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Science Translational Medicine ; 15(677), 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2246782

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 continues to accumulate mutations to evade immunity, leading to breakthrough infections after vaccination. How researchers can anticipate the evolutionary trajectory of the virus in advance in the design of next-generation vaccines requires investigation. Here, we performed a comprehensive study of 11,650,487 SARS-CoV-2 sequences, which revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein evolved not randomly but into directional paths of either high infectivity plus low immune resistance or low infectivity plus high immune resistance. The viral infectivity and immune resistance of variants are generally incompatible, except for limited variants such as Beta and Kappa. The Omicron variant has the highest immune resistance but showed high infectivity in only one of the tested cell lines. To provide cross-clade immunity against variants that undergo diverse evolutionary pathways, we designed a new pan-vaccine antigen (Span). Span was designed by analyzing the homology of 2675 SARS-CoV-2 S protein sequences from the NCBI database before the Delta variant emerged. The refined Span protein harbors high-frequency residues at given positions that reflect cross-clade generality in sequence evolution. Compared with a prototype wild-type (Swt) vaccine, which, when administered to mice, induced serum with decreased neutralization activity against emerging variants, Span vaccination of mice elicited broad immunity to a wide range of variants, including those that emerged after our design. Moreover, vaccinating mice with a heterologous Span booster conferred complete protection against lethal infection with the Omicron variant. Our results highlight the importance and feasibility of a universal vaccine to fight against SARS-CoV-2 antigenic drift.

2.
2020 5th International Conference on Intelligent Informatics and Biomedical Sciences ; : 99-102, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1306266

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has become a public health crisis sweeping the whole globe. It even has the potential to create devastating social, economic and political effects on the countries it touches. Accurate prediction of the disease spread and the economic effects of interventions can help policy makers to develop reasonable strategies to control the pandemic. In this study, we built a SEIR-based simulation model to predict the disease transmission in Belgium. Based on the prediction, we also developed an economic model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of quarantine strategy. The results show that quarantine is an appropriate and cost-effective intervention to prevent the prevalence of COVID-19.

3.
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters ; 12(10):1207-1214, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1072852

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is extremely infectious and the human population globally is generally susceptible to it. Its spread poses a serious threat to public health. Analyzing the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can more fully demonstrate its characteristics and evolution, and provide effective scientific strategies for preventing and controlling the epidemic. In this study, nucleic acid detection was performed on 228 suspected COVID-19 cases in Ningbo City from January 2020 to August 2020. The RNA of the virus was extracted by the nano magnetic bead method and was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Patients whose test results were positive were considered as research subjects. Clinical data of the patients were collected through a medical record system and the epidemiology and characteristics of COVID-19 were analyzed. Among the 228 suspected cases, 108 patients had a positive nucleic acid test result. The 108 confirmed patients were selected as research subjects, including 9 patients with mild symptoms, 85 patients with common symptoms, and 14 patients with severe symptoms. The age range of the patients was 17-82 years. Overall, 35 patients (32.40%) had complications. The median incubation period for patients was 7.5 days. Seventy patients (64.81%) had a contact history with a diseased individual. In terms of the clinical symptoms of the patients, the following symptoms were identified: fever in 92, cough in 62, fatigue in 34, sputum expectoration in 32, dry cough in 22, sore throat in 19, diarrhea in 8, headache in 8, shortness of breath in 7, nasal congestion in 5, and muscle ache in 5 cases. The results of chest CT imaging showed that 96 patients (88.89%) exhibited bilateral or unilateral pneumonia lesions of varying degrees, manifested as bilateral or unilateral lung patches, cloudy floccules, patches with an increased density shadow. The CT images of 12 patients (11.11%) showed no obvious abnormalities, while 24 cases (22.22%) had absolute white blood cell count of <4x10(9)/L, while 1 case had one of >10x10(9)/L. The absolute neutrophil count in 10 patients (9.26%) increased (>6.3x10(9/)L). The absolute lymphocyte count in 49 patients (45.37%) decreased (<1.1x10(9)/L). The hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet levels of the vast majority of patients were normal, while a few were low or high. Fifty-eight patients (53.70%) had elevated C-reactive protein (>10 mg/L);14 (12.96%) had elevated D-dimer (>256 mu g/L);14 (12.96%) had high levels of alanine aminotransferase (>40 U/L);9 (8.33%) had increased aspartate aminotransferase (>40 U/L);while 32 (29.6%) had increased lactate dehydrogenase (>250 U/L). COVID-19 in Ningbo is mainly transmitted in clusters, and elderly patients are more likely to develop severe symptoms. There is no significant difference in clinical characteristics between patients with severe conditions and those with mild and common ones.

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