which are the focus of this Review. To highlight the potentials of conductive nanocomposites, a summary of some recent important applications is presented, including COVID-19 remote monitoring, connected health, electronic skin for augmented intelligence, and soft robotics. Finally, perspectives on future challenges and new research opportunities are also presented and discussed.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17422, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380912

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has raised concerns in the identification of the hosts of the virus since the early stages of the outbreak. To address this problem, we proposed a deep learning method, DeepHoF, based on extracting viral genomic features automatically, to predict the host likelihood scores on five host types, including plant, germ, invertebrate, non-human vertebrate and human, for novel viruses. DeepHoF made up for the lack of an accurate tool, reaching a satisfactory AUC of 0.975 in the five-classification, and could make a reliable prediction for the novel viruses without close neighbors in phylogeny. Additionally, to fill the gap in the efficient inference of host species for SARS-CoV-2 using existing tools, we conducted a deep analysis on the host likelihood profile calculated by DeepHoF. Using the isolates sequenced in the earliest stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, we inferred that minks, bats, dogs and cats were potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2, while minks might be one of the most noteworthy hosts. Several genes of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated their significance in determining the host range. Furthermore, a large-scale genome analysis, based on DeepHoF's computation for the later pandemic in 2020, disclosed the uniformity of host range among SARS-CoV-2 samples and the strong association of SARS-CoV-2 between humans and minks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cats/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Dogs/virology , Mink/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Algorithms , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Deep Learning , Host Specificity , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, RNA
7.
Sci China Life Sci ; 65(4): 701-717, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371380

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has created a global health crisis. SARS-CoV-2 infects varieties of tissues where the known receptor ACE2 is low or almost absent, suggesting the existence of alternative viral entry pathways. Here, we performed a genome-wide barcoded-CRISPRa screen to identify novel host factors that enable SARS-CoV-2 infection. Beyond known host proteins, i.e., ACE2, TMPRSS2, and NRP1, we identified multiple host components, among which LDLRAD3, TMEM30A, and CLEC4G were confirmed as functional receptors for SARS-CoV-2. All these membrane proteins bind directly to spike's N-terminal domain (NTD). Their essential and physiological roles have been confirmed in either neuron or liver cells. In particular, LDLRAD3 and CLEC4G mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry and infection in an ACE2-independent fashion. The identification of the novel receptors and entry mechanisms could advance our understanding of the multiorgan tropism of SARS-CoV-2, and may shed light on the development of COVID-19 countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Internalization
8.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5137

ABSTRACT

A review. It invades human body mainly through binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors mediated by spike protein. ACE2 is closely related to NCP infection, it is not only a key target of SARS-CoV-2 infection, ACE2 expression is an important factor affecting disease severity and mortality of NCP patients as well. Therefore, a number of marketed and in-development drugs targeting ACE2 renin-angiotensin system (RAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), recombinant human ACE2, type II transmembrane serine proteases (TMSPSS2) inhibitors and specific neutralizing antibodies, etc. may be feasible strategies for the treatment of NCP. In addition, based on the available evidence,it is not recommended to withdraw ACEI/ARB in confirmed or suspected cases of mild NCP with hypertension so as to avoid blood pressure fluctuation.

9.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 70, 2020 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of 2 March, 2020, at least 80 151 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases were reported in China. Most of the patients had a history of visiting Hubei Province or contacting with people who had ever stayed in or passed by Hubei Province or were exposed to symptoms. Some patients got infected through only asymptomatic contact. This study aimed to report the epidemic features and lab identification of a patient confirmed with COVID-19 infection through only asymptomatic contact. CASE PRESENTATION: A 44-year-old man, who lived in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China until 6 March 2020, suffered from cough on 27 January 2020. Fever symptoms appeared on 28 January, with a maximum temperature of 38.8 °C, accompanied by cough, sore throat, headache, fatigue, muscle ache, joint ache, and other symptoms. The symptoms continued until he was hospitalized on 30 January. Coronavirus conventional polymerase chain reaction assay was positive for the throat swab sample. The patient, along with his wife and son, drove from Nanchang to back to Honghu City, Hubei Province, on 23 January 2020. After staying with his parents and brother's family for 3 days, the patient drove back to Nanchang and arrived on 25 January. On the way back home, they stopped by Tongshan service area, Hubei Province, without any close contact with other people. After arriving home in Nanchang City, Jiangxi Province, none of them left their residence. In addition, his parents stayed at home for 20 days with his younger brother's family before they got back. His younger brother and one of his brother's children visited Wuhan on 5 January and came home on 6 January 2020. CONCLUSIONS: This report suggested that, in the early phase of COVID-19 pneumonia, routine screening could miss patients who were virus carriers. Highlighting travel history is of paramount importance for the early detection and isolation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 cases.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
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