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1.
Mil Med Res ; 9(1): 27, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951382

ABSTRACT

Since its establishment in 2014, Military Medical Research has come a long way in becoming a premier journal for scientific articles from various different specialties, with a special emphasis on topics with military relevance. The field of military medicine may be obscure, and may not be readily encountered by the typical clinician on a day-to-day basis. This journal aims not only to pursue excellence in military research, but also keep current with the latest advancements on general medical topics from each and every specialty. This editorial serves to recap and synthesize the existing progress, updates and future needs of military medical excellence, discussing foremostly the unique traits of literature published in this journal, and subsequently presenting the discourse regarding wartime and peacetime medicine, the role of the military in a public health emergency, as well as wound healing and organ regeneration. Special attention have been devoted to military topics to shed light on the effects of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Explosive (CBRE) warfare, environmental medicine and military psychiatry, topics which rarely have a chance to be discussed elsewhere. The interconnectedness between military combat and soldier physical and mental well-being is intricate, and has been distorted by pandemics such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This journal has come a long way since its first article was published, steadily contributing to the existing knowledge pool on general medical topics with a military slant. Only with continuous research and sharing, can we build upon the work of the scientific community, with hopes for the betterment of patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Military Medicine , Military Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Publications
2.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 322(5): L712-L721, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759484

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence has confirmed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a risk factor for development of severe pathological changes in the peripheral lungs of patients with COVID-19. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Because bronchiolar club cells are crucial for maintaining small airway homeostasis, we sought to explore whether the altered susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection of the club cells might have contributed to the severe COVID-19 pneumonia in COPD patients. Our investigation on the quantity and distribution patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in airway epithelium via immunofluorescence staining revealed that the mean fluorescence intensity of the ACE2-positive epithelial cells was significantly higher in club cells than those in other epithelial cells (including ciliated cells, basal cells, goblet cells, neuroendocrine cells, and alveolar type 2 cells). Compared with nonsmokers, the median percentage of club cells in bronchiolar epithelium and ACE2-positive club cells was significantly higher in COPD patients. In vitro, SARS-CoV-2 infection (at a multiplicity of infection of 1.0) of primary small airway epithelial cells, cultured on air-liquid interface, confirmed a higher percentage of infected ACE2-positive club cells in COPD patients than in nonsmokers. Our findings have indicated the role of club cells in modulating the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-related severe pneumonia and the poor clinical outcomes, which may help physicians to formulate a novel therapeutic strategy for COVID-19 patients with coexisting COPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Lung , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325366

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of COVID-19 related treatment delay on subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) efficacy in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). Methods: The study was performed in 643 patients with SCIT appointments between February 1 and May 31, 2020. The clinical assessment, performed at baseline (V0) and one year later (V1), included visual analogue scale (VAS);daily symptom score (dSS);daily medication score (dMS);combined symptom and medication scores (CSMS);quality of life (QoL);self-rating anxiety scale (SAS);and self-rating depression scale (SDS) for each patient. Results: At V0, 249 patients were treated on schedule, and 394 were delayed (7 ± 4.68 weeks). Among them, 319 patients (105 on schedule, and 214 delayed) also completed the assessments at V1, with the absence of 25.39% patients due to completion of SCIT, and 25.35% patients were withdrawal. The results of all assessments were within the normal range for all patients at V0 and V1, with the exception of a slightly higher SDS score (56.13) at V0. In the SCIT delayed group. there was a significant positive correlation between the length (weeks) of the delay and SDS score, and this was significantly higher in patients with poor control of nasal symptoms. Conclusions: This study showed the long-term efficacy of SCIT for AR patients, including those who have had to delay normal therapy due to the COVID-19 outbreak. The psychological status of SCIT patients in response to lockdown of hospital services during this critical period should be considered.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324613

ABSTRACT

Background: Post viral anosmia has been reported in human coronavirus infections. In this current pandemic, olfactory dysfunction (OD) has emerged as a common key presenting symptom of COVID-19 infection. In this study, we describe OD assessment in the inpatient setting of patients both suspected of and with confirmed COVID-19 infection via University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) objective assessment and a simple self-reported 3-item questionnaire. Methods: Thirty patients admitted to the isolation wards of the National University Hospital, Singapore for either suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection from April to May 2020 were recruited to this study. 10 patients who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 were recruited as control subjects. The 20 patients with COVID-19 infection were divided into two groups (10 had olfactory testing performed during the first week of illness, 10 in the second week of illness). A simple 3-question survey was administered to each participant - to rank the severity, state the onset and duration of their hyposmia. Olfactory testing was performed using an English version of the UPSIT. Results: Loss of smell was reported in 2 participants from the control group, 6 participants from the in the first week of illness and 5 participants from the second week of illness. Two COVID-19 patients have anosmia on the UPSIT. COVID-19 patients were more likely to have severe hyposmia or anosmia by objective assessment, a difference that was statistically significant ( P = 0.0485). The differences in degree of OD among COVID-19 patients in their first and second week of illness were not statistically significant ( P = 0.6563). Conclusion: Self-reported anosmia was higher among COVID-19 patients compared to controls who were admitted to isolation wards for respiratory symptoms but were tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. On objective assessment by the UPSIT, COVID-19 patients were found to have higher rates of severe hyposmia or anosmia, a difference that was statistically significant ( P = 0.0485). A limitation of this study is the odorants used in UPSIT which may be less familiar to the primarily Asian participants in this study, owing to cultural differences.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320658

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are essential public health tools with a favorable safety profile and prophylactic effectiveness that have historically played significant roles in reducing infectious disease burden in populations, when the majority of individuals are vaccinated. The COVID-19 vaccines are expected to have similar positive impacts on health across the globe. While serious allergic reactions to vaccines are rare, their underlying mechanisms and implications for clinical management should be considered to provide individuals with the safest care possible. In this review, we provide an overview of different types of allergic adverse reactions that can potentially occur after vaccination and individual vaccine components capable of causing the allergic adverse reactions. We present the incidence of allergic adverse reactions during clinical studies and through post-authorization and post-marketing surveillance and provide plausible causes of these reactions based on potential allergenic components present in several common vaccines. Additionally, we review implications for individual diagnosis and management and vaccine manufacturing overall. Finally, we suggest areas for future research.

7.
mBio ; : e0343621, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632479

ABSTRACT

The dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infection in COVID-19 patients are highly variable, with a subset of patients demonstrating prolonged virus shedding, which poses a significant challenge for disease management and transmission control. In this study, the long-term dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infection were investigated using a human well-differentiated nasal epithelial cell (NEC) model of infection. NECs were observed to release SARS-CoV-2 virus onto the apical surface for up to 28 days postinfection (dpi), further corroborated by viral antigen staining. Single-cell transcriptome sequencing (sc-seq) was utilized to explore the host response from infected NECs after short-term (3-dpi) and long-term (28-dpi) infection. We identified a unique population of cells harboring high viral loads present at both 3 and 28 dpi, characterized by expression of cell stress-related genes DDIT3 and ATF3 and enriched for genes involved in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) signaling and apoptosis. Remarkably, this sc-seq analysis revealed an antiviral gene signature within all NEC cell types even at 28 dpi. We demonstrate increased replication of basal cells, absence of widespread cell death within the epithelial monolayer, and the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to replicate despite a continuous interferon response as factors likely contributing to SARS-CoV-2 persistence. This study provides a model system for development of therapeutics aimed at improving viral clearance in immunocompromised patients and implies a crucial role for immune cells in mediating viral clearance from infected epithelia. IMPORTANCE Increasing medical attention has been drawn to the persistence of symptoms (long-COVID syndrome) or live virus shedding from subsets of COVID-19 patients weeks to months after the initial onset of symptoms. In vitro approaches to model viral or symptom persistence are needed to fully dissect the complex and likely varied mechanisms underlying these clinical observations. We show that in vitro differentiated human NECs are persistently infected with SARS-CoV-2 for up to 28 dpi. This viral replication occurred despite the presence of an antiviral gene signature across all NEC cell types even at 28 dpi. This indicates that epithelial cell intrinsic antiviral responses are insufficient for the clearance of SARS-CoV-2, implying an essential role for tissue-resident and infiltrating immune cells for eventual viral clearance from infected airway tissue in COVID-19 patients.

8.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502532

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is known as a respiratory virus, but SARS-CoV-2 appears equally, or even more, infectious for the olfactory epithelium (OE) than for the respiratory epithelium in the nasal cavity. In light of the small area of the OE relative to the respiratory epithelium, the high prevalence of olfactory dysfunctions (ODs) in COVID-19 has been bewildering and has attracted much attention. This review aims to first examine the cytological and molecular biological characteristics of the OE, especially the microvillous apical surfaces of sustentacular cells and the abundant SARS-CoV-2 receptor molecules thereof, that may underlie the high susceptibility of this neuroepithelium to SARS-CoV-2 infection and damages. The possibility of SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism, or the lack of it, is then analyzed with regard to the expression of the receptor (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) or priming protease (transmembrane serine protease 2), and cellular targets of infection. Neuropathology of COVID-19 in the OE, olfactory bulb, and other related neural structures are also reviewed. Toward the end, we present our perspectives regarding possible mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 neuropathogenesis and ODs, in the absence of substantial viral infection of neurons. Plausible causes for persistent ODs in some COVID-19 convalescents are also examined.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Tropism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/metabolism , Olfactory Mucosa/ultrastructure , Prevalence , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487420

ABSTRACT

Tetraspanins are transmembrane glycoproteins that have been shown increasing interest as host factors in infectious diseases. In particular, they were implicated in the pathogenesis of both non-enveloped (human papillomavirus (HPV)) and enveloped (human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Zika, influenza A virus, (IAV), and coronavirus) viruses through multiple stages of infection, from the initial cell membrane attachment to the syncytium formation and viral particle release. However, the mechanisms by which different tetraspanins mediate their effects vary. This review aimed to compare and contrast the role of tetraspanins in the life cycles of HPV, HIV, Zika, IAV, and coronavirus viruses, which cause the most significant health and economic burdens to society. In doing so, a better understanding of the relative contribution of tetraspanins in virus infection will allow for a more targeted approach in the treatment of these diseases.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Tetraspanins/physiology , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Influenza A virus/pathogenicity , Papillomaviridae/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Internalization , Zika Virus/pathogenicity
10.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 47, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381266

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a newly identified member of the coronavirus family that has caused the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This rapidly evolving and unrelenting SARS-CoV-2 has disrupted the lives and livelihoods of millions worldwide. As of 23 August 2021, a total of 211,373,303 COVID-19 cases have been confirmed globally with a death toll of 4,424,341. A strong understanding of the infection pathway of SARS-CoV-2, and how our immune system responds to the virus is highly pertinent for guiding the development and improvement of effective treatments. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of neutralising antibodies (NAbs) and their implications in clinical practice. The aspects include the pathophysiology of the immune response, particularly humoral adaptive immunity and the roles of NAbs from B cells in infection clearance. We summarise the onset and persistence of IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies, and we explore their roles in neutralising SARS-CoV-2, their persistence in convalescent individuals, and in reinfection. Furthermore, we also review the applications of neutralising antibodies in the clinical setting-from predictors of disease severity to serological testing to vaccinations, and finally in therapeutics such as convalescent plasma infusion.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pandemics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
11.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 21(6): 38, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309079

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing knowledge of the pathogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the complex interaction between host and viral factors have allowed clinicians to stratify the severity of COVID-19 infection. Epidemiological data has also helped to model viral carriage and infectivity. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the pathophysiology of COVID-19, the mechanisms of action of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and the correlation with the clinical and biochemical characteristics of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors have emerged as a key player in the mechanism of infection of SARS-CoV-2. Their distribution throughout the body has been shown to impact the organ-specific manifestations of COVID-19. The immune-evasive and subsequently immunoregulative properties of SARS-CoV-2 are also shown to be implicated in disease proliferation and progression. Information gleaned from the virological properties of SARS-CoV-2 is consistent with and reflects the clinical behavior of the COVID-19 infection. Further study of specific clinical phenotypes and severity classes of COVID-19 may assist in the development of targeted therapeutics to halt progression of disease from mild to moderate-severe. As the understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanism of action of SARS-CoV-2 continues to grow, it is our hope that better and more effective treatment options continue to emerge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Humans , Immune Evasion , Organ Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Virus Internalization
12.
Biomaterials ; 274: 120876, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225152

ABSTRACT

Rapid diagnostics of adventitious agents in biopharmaceutical/cell manufacturing release testing and the fight against viral infection have become critical. Quantitative real-time PCR and CRISPR-based methods rapidly detect DNA/RNA in 1 h but suffer from inter-site variability. Absolute quantification of DNA/RNA by methods such as digital PCR reduce this variability but are currently too slow for wider application. Here, we report a RApid DIgital Crispr Approach (RADICA) for absolute quantification of nucleic acids in 40-60 min. Using SARS-CoV-2 as a proof-of-concept target, RADICA allows for absolute quantification with a linear dynamic range of 0.6-2027 copies/µL (R2 value > 0.99), high accuracy and low variability, no cross-reactivity to similar targets, and high tolerance to human background DNA. RADICA's versatility is validated against other targets such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from human B cells and patients' serum. RADICA can accurately detect and absolutely quantify EBV DNA with similar dynamic range of 0.5-2100 copies/µL (R2 value > 0.98) in 1 h without thermal cycling, providing a 4-fold faster alternative to digital PCR-based detection. RADICA therefore enables rapid and sensitive absolute quantification of nucleic acids which can be widely applied across clinical, research, and biomanufacturing areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Nucleic Acids , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Allergy ; 76(11): 3349-3358, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216718

ABSTRACT

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a complex upper airway inflammatory disease with a broad spectrum of clinical variants. As our understanding of the disease pathophysiology evolves, so too does our philosophy towards the approach and management of CRS. Endotyping is gaining favour over phenotype-based classifications, owing to its potential in prognosticating disease severity and delivering precision treatment. Endotyping is especially useful in challenging CRS with nasal polyposis cases, for whom novel treatment options such as biologicals are now available. The latest European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EPOS2020) reflects these changes with updated rhinosinusitis classifications and new integrated care pathways. With the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, physicians and rhinologists have to balance the responsibility of managing their patients' upper airway while adequately protecting themselves from droplet and aerosol transmission. This review summarises the key updates from EPOS2020, endotype-based classification and biomarkers. The role of biologicals in CRS and the lessons we can draw from their use in severe asthma will be examined. Finally, the principles of CRS management during COVID-19 will also be discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nasal Polyps , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Chronic Disease , Humans , Nasal Polyps/diagnosis , Nasal Polyps/therapy , Rhinitis/diagnosis , Rhinitis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/therapy
14.
Allergy ; 76(6): 1640-1660, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165739

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are essential public health tools with a favorable safety profile and prophylactic effectiveness that have historically played significant roles in reducing infectious disease burden in populations, when the majority of individuals are vaccinated. The COVID-19 vaccines are expected to have similar positive impacts on health across the globe. While serious allergic reactions to vaccines are rare, their underlying mechanisms and implications for clinical management should be considered to provide individuals with the safest care possible. In this review, we provide an overview of different types of allergic adverse reactions that can potentially occur after vaccination and individual vaccine components capable of causing the allergic adverse reactions. We present the incidence of allergic adverse reactions during clinical studies and through post-authorization and post-marketing surveillance and provide plausible causes of these reactions based on potential allergenic components present in several common vaccines. Additionally, we review implications for individual diagnosis and management and vaccine manufacturing overall. Finally, we suggest areas for future research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Hypersensitivity/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines/adverse effects
15.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(5): 418-425, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086243

ABSTRACT

Importance: Three-dimensionally printed nasopharyngeal swabs (3DP swabs) have been used to mitigate swab shortages during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Clinical validation for diagnostic accuracy and consistency, as well as patient acceptability, is crucial to evaluate the swab's performance. Objective: To determine the accuracy and acceptability of the 3DP swab for identifying severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Design, Setting, and Participants: A diagnostic study was conducted from May to July 2020 at 2 tertiary care centers in Singapore with different reference swabs (FLOQSwab [COPAN Diagnostics] or Dacron swab [Deltalab]) and swab processing techniques (wet or dry) to evaluate the performance of the 3DP swab compared with traditional, standard-of-care nasopharyngeal swabs used in health care institutions. The participants were patients with COVID-19 in the first 2 weeks of illness and controls with acute respiratory illness with negative test results for SARS-CoV-2. Paired nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from the same nostril and tested for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The sequence of swabs was randomized based on odd and even participant numbers. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome measures were overall agreement (OA), positive percentage agreement (PPA), and negative percentage agreement of the 3DP swab compared with reference swabs. Secondary outcome measures were the correlation of cycle threshold (Ct) values of both swabs. Results: The mean (SD) age of participants was 45.4 (13.1) years, and most participants were men (87 of 89 [97.8%]), in keeping with the epidemiology of the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore. A total of 79 patients with COVID-19 and 10 controls were recruited. Among the patients with COVID-19, the overall agreement and PPA of the 3DP swab was 91.1% and 93.5%, respectively, compared with reference swabs. The PPA was 100% for patients with COVID-19 who were tested within the first week of illness. All controls tested negative. The reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction Ct values for the ORF1ab and E-gene targets showed a strong correlation (intraclass correlations coefficient, 0.869-0.920) between the 3DP and reference swab on independent testing at each institution despite differences in sample processing. Discordant results for both gene targets were observed only at high Ct values. Conclusions and Relevance: In this diagnostic study of 79 patients with COVID-19 and 10 controls, the 3DP swab performed accurately and consistently across health care institutions and could help mitigate strained resources in the escalating COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Adult , Equipment Design , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 14-23, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084049

ABSTRACT

Last December 2019, a cluster of viral pneumonia cases identified as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. We aimed to explore the frequencies of nasal symptoms in patients with COVID-19, including loss of smell and taste, as well as their presentation as the first symptom of the disease and their association with the severity of COVID-19. In this retrospective study, 1206 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included and followed up by telephone one month after discharged from Tongji Hospital, Wuhan. Demographic data, laboratory values, comorbidities, symptoms, and numerical rating scale scores (0-10) of nasal symptoms were extracted from the hospital medical records, and confirmed or reevaluated by the telephone follow-up. From patients (n=1172) completing follow-up, 199 (17%) subjects had severe COVID-19 and 342 (29.2%) reported nasal symptoms. 20.6% COVID-19 patients had loss of taste (median score=6), while 11.4% had loss of smell (median score=5). Loss of taste scores, but not loss of smell scores, were significantly increased in severe vs. non-severe COVID-19 patients. Interleukin (IL)-6 and lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels were positively correlated with loss of taste scores. About 80% of COVID-19 patients recovered from smell and taste dysfunction in 2 weeks. In this cohort, only 1 out of 10 hospital admitted patients had loss of smell while 1 out of 5 reported loss of taste which was associated to severity of COVID-19. Most patients recovered smell and taste dysfunctions in 2 weeks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Interleukin-6/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/blood , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Taste Disorders/blood
17.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 64(1): 16-18, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066995
18.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 21(2): 6, 2021 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062178

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chemosensory dysfunction in the patients with COVID-19 has been reported frequently in the studies from different regions of the world. However, the prevalence of smell and/or taste disorders presents significant ethnic and geographic variability. In addition, the pathogenesis of chemosensory dysfunction remains unclarified. RECENT FINDINGS: This is a narrative review on the recent state of the prevalence, mechanism, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategy of chemosensory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients during the global pandemic. The chemosensory dysfunction was analysis based on recent studies, which either used questionnaires, Likert scales (0-10), or smell tests to estimate the smell and taste dysfunction. The ethnic and geographic difference of the prevalence of smell and/or taste disorders and the potential underlying mechanisms have been discussed. Several suggestions on the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients with smell and taste disorders were summarized for the physicians. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current studies regarding the chemosensory dysfunction during the COVID-19 worldwide outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/ethnology , Demography , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(1): 109, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062082
20.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(2): 1015-1022, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023371

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis is currently a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect SARS-CoV-2. This is most commonly performed on respiratory secretions obtained via a nasopharyngeal swab. Due to supply chain limitations and high demand worldwide because of the COVID-19 pandemic, access to commercial nasopharyngeal swabs has not been assured. 3D printing methods have been used to meet the shortfall. For longer-term considerations, 3D printing may not compare well with injection molding as a production method due to the challenging scalability and greater production costs of 3D printing. METHODS: To secure sufficient nasopharyngeal swab availability for our national healthcare system, we designed a novel injection molded nasopharyngeal swab (the IM2 swab). We performed a clinical diagnostic study comparing the IM2 swab to the Copan FLOQSwab. Forty patients with a known diagnosis of COVID-19 and 10 healthy controls were recruited. Paired nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from the same nostril of each participant and tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. RESULTS: When compared to the Copan FLOQswab, results from the IM2 swab displayed excellent overall agreement and positive percent agreement of 96.0% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference in mean RT-PCR cycle threshold values for the ORF1ab (28.05 vs. 28.03, p = 0.97) and E-gene (29.72 vs. 29.37, p = 0.64) targets, respectively. We did not observe any significant adverse events and there was no significant difference in patient-reported pain. CONCLUSION: In summary, the IM2 nasopharyngeal swab is a clinically safe, highly accurate option to commercial nasopharyngeal swabs.

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