Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 51
Filter
1.
Sustainability ; 14(18):11133, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2010279

ABSTRACT

The impacts of perceived risk (PR) and perceived severity (PS) on personal well-being (WB) during the COVID-19 epidemic have often been overlooked, especially in the context of China's post-1990 generation. Therefore, this research intends to explore how members of the post-1990 generation obtain personal benefits through PR through the Attention Restoration Theory (ART). A total of 276 online questionnaires were collected by snowball sampling and analyzed in SPSS 21.0. This research found that PR, NC, and the ART are mediating variables which affect WB. The higher the PR, the more likely it is that the post-1990 generation will engage in nature tourism. These discoveries undoubtedly demonstrate a breakthrough in the theoretical gap, and provide a proposal for the sustainable development of China's tourism industry.

2.
Disease Surveillance ; 37(4):427-429, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1994244

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the risk of public health emergencies, both the indigenous ones and the imported ones, which might occur in the mainland of China in April 2022. Methods An internet based expert counsel was conducted to analyze the surveillance data of public health emergencies and priority communicable diseases in China reported through different channels, and the experts in all provincial centers for disease control and prevention attended this video conference. Results It is expected that number of domestically reported public health emergency events other than COVID-19 in April would remain unchanged from March. The risk of domestic COVID-19 outbreaks caused by the indigenous transmission and the foreign importation is high, making it more difficult to prevent and control the epidemic. Local governments need to strengthen epidemic prevention and control in accordance with national requirements and hold the bottom line of no large-scale rebound of the epidemic. The number of pertussis cases will maintain rising trend due to the improvement of laboratory testing technology, the weakening of vaccine protection and the strengthening of surveillance in some districts. Conclusion Special attention should be paid to COVID-19. General attentions should be paid to pertussis.

3.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 11(7): e2101349, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381824

ABSTRACT

White blood cells (WBCs) are immune cells that play essential roles in critical diseases including cancers, infections, and inflammatory disorders. Their dynamic and diverse functions have inspired the development of WBC membrane-coated nanoparticles (denoted "WBC-NPs"), which are formed by fusing the plasma membranes of WBCs, such as macrophages, neutrophils, T cells, and natural killer cells, onto synthetic nanoparticle cores. Inheriting the entire source cell antigens, WBC-NPs act as source cell decoys and simulate their broad biointerfacing properties with intriguing therapeutic potentials. Herein, the recent development and medical applications of WBC-NPs focusing on four areas, including WBC-NPs as carriers for drug delivery, as countermeasures for biological neutralization, as nanovaccines for immune modulation, and as tools for the isolation of circulating tumor cells and fundamental research is reviewed. Overall, the recent development and studies of WBC-NPs have established the platform as versatile nanotherapeutics and tools with broad medical application potentials.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Leukocytes , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism
4.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 3295-3307, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917084

ABSTRACT

Purpose: At present, it has been found that managing patients with a redetected positive RNA test after recovery from foreign-imported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases in China is challenging. The purpose of the current study was to describe the clinical characteristics of these patients. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 137 COVID-19 patients who were discharged from the Xi'an Public Health Center from 28 July 2020 to 31 December 2021. We compared the clinical characteristics between positive retest patients and non-positive retest patients. Results: 137 COVID-19 patients entered our study, 27 (19.7%) cases of COVID-19 with a redetected positive RNA test by the end of the follow-up period. Fever [(n = 31 (22.6%)], cough [n = 26 (18.9%)] and sore throat [n = 20 (14.5%)] were the most common initial symptoms among the foreign-imported COVID-19 patients, and there were almost no significant differences in initial symptoms between positive retest patients and non-positive retest patients. The positive retest patients had a higher lymphocyte count (p = 0.031) and lymphocyte percentage (p = 0.007) during readmission. There were generally no significant differences in other routine blood test findings, IgG and IgM antibody responses, between positive retest patients and non-positive retest patients, or in positive retest patients over time (before, during, or after positive patient detection). After readmission, positive retest patients displayed fewer symptoms or no obvious disease progression and more sustained remission by CT imaging. Conclusion: Our findings revealed that the clinical characteristics at the time of initial diagnosis were not closely related to redetected positive RNA tests after recovery from foreign-imported COVID-19 cases. Positive retest patients had virtually no symptoms and displayed no obvious disease progression during readmission. These findings provide important information and clinical evidence for the effective management of foreign-imported COVID-19 patients during their convalescent phase.

5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 741345, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775897

ABSTRACT

Background: Misuse of antibiotics is prevalent worldwide and primary care is a major contributor. Although a clear diagnosis is fundamental for rational antibiotic use, primary care physicians often struggle with diagnostic uncertainty. However, we know little about how physicians cope with this situation and its association with antibiotic prescribing. Methods: A total of 583 primary care physicians were surveyed using the Dealing with Uncertainty Questionnaire. Their prescriptions (n = 949,181) over the year 2018 were retrieved retrospectively. Two categories of behavioral patterns of participants were identified based on latent class analyses (high vs. low openness and collaborativeness) in responding to diagnostic uncertainty. Multi-level logistic regression models were established to determine the associations between these behavioral patterns and antibiotic prescribing (overall and broad-spectrum antibiotics) for illness without an indication for antibiotics and those with a conditional indication for antibiotics, respectively, after adjustment for variations of patient (level one) and physician (level two) characteristics. Results: Most physicians reported open communications with their patients (80.96%), collected further information (85.08%), and referred patients to specialists (68.95%) in dealing with diagnostic uncertainly. More than half (56.95%) sought help from colleagues. Less than 20% acted on intuition or adopted a "wait and see" strategy. About 40% participants (n = 238) were classified into the group of low openness and collaborativeness in coping with diagnostic uncertainty. They were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for the recorded illness without an indication for antibiotics (AOR = 1.013 for all antibiotics, p = 0.024; AOR = 1.047 for broad-spectrum antibiotics, p < 0.001), as well as for the recorded illness with a conditional indication for antibiotics (AOR = 1.226 for all antibiotic, p < 0.001; AOR = 1.257 for broad-spectrum antibiotics, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Low tolerance with diagnostic uncertainty is evident in primary care. Inappropriate and over antibiotic prescribing is shaped by physicians' coping methods of diagnostic uncertainty. Physicians' openness and collaborativeness in responding to diagnostic uncertainty is associated with lower antibiotic prescribing in primary care. Interventions targeting on better management of diagnostic uncertainty may offer a promising approach in reducing antibiotic use in primary care.


Subject(s)
Physicians, Primary Care , Adaptation, Psychological , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Retrospective Studies , Uncertainty
6.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 18(5): 1525-1545, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763475

ABSTRACT

Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as mesenchymal stromal cells or medicinal signaling cells, are important adult stem cells for regenerative medicine, largely due to their regenerative characteristics such as self-renewal, secretion of trophic factors, and the capability of inducing mesenchymal cell lineages. MSCs also possess homing and trophic properties modulating immune system, influencing microenvironment around damaged tissues and enhancing tissue repair, thus offering a broad perspective in cell-based therapies. Therefore, it is not surprising that MSCs have been the broadly used adult stem cells in clinical trials. To gain better insights into the current applications of MSCs in clinical applications, we perform a comprehensive review of reported data of MSCs clinical trials conducted globally. We summarize the biological effects and mechanisms of action of MSCs, elucidating recent clinical trials phases and findings, highlighting therapeutic effects of MSCs in several representative diseases, including neurological, musculoskeletal diseases and most recent Coronavirus infectious disease. Finally, we also highlight the challenges faced by many clinical trials and propose potential solutions to streamline the use of MSCs in routine clinical applications and regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
Adult Stem Cells , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Adult , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Humans , Regenerative Medicine
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 181, 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724420

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older adults who live alone and have difficulties in activities of daily living (ADLs) may have been more vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known about pandemic-related changes in ADL assistance (such as home care, domiciliary care) and its international variation. We examined international patterns and changes in provision of ADL assistance, and related these to country-level measures including national income and health service expenditure. METHODS: We analysed data covering 29 countries from three longitudinal cohort studies (Health and Retirement Study, English Longitudinal Study of Aging, and Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe). Eligible people were aged ≥50 years and living alone. Outcomes included ADL difficulty status (assessed via six basic ADLs and five instrumental ADLs) and receipt of ADL assistance. Wealth-related inequality and need-related inequity in ADL assistance were measured using Erreygers' corrected concentration index (ECI). Correlations were estimated between prevalence/inequality/inequity in ADL assistance and national health-related indicators. We hypothesized these measures would be associated with health system factors such as affordability and availability of ADL assistance, as well as active ageing awareness. RESULTS: During COVID-19, 18.4% of older adults living alone reported ADL difficulties (ranging from 8.8% in Switzerland to 29.2% in the USA) and 56.8% of those reporting difficulties received ADL assistance (ranging from 38.7% in the UK to 79.8% in Lithuania). Females were more likely to receive ADL assistance than males in 16/29 countries; the sex gap increased further during the pandemic. Wealth-related ECIs indicated socioeconomic equality in ADL assistance within 24/39 countries before the pandemic, and significant favouring of the less wealthy in 18/29 countries during the pandemic. Needs-related ECIs indicated less equity in assistance with ADLs during the pandemic than before. Our hypotheses on the association between ADL provision measures and health system factors were confirmed before COVID-19, but unexpectedly disconfirmed during COVID-19. CONCLUSION: This study revealed an unequal (and in some countries, partly needs-mismatched) response from countries to older adults living alone during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings might inform future research about, and policies for, older adults living alone, particularly regarding social protection responses during crises.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 825667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715031

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a clinically common disease caused by many factors, which will lead to lung function decline and even respiratory failure. Jingyin granule has been confirmed to have anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects by former studies, and has been recommended for combating H1N1 influenza A virus (H1N1) infection and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. At present, studies have shown that patients with severe COVID-19 infection developed lung fibrotic lesions. Although Jingyin granule can improve symptoms in COVID-19 patients, no study has yet reported whether it can attenuate the process of PF. Here, we explored the underlying mechanism of Jingyin granule against PF by network pharmacology combined with in vitro experimental validation. In the present study, the active ingredients as well as the corresponding action targets of Jingyin granule were firstly collected by TCMSP and literature data, and the disease target genes of PF were retrieved by disease database. Then, the common targets were subjected to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses, and then a PPI network and an ingredient-target network were constructed. Next, UPLC-MS was used to isolate and identify selected representative components in Jingyin granule. Finally, LPS was used to induce the A549 cell fibrosis model to verify the anti-PF effect of Jingyin granule in vitro. Our results indicated that STAT3, JUN, RELA, MAPK3, TNF, MAPK1, IL-6, and AKT1 were core targets of action and bound with good affinity to selected components, and Jingyin granule may alleviate PF progression by Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK2/STAT3), the mammalian nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. Overall, these results provide future therapeutic strategies into the mechanism study of Jingyin granule on PF.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323559

ABSTRACT

Background: Role models play an important role in enhancing students’ intention to pursue medical careers. While, as the two most influential role models for medical students, there is limited research to explore the different impacts between faculty and parents. This study investigated the association of different role model’s prosocial behavior of joining the fight against novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on medical students’ career commitment. We examined whether there are different effects and how these effects differ among different medical students. Method: A national-scale survey was conducted with 118,030 undergraduate students majoring in clinical medicine in mainland China. Questions were asked to collect information of participants in the battle of COVID-19, medical students’ determination of practicing medicine after graduation, as well as students’ socio-demographic characteristics. Chi-square tests and hierarchical regressions were performed to examine the effects of parent and faculty involvement on students’ career commitment. Results: : The results showed that prosocial modeling during the COVID-19 pandemic in China is associated with students’ intention to pursue medical careers. The effect of faculty was greater than that of parents on medical students. Gender was related to the effects. And those who already determined to be the doctor before the pandemic were much more likely to persist in the medical profession. Conclusions: : Our study provides more definitive answers to the issue of who has a greater effect on medical students’ career commitment between parents and faculty. Encouraging faculty to act as positive role models could help medical students increase the intention to become doctors.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323556

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the world-wide COVID-19 pandemic has forced academic conferences to be held entirely in a virtual manner. While prior studies have advocated the merits of virtual conferences in terms of energy and cost savings, organizers are increasingly facing the prospect of planning and executing them systematically, in order to deliver a rich conference-attending-experience for all participants. Starting from March 2020, tens of conferences have been held virtually. Past conferences have revealed numerous challenges, from budget planning, to selecting the supporting virtual platforms. Among these, two special challenges were identified: 1) how to deliver talks to geo-distributed attendees and 2) how to stimulate social interactions among attendees. These are the two important goals of an academic conference. In this paper, we advocate a mirror program approach for academic conferences. More specifically, the conference program is executed in multiple parallel (mirrored) programs, so that each mirror program can fit a different time zone. This can effectively address the first challenge.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323553

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan and has quickly spread across the world. The mortality rate in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is high. This study analyzed clinical and biochemical parameters between mild and severe patients, helping to identify severe or critical patients early. Methods: : In this single center, cross-sectional study, 143 patients were included and divided to mild/moderate and sever/critical groups. Correlation between the disease criticality and clinical features and peripheral blood biochemical markers was analyzed. Cut-off values for critically ill patients were speculated through the ROC curve. Results: : Significantly, disease severity was associated with age (r = 0.458, P < 0.001) , comorbidities (r = 0.445, P < 0.001) , white cell counts (r = 0.229, P = 0.006) , neutrophil count (r = 0.238, P = 0.004) , lymphocyte count (r = -0.295, P < 0.001) , albumin (r = -0.603, P < 0.001) , high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.362, P < 0.001) , serum potassium (r = -0.237, P = 0.004) , plasma glucose (r = 0.383, P < 0.001) , total bilirubin (r = 0.340, P < 0.001) , serum amyloid A (r = 0.58, P < 0.001) , procalcitonin (r = 0.345, P < 0.001) , C-reactive protein ( r = 0.477, P < 0.001) , lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.548, P < 0.001) , aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.342, P < 0.001) , alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.264, P = 0.001) , erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.284, P = 0.001) and D-dimer (r = 0.477, P < 0.001) . Conclusion: With following parameters such as age > 52 years, C-reactive protein > 64.79 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase > 245 U/L, D-dimer > 0.96 ug/mL, serum amyloid A > 100.02 mg/L, or albumin < 36 g/L, the progress of COVID-19 to critical stage should be closely observed and possibly prevented. Lymphocyte count, serum potassium and procalcitonin may also be a prognostic indicator.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323552

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 ( COVID-19 ) is a novel infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan and has quickly spread across the world. The mortality rate in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is high. This study analyzed clinical and biochemical parameters between mild and severe patients, helping to identify severe or critical patients early. Methods: In this single center, cross-sectional study, 143 patients were included and divided to mild/moderate and sever/critical groups. Correlation between the disease criticality and clinical features and peripheral blood biochemical markers was analyzed. Cut-off values for critically ill patients were speculated through the ROC curve. Results: Significantly, disease severity was associated with age (r = 0.458, P < 0.001) , comorbidities (r = 0.445, P < 0.001) , white cell counts (r = 0.229, P = 0.006) , neutrophil count (r = 0.238, P = 0.004) , lymphocyte count (r = -0.295, P < 0.001) , albumin (r = -0.603, P < 0.001) , high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.362, P < 0.001) , serum potassium (r = -0.237, P = 0.004) , plasma glucose (r = 0.383, P < 0.001) , total bilirubin (r = 0.340, P < 0.001) , serum amyloid A (r = 0.58, P < 0.001) , procalcitonin (r = 0.345, P < 0.001) , C-reactive protein ( r = 0.477, P < 0.001) , lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.548, P < 0.001) , aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.342, P < 0.001) , alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.264, P = 0.001) , erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.284, P = 0.001) and D-dimer (r = 0.477, P < 0.001) . Conclusion: With following parameters such as age > 52 years, C-reactive protein > 64.79 mg/L, lactate dehydrogenase > 245 U/L, D-dimer > 0.96 ug/mL, serum amyloid A > 100.02 mg/L, or a lbumin < 36 g/L, the progress of COVID-19 to critical stage should be closely observed and possibly prevented. Lymphocyte count, serum potassium and procalcitonin may also be a prognostic indicator .

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315702

ABSTRACT

Background: Although the existing cases of COVID-19 in China have been reducing since late February 2020, the confirmed cases are surging abroad. Improving public knowledge regarding COVID-19 is critical to control the epidemic. The study aimed to determine the China’s public knowledge of COVID-19 and attitude towards the control measures. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 48 hours, from 29 February 2020, 22:30 to 2 March 2020, 22:30, based on a self-administered web-based questionnaire. The survey was conducted on the WeChat network. Exponential non-discriminative snowball sampling were applied. The questionnaire was voluntarily submitted by WeChat users. The questionnaire covered the basic demographic information, public knowledge about epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, psychological state, and attitude towards overall control measures. The primary outcome was the Chinese public knowledge regarding COVID-19 and the attitude towards the control measures and secondary outcome was psychological state of the public during this epidemic. Results: The study included 10,905 participants and 10,399 valid questionnaires were included for analysis. Participants with tertiary education, younger age and healthcare workers had better overall knowledge compared with other participants (all P<0.05). About 91.9% of the participants believed in person-to-person transmission and 39.1% believed in animal-to-person transmission. No significant correlation between anxiety and regional number of existing cases was found, while participants in Hubei were more anxious than those in other regions. In general, 74.1% of participants acknowledged the effectiveness of overall control measures and it was negatively correlated with regional number of existing cases (r=-0.492, P=0.007). Conclusions: In conclusion, the survey revealed that Chinese public had overall good knowledge regarding COVID-19 except for those indeterminate knowledge. With the dynamic change of global epidemic situation and more researches, further study would be conducted to explore the change of public knowledge and attitude about COVID-19 in the future.

14.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(3): e2102189, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649842

ABSTRACT

Sustainable solutions on fabricating and using a face mask to block the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread during this coronavirus pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) are required as society is directed by the World Health Organization (WHO) toward wearing it, resulting in an increasingly huge demand with over 4 000 000 000 masks used per day globally. Herein, various new mask technologies and advanced materials are reviewed to deal with critical shortages, cross-infection, and secondary transmission risk of masks. A number of countries have used cloth masks and 3D-printed masks as substitutes, whose filtration efficiencies can be improved by using nanofibers or mixing other polymers into them. Since 2020, researchers continue to improve the performance of masks by adding various functionalities, for example using metal nanoparticles and herbal extracts to inactivate pathogens, using graphene to make masks photothermal and superhydrophobic, and using triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) to prolong mask lifetime. The recent advances in material technology have led to the development of antimicrobial coatings, which are introduced in this review. When incorporated into masks, these advanced materials and technologies can aid in the prevention of secondary transmission of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans
15.
J Virol ; 96(1): e0125321, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639525

ABSTRACT

Over the past 20 years, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 emerged, causing severe human respiratory diseases throughout the globe. Developing broad-spectrum drugs would be invaluable in responding to new, emerging coronaviruses and to address unmet urgent clinical needs. Main protease (Mpro; also known as 3CLpro) has a major role in the coronavirus life cycle and is one of the most important targets for anti-coronavirus agents. We show that a natural product, noncovalent inhibitor, shikonin, is a pan-main protease inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, human coronavirus (HCoV)-HKU1, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-229E with micromolar half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Structures of the main protease of different coronavirus genus, SARS-CoV from the betacoronavirus genus and HCoV-NL63 from the alphacoronavirus genus, were determined by X-ray crystallography and revealed that the inhibitor interacts with key active site residues in a unique mode. The structure of the main protease inhibitor complex presents an opportunity to discover a novel series of broad-spectrum inhibitors. These data provide substantial evidence that shikonin and its derivatives may be effective against most coronaviruses as well as emerging coronaviruses of the future. Given the importance of the main protease for coronavirus therapeutic indication, insights from these studies should accelerate the development and design of safer and more effective antiviral agents. IMPORTANCE The current pandemic has created an urgent need for broad-spectrum inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. The main protease is relatively conservative compared to the spike protein and, thus, is one of the most promising targets in developing anti-coronavirus agents. We solved the crystal structures of the main protease of SARS-CoV and HCoV-NL63 that bound to shikonin. The structures provide important insights, have broad implications for understanding the structural basis underlying enzyme activity, and can facilitate rational design of broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus ligands as new therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/enzymology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Molecular Docking Simulation , Naphthoquinones/chemistry , Protein Binding
16.
Curr Med Imaging ; 18(7): 780-786, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599092

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia remains a matter of concern. Chest CT findings of COVID-19 pneumonia have been reported widely, while there is relatively rare research on chest X-ray (CXR). OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed to compare the CXR and chest CT findings of patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection and to explore their respective clinical values. METHODS: 28 inpatients with COVID-19 pneumonia who underwent both CXR and CT were included. The pulmonary manifestations of the lesions were recorded. Ground-glass opacity (GGO), consolidation, and fibrosis were quantified in CXR and chest CT separately. Consistency was analyzed using Fleiss' kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient. The stages of the disease in CXR and chest CT were evaluated. RESULTS: Approximately 67.9% (19/28) of subjects had abnormal findings on CXR. The common manifestations in CXR were ground-glass opacities (GGO) (100%, 19/19) and consolidation (68.4%, 13/19). 92.9% (26/28) of patients had abnormal manifestations on CT. The common manifestations in CT were GGO (88.5%, 23/26), consolidation (69.2%, 18/26), reticular opacity (69.2%, 18/26) and nodule (46.2%, 12/26). Among the abnormalities between CXR and CT, only consolidation was consistent (κ=0.510). GGO (ICC=0.501) and consolidation (ICC=0.431) scores were consistent in CXR and chest CT. The results of staging were the same in 14 cases, most of them were in stage I and stage II. While in other cases with inconsistent results, CT was more advanced in the disease stage than CXR, mainly stage III and stage IV. CONCLUSION: CXR is helpful to observe the change of the pulmonary lesions in patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. CT can be used for early diagnosis and staging of lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
17.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 773126, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566658

ABSTRACT

The global epidemic outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which exhibits high infectivity, resulted in thousands of deaths due to the lack of specific drugs. Certain traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), such as Xiyanping injection (XYPI), have exhibited remarkable benefits against COVID-19. Although TCM combined with Western medicine is considered an effective approach for the treatment of COVID-19, the combination may result in potential herb-drug interactions in the clinical setting. The present study aims to verify the effect of XYPI on the oral pharmacokinetics of lopinavir (LPV)/ritonavir (RTV) using an in vivo rat model and in vitro incubation model of human liver microsomes. After being pretreated with an intravenous dose of XYPI (52.5 mg/kg) for one day and for seven consecutive days, the rats received an oral dose of LPV/RTV (42:10.5 mg/kg). Except for the t1/2 of LPV is significantly prolonged from 4.66 to 7.18 h (p < 0.05) after seven consecutive days pretreatment, the pretreatment resulted in only a slight change in the other pharmacokinetic parameters of LPV. However, the pharmacokinetic parameters of RTV were significantly changed after pretreatment with XYPI, particularly in treatment for seven consecutive days, the AUC0-∞ of RTV was significantly shifted from 0.69 to 2.72 h µg/mL (p < 0.05) and the CL exhibited a tendency to decrease from 2.71 L/h to 0.94 L/h (p < 0.05), and the t1/2 of RTV prolonged from 3.70 to 5.51 h (p < 0.05), in comparison with the corresponding parameters in untreated rats. After administration of XYPI, the expression of Cyp3a1 protein was no significant changed in rats. The in vitro incubation study showed XYPI noncompetitively inhibited human CYP3A4 with an apparent Ki value of 0.54 mg/ml in a time-dependent manner. Our study demonstrated that XYPI affects the pharmacokinetics of LPV/RTV by inhibiting CYP3A4 activity. On the basis of this data, patients and clinicians can take precautions to avoid potential drug-interaction risks in COVID-19 treatment.

18.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296191

ABSTRACT

Summary Cellular global translation is often measured using ribosome profiling or quantitative mass spectrometry, but these methods do not provide direct information at the level of elongating nascent polypeptide chains (NPCs) and associated co-translational events. Here we describe pSNAP, a method for proteome-wide profiling of NPCs by affinity enrichment of puromycin- and stable isotope-labeled polypeptides. pSNAP does not require ribosome purification and/or chemical reaction, and captures bona fide NPCs that characteristically exhibit protein N-terminus-biased positions. We applied pSNAP to evaluate the effect of silmitasertib, a potential molecular therapy for cancer and COVID-19 patients, and revealed acute translational repression through casein kinase II and mTOR pathways. We also characterized modifications on NPCs and demonstrated that the combination of different types of modifications, such as acetylation and phosphorylation in the N-terminal region of histone H1.5, can modulate interactions with ribosome-associated factors. Thus, pSNAP provides a framework for dissecting co-translational regulations on a proteome-wide scale.

19.
Earth's Future ; 9(11), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1527972

ABSTRACT

Energy and emission data are crucial to climate change research and mitigation efforts. The accuracy of energy statistics is essential for mitigation strategies and evaluating the performance of low carbon energy transition efforts. This study provides the most up‐to‐date emission inventories for China and its provinces for 2018 and 2019. We also update the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission inventories of China and 30 provinces since 2012 based on the newly revised energy statistics. The inventories are compiled in a combined accounting approach of scope 1 (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change territorial emissions from 17 types of fossil fuel combustion and cement production by 47 socioeconomic sectors) and scope 2 (emissions from purchased electricity and heat consumption). The most recent energy revision led to an increase in reported national CO2 emissions by an average of 0.3% from 2014 to 2017. The results show that data revisions raised China's carbon intensity mitigation baseline (in 2005) by 5.1%–10.8% and thus made it more challenging to fulfill the mitigation pledges. However, the 2020 carbon intensity mitigation target was achieved ahead of schedule in 2018. A preliminary estimate of China's national emissions for 2020 shows that the COVID‐19 pandemic and lockdown was not able to offset China's annual increase in CO2 emissions. These emissions inventories provide an improved evidence base for China's policies toward net‐zero emissions.

20.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; 33(11):3833-3839, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1517965

ABSTRACT

[...]there is an increasing interest in implementing automated forms of interaction in services (Paluch et al., 2020;Flavián et al., 2021), and this trend is not different in the tourism, leisure and hospitality industry. [...]this study contributes to previous literature by comparing traditional and mascot-like appearances of service robots and identifies sense of humor as a key anthropomorphized personality trait of service robots. [...]some demographic characteristics (sex, age, education and income) as well as attitude, expectations or travel frequency are found to be key determinants of willingness to pay. [...]results suggest interesting implications for the tourism and hospitality industry, helping to identify those customers more interested in service robots and suggesting some directions in which companies need to work to successfully implement service robots. [...]the study “Customers’ Evaluation of mechanical Artificial Intelligence in Hospitality Services: A Study using Online Reviews Analytics,” by Mariani and Borghi (2021), analyzes if the presence of mechanical AI-related text in online reviews influences customers’ online review valence across 19 leading international hotels that have integrated mechanical AI.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL