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1.
Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice ; : 101600, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821202

ABSTRACT

Background COVID-19 has posed an unprecedented threat to public health and remains a critical challenge for medical staff, especially those who have been fighting against the virus in Wuhan, China. Limited data have been reported regarding the psychological status of these medical staff members. Therefore, we conducted this study to explore the mental health status of medical staff and the efficacy of brief mindfulness meditation (BMM) in improving their mental health. Methods A survey was conducted between April 18 and May 3, 2020. Upon completing the pre-test, participants in the treatment group received a 15-min BMM intervention every day at 8 p.m. Post-test questionnaires were completed after 16 days of therapy. The questionnaire comprised demographic data and psychological measurement scales. The levels of pre and post-test depression, anxiety, stress, and insomnia were assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Athens Insomnia Scale, respectively. Results A total of 134 completed questionnaires were received. Of the medical staff, 6.7%, 1.5%, and 26.7% reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, and insomnia, respectively. Public officials from military hospitals reported experiencing greater pressure than private officials (t = 2.39, p = 0.018, d = 0.50). Additionally, BMM treatment appeared to effectively alleviate insomnia (t = 2.27, p = 0.027, d = 0.28). Conclusions The medical staff suffered negative psychological effects during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMM interventions are advantageous in supporting the mental health of medical staff.

2.
Journal of Affective Disorders ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1804389

ABSTRACT

Background At present, few studies have explored the mediating effect of e-Health literacy and self-efficacy on prevention cognition and healthy lifestyle behaviors during the normalization stage of COVID-19 prevention and control. This study aimed to determine the associations among COVID-19-related prevention cognition, self-efficacy, e-Health literacy, and healthy lifestyle behaviors at university students. Methods By using a stratified cluster random sampling method, 971 students from five universities were recruited between May and August 2021 in Guangzhou, China. We collected participants' demographic characteristics, and assessed self-efficacy, COVID-19-related prevention cognition, e-Health literacy, and healthy lifestyle behaviors. A structural equation model was used for mediation analysis. Results The overall mean value of healthy lifestyle behaviors of college students was 0.307 (SD 0.389). Between COVID-19-related prevention cognition, e-Health literacy, self-efficacy, and healthy lifestyle behaviors (r = 0.132–0.505, P < 0.01) were a significant positive correlation. The COVID-19-related prevention cognition had a direct and positive predictive effect on healthy lifestyle behaviors, with a direct effect value of 0.136. e-Health literacy and self-efficacy played both an independent mediating and serial-multiple mediating roles in the association between COVID-19-related prevention cognition and healthy lifestyle behaviors, and the indirect effect values were 0.043, 0.020 and 0.035, respectively. Conclusions The results showed that the emphasis on improving college students' prevention cognition, supplemented by improving e-Health literacy and self-efficacy, could improve college students' healthy lifestyle behaviors. Limitations This study was a cross-sectional investigation with no causal relationship between variables.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332711

ABSTRACT

As a revolutionary biological science and technology, synthetic biology (SynBio) has already spread its influence from natural science to philosophy and social sciences by introducing biosafety, biosecurity, environmental and ethical issues to society. The current study aims to elaborate the intellectual bases and research front of the synthetic biology field in the sphere of humanities and social sciences with knowledge mapping and bibliometric methods. The literature records from the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI) in the Web of Science Core Collection from 1982 to 2021 were collected and analyzed to illustrate the intellectual structure of humanities and social researches of SynBio. This study profiled the hotspots of research focus on its governance, philosophical and ethical concerns, and relevant technologies. This study offers clues and enlightenment for the stakeholders and researchers to follow the progress of this emerging discipline and technology and to understand the cutting-edge ideas and future form of this field, which takes on greater significance in the post-COVID-19 era.

4.
Digit Health ; 8: 20552076221089789, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770148

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to investigate eHealth literacy among primary care providers (PCPs) and explore its association with social support, individual resilience, anxiety, and depression during an outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in Guangzhou, China. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in 18 community healthcare centers in Guangzhou, China. The responses of 600 PCPs were tagged as valid responses. Information pertaining to their background, eHealth literacy, anxiety, depression levels, social support, and individual resilience was also collected. Multilevel analysis was used to determine the association among the measures to account for the nested random effect of community health centers in different districts. Results: Participants showed a moderate self-perceived level of eHealth literacy (M = 30, SD = 5.8). Participants who reported higher levels of eHealth literacy were more likely to exhibit lower levels of anxiety and depression, higher social support, and greater resilience. After adjusting for background characteristics, the results of the multilevel logistic analysis showed that eHealth literacy was significantly associated with anxiety and depression, social support, and individual resilience. Younger participants and those who were highly educated reported enhanced eHealth literacy. Conclusions: This study presents a baseline reference for eHealth literacy among Chinese PCPs. Improving their ability to search for and use reliable web-based information was beneficial for facilitating perceived social support and raising resilience during the pandemic. Strategies to provide high-quality web-based information to PCPs to self-assess and identify psychological distress at an early stage should be encouraged.

5.
Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1710780

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases are an ever-present threat to public health, and COVID-19 is the most recent example. There is an urgent need to develop a robust framework to combat the disease with safe and effective therapeutic options. Compared to de novo drug discovery, drug repurposing may offer a lower-cost and faster drug discovery paradigm to explore potential treatment options of existing drugs. This chapter elucidates the advantages of artificial intelligence (AI) in enhancing the drug repurposing process from a data science perspective, using COVID-19 as an example. First, we elaborate on how AI-powered drug repurposing benefits from the accumulated data and knowledge of COVID-19 natural history and pathogenesis. Second, we summarize the pros and cons of AI-powered drug repurposing strategies to facilitate fit-for-purpose selection. Finally, we outline challenges of AI-powered drug repurposing from a regulatory perspective and suggest some potential solutions. Key points • AI-powered drug purposing is promising for emerging treatments for COVID-19 infection.• Accumulated biological data profiles facilitate AI-based drug repurposing efforts for development of COVID-19 therapies.• The ‘fit-for-purpose selection of AI-powered drug repurposing strategies is key to uncovering hidden information among drugs, targets, and diseases.• Efforts from different stakeholders boost the adoption of AI-powered drug repurposing in the regulatory setting.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325339

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is more infectious and transmissible in humans than SARS-CoV, despite the genetic relatedness and sharing the same cellular receptor. We sought to assess whether human airway organoids can model SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human airway and elucidate the cellular basis underlying its higher transmissibility. We demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 can establish a productive infection in human airway organoids, in which ciliated cell and basal cell are infected. Wildtype SARS-CoV-2 carrying a furin cleavage motif exhibits comparable replication kinetics to a mutant virus without the motif. Human airway organoids sustain higher replication of SARS-CoV-2 than SARS-CoV, whereas interferon response is more potently induced in the latter than the former. Overall, human airway organoids can model SARS-CoV-2 infection and recapitulate the disposable role of furin cleavage motif for virus transmission in humans. SARS-CoV-2 stealth growth and evasion of interferon response may underlie pre-symptomatic virus shedding in COVID-19 patients, leading to its high infectiousness and transmissibility.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323557

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has gradually become a global public health crisis. Some patients who have recovered from COVID-19 subsequently tested positive again for SARS-CoV-2 after discharge (retesting-positive, RTP). However, the underlying mechanism is unknown.Methods: Here, 30 RTP patients, 20 convalescent patients, and 20 healthy controls were enrolled for analysis of the immunological characteristics of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Furthermore, we sought to comprehensively characterize the transcriptional changes in the three groups by transcriptome sequencing.Findings: It was found that the absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and NK cells were not decreased remarkably, while the expression of activation markers on these cells was significantly decreased in RTP patients. Furthermore, the percentage of granzyme B-producing T cells was also decreased in RTP patients compared with that in convalescent patients. Moreover, the high expression of inhibitor of differentiation-1 (ID1) and the low expression of IFITM10 may be associated with the insufficient activation of immune cells and RTP occurrence.Interpretation: Our findings provide insights into the impaired immune function and pathogenesis of RTP occurrence in COVID-19, which may contribute to the development of immunotherapy for RTP patients.Funding Statement: This work was supported by China National Center for Biotechnology Development (2020YFC0843800 and 2020YFC0846800), Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2020TFC0844100), and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2020T130112ZX).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no potential conflict of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: The studies were approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of the University of Science & Technology of China (2020-XG(H)-005) and Peking University First Hospital (2020-Research-112) for Emerging Infectious Diseases. Experiments were conducted in accordance with the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki, the Principles of Good Clinical Practice, and the guidelines of China’s regulatory requirements.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323555

ABSTRACT

A huge amount of data of various types are collected during the COVID-19 pandemic, the analysis and interpretation of which has been indispensable for curbing the spread of the coronavirus. As the pandemic slows down, the collected data during the pandemic will continue to be rich sources for further studying the pandemic and understanding its impacts on public health, economics, and societies. On the other hand, naïve release and sharing of the information can be associated with serious privacy concerns. In this paper, aiming at shedding light on privacy-preserving sharing of pandemic data and thus promoting and encouraging more data sharing for research and public use, we examine three common data types -- case surveillance, patient location histories and hot spot maps, and contact tracing networks -- collected during the pandemic and develop and apply privacy-preserving approaches for publishing or sharing each data type. We illustrate the applications and examine the utility of released privacy-preserving data in examples and experiments at various levels of privacy guarantees.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323554

ABSTRACT

Contact tracing in the COVID-19 pandemic is key to prevent the further spread of COVID-19. Countries and regions around the world have developed and deployed or are considering adopting contact-tracing software or mobile apps. While contact tracing apps and software play an important role in the pandemic, red flags have been raised regarding the privacy risk associated with contact tracing. In this short paper, we provide an overview on the GPS and Bluetooth based contact-tracing apps in the framework of both centralized and decentralized models, examine the associated privacy risk and the effectiveness of the privacy-preserving measures adopted in different apps.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323551

ABSTRACT

This paper studies the dynamic change of volatility spillovers between several major international financial markets during the global COVID-19 pandemic using Diebold and Yilmaz’s connectedness index. We found that the total volatility spillover in this March reached its highest level of recent ten years, while the pandemic developed to its worst stage in this April. Results of total directional spillover show that American and British stock markets are main spillover transmitters during the pandemic, while Chinese and Japanese stock markets, as well as GBP/USD exchange rate are spillover recipients. The pairwise directional spillover between American and British stock markets is larger than other pairs. GBP/USD exchange rate and WTI crude oil futures market mainly receive spillovers from American stock market. Results show that the COVID-19 pandemic has caused huge shocks to international financial markets, especially of those countries with severe pandemics, and the pandemic led to increased spillovers between financial markets.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319832

ABSTRACT

With the spiraling pandemic of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has becoming inherently important to disseminate accurate and timely information about the disease. Due to the ubiquity of Internet connectivity and smart devices, social sensing is emerging as a dynamic AI-driven sensing paradigm to extract real-time observations from online users. In this paper, we propose CovidSens, a vision of social sensing based risk alert systems to spontaneously obtain and analyze social data to infer COVID-19 propagation. CovidSens can actively help to keep the general public informed about the COVID-19 spread and identify risk-prone areas. The CovidSens concept is motivated by three observations: 1) people actively share their experience of COVID-19 via online social media, 2) official warning channels and news agencies are relatively slower than people reporting on social media, and 3) online users are frequently equipped with powerful mobile devices that can perform data processing and analytics. We envision unprecedented opportunities to leverage posts generated by ordinary people to build real-time sensing and analytic system for gathering and circulating COVID-19 propagation data. Specifically, the vision of CovidSens attempts to answer the questions: How to distill reliable information on COVID-19 with prevailing rumors and misinformation? How to inform the general public about the state of the spread timely and effectively? How to leverage the computational power on edge devices to construct fully integrated edge-based social sensing platforms? In this vision paper, we discuss the roles of CovidSens and identify potential challenges in developing reliable social sensing based risk alert systems. We envision that approaches originating from multiple disciplines can be effective in addressing the challenges. Finally, we outline a few research directions for future work in CovidSens.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308926

ABSTRACT

Background: We conducted a comprehensive literature review to synthesize evidence for the relationship between corticosteroid use and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Methods: : The PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to March 13, 2021. We searched and analyzed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies (OS) that examined the corticosteroid use in COVID-19 patients. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, while the secondary outcome was the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) and serious adverse events. Results: : 11 RCTs and 46 OS involving 7,893 and 4,1696 COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Corticosteroid use was associated with lower COVID-19 mortality in RCTs, but was not statistically significant (OR, 0.88;95% CI, 0.74–1.05;I 2 =66.9%). The subgroup analysis of severe COVID-19 patients, corticosteroid type and dose also showed no survival benefit statistically. However, the corticosteroid use may reduce the MV need (OR, 0.67;95% CI, 0.51–0.90;I 2 =7.5%) with no significant increase in serious adverse reactions (OR, 0.84;95% CI, 0.30–2.37;I 2 =33.3%). In addition, the included OS showed that the pulse dose (OR, 0.52;95% CI, 0.39–0.70) and methylprednisolone use (OR, 0.69;95% CI, 0.52–0.92;I 2 =66.7%) may lower the mortality in COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: : This meta-analysis indicated that corticosteroid use might cause a slight reduction in COVID-19 mortality. However, it could significantly reduce the MV requirement in COVID-19 patients and restrict serious adverse events. Additionally, the pulse dose of methylprednisolone may be a good treatment choice for COVID-19 patients.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315267

ABSTRACT

Background: The current worldwide pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to global public health, and the mortality rate of critical ill patients remains high. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that early predict the progression of COVID-19 from severe to critical illness. Methods: : This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with severe or critical ill COVID-19 who were consecutively admitted to the Zhongfaxincheng campus of Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China) from February 8 to 18, 2020. Baseline variables, data at hospital admission and during hospital stay, as well as clinical outcomes were collected from electronic medical records system. The primary endpoint was the development of critical illness. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify independent factors that were associated with the progression from severe to critical illness. Results: : A total of 138 patients were included in the analysis;of them 119 were diagnosed as severe cases and 16 as critical ill cases at hospital admission. During hospital stay, 19 more severe cases progressed to critical illness. For all enrolled patients, longer duration from diagnosis to admission (odds ratio [OR] 1.108, 95% CI 1.022-1.202;P=0.013), pulse oxygen saturation at admission <93% (OR 5.775, 95% CI 1.257-26.535;P=0.024), higher neutrophil count (OR 1.495, 95% CI 1.177-1.899;P=0.001) and higher creatine kinase-MB level at admission (OR 2.449, 95% CI 1.089-5.511;P=0.030) were associated with a higher risk, whereas higher lymphocyte count at admission (OR 0.149, 95% CI 0.026-0.852;P=0.032) was associated with a lower risk of critical illness development. For the subgroup of severe cases at hospital admission, the above factors except creatine kinase-MB level were also found to have similar correlation with critical illness development. Conclusions: : Higher neutrophil count and lower lymphocyte count at admission were early independent predictors of progression to critical illness in severe COVID-19 patients.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315191

ABSTRACT

Bcakground: This study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and prognosis of COVID-19 patients combined with or without major chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension or coronary. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 183 patients with COVID-19 diagnosed at First People's Hospital of Jiangxia District (FPHJD) in Wuhan, China attended by Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University supporting medical team from February 1, 2020 to March 15, 2020. Patients were divided into simple COVID-19 group(n=134), COVID-19 combined with diabetes, hypertension or coronary group(n=49). Besides, COVID-19 patients with diabetes, hypertension or coronary were further classified into severe pneumonia group(n=23) and common pneumonia group(n=26), death group(n=17) and survival group(n=32). The prognosis of COVID-19 patients was evaluated by analyzing the clinical data and the results of laboratory tests. Results: 183 patients were included in this study, of whom 166 were discharged and 16 died in hospital. 49 (26.92%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common [37 (20.33%) patients], followed by diabetes [25 (13.74%) patients] and coronary heart disease [4 (2.2%) patients]. Compared with simple COVID-19 group, the proportion of history of chronic respiratory system disease, age, D-dimer, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, myoglobin, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase MB, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and mortality rate were significantly higher in COVID-19 combined with chronic diseases group, whereas lymphocyte count, lymphocyte percentage and alanine transferase were significantly lower in COVID-19 combined with chronic diseases group. Among COVID-19 patients with chronic diseases, D-dimer, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, myoglobin, cardiac troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage, blood urea nitrogen, death rate was significantly higher in severe pneumonia group than common pneumonia group. While lymphocyte count and lymphocyte percentage were significantly lower in severe pneumonia group than common pneumonia group. Besides, we found that the proportion of history of chronic respiratory system disease, D-dimer, procalcitonin, myoglobin, cardiac troponin I, creatine kinase MB, lactate dehydrogenase, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage, blood urea nitrogen were significantly higher in death group compared with survival group, whereas lymphocyte count and lymphocyte percentage were significantly lower in survival group. In COVID-19 combined with chronic diseases group, univariate logistic regression showed that the risk for severe pneumonia were D-dimer, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, neutrophil count and neutrophil percentage. Univariate logistic regression also showed that the risk for death were D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage and blood urea nitrogen. Multivariate regression logistic showed that lactate dehydrogenase were independent risk factors for death among COVID-19 patients combined with chronic diseases. Cox regression analysis showed that compared with simple COVID-19 group, the RR(95% CI) in COVID-19 patients combined with diabetes, hypertension, and coronary were 2.187 (1.141~4.191) for death (P<0.05). Conclusion: Among COVID-19 patients combined with diabetes, hypertension or coronary, the risk factors for severe pneumonia were D-dimer, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, neutrophil count and neutrophil percentage, whereas the risk factors for death were D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, neutrophil percentage and blood urea nitrogen. Moreover, lactate dehydrogenase were independent risk factors for death. The mortality rate of COVID-19 patients combined with diabetes, hypertension or coronary was higher than that of simple COVID-19 patien s.

16.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686690

ABSTRACT

The negative impact of COVID-19 on physical activity has been improved, while the research on changes in physical fitness that may be caused by physical inactivity is still scarce. This study aims to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on physical fitness, and the impact of initial physical fitness indicators on their changes during the lockdown in adolescents. A longitudinal study including 265 adolescents aged 14.1 ± 0.4 years old was conducted in China. Physical fitness measurement at baseline and follow-up were respectively measured before (November 2019) and after the lockdown (July 2020). Several physical fitness indicators including aerobic fitness (i.e., 800-m or 1000-m run) and explosive force (i.e., 50-m sprint) deteriorated during the lockdown. Whereas the performances of vital capacity, flexibility (i.e., sit and reach), and muscular strength (i.e., pull-ups) were significantly improved during the lockdown. Furthermore, the reduction in physical fitness for adolescents with higher physical fitness before the lockdown was greater than that for others. These findings may contribute to the development of targeted intervention strategies for physical fitness promotion during the lockdown caused by the public health emergency.

17.
Front Psychol ; 12: 800183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674380

ABSTRACT

Objective: The psychological condition of healthcare workers since the COVID-19 pandemic has attracted the attention of many studies. However, few have reported on psychosocial problems of primary healthcare workers in the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to examine the mediating roles of social support and resilience in COVID-19-related work stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Methods: A total of 840 primary healthcare workers in 17 community health centers in Guangzhou, China, were recruited from May to July 2021. Data on demographic characteristics, COVID-19-related work stress, social support, resilience, anxiety and depression were collected. A structural equation model was used for mediation analysis. Results: More than half of participants reported mild or more severe (at least borderline abnormal) symptoms of anxiety (68.1%) and depression (55.6%). Social support and resilience mediate the association between COVID-19-related work stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. Furthermore, the association between work stress and symptoms of anxiety and depression was also mediated by an accumulation of social support and resilience. The indirect effect of COVID-19-related work stress on anxiety and depression through resilience was much greater than other indirect effects. Conclusion: Anxiety and depression were prevalent among primary healthcare workers. This study highlights the psychological impact of the COVID-19-related psychosocial work environment on primary healthcare workers. There is an urgent need to improve working conditions for primary healthcare workers in the COVID-19 and to implement intervention strategies aimed at increasing individual resilience alongside the establishment of external supportive work environments.

18.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(11): 1327-1332, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the extent of aerosol-based transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is important for tailoring interventions for control of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Multiple studies have reported the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in air samples, but only one study has successfully recovered viable virus, although it is limited by its small sample size. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the extent of shedding of viable SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory aerosols from COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this observational air sampling study, air samples from airborne-infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) and a community isolation facility (CIF) housing COVID-19 patients were collected using a water vapor condensation method into liquid collection media. Samples were tested for presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and qRT-PCR-positive samples were tested for viability using viral culture. RESULTS: Samples from 6 (50%) of the 12 sampling cycles in hospital rooms were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, including aerosols ranging from <1 µm to >4 µm in diameter. Of 9 samples from the CIF, 1 was positive via qRT-PCR. Viral RNA concentrations ranged from 179 to 2,738 ORF1ab gene copies per cubic meter of air. Virus cultures were negative after 4 blind passages. CONCLUSION: Although SARS-CoV-2 is readily captured in aerosols, virus culture remains challenging despite optimized sampling methodologies to preserve virus viability. Further studies on aerosol-based transmission and control of SARS-CoV-2 are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Viral , Hospitals , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(22)2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524117

ABSTRACT

Herein, in the present work two series of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofibers were manufactured using the electrospinning techniques with ZnO and CuO nanoparticles for a potential use as an elastic functional layer in antimicrobial applications. Percentages of 0%, 2 wt%, and 4 wt% of the nanoparticles were used. The morphological characterization of the electrospun TPU and TPU/NPs composites nanofibers were observed by using scanning electron microscopy to show the average fiber diameter and it was in the range of 90-150 nm with a significant impact of the nanoparticle type. Mechanical characterization showed that TPU nanofiber membranes exhibit excellent mechanical properties with ultra-high elastic properties. Elongation at break reached up to 92.5%. The assessment of the developed nanofiber membranes for medical and personal protection applications was done against various colistin resistant bacterial strains and the results showed an increment activity by increasing the metal oxide concentration up to 83% reduction rate by using TPU/ZnO 4% nanofibers against K. pneumoniae strain 10. The bacterial growth was completely eradicated after 8 and 16 h incubation with TPU/ZnO and TPU/CuO nanofibers, respectively. The nanofibers SEM study reveals the adsorption of the bacterial cells on the metal oxides nanofibers surface which led to cell lysis and releasing of their content. Finally, in vitro study against Spike S-protein from SARS-CoV-2 was also evaluated to investigate the potent effectiveness of the proposed nanofibers in the virus deactivation. The results showed that the metal oxide concentration is an effective factor in the antiviral activity due to the observed pattern of increasing the antibacterial and antiviral activity by increasing the metal oxide concentration; however, TPU/ZnO nanofibers showed a potent antiviral activity in relation to TPU/CuO.

20.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2022, 2021 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevention and control (P&C) of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still a critical task in most countries and regions. However, there are many single evaluation indexes to assess the quality of COVID-19 P&C. It is necessary to synthesize the single evaluation indexes reasonably to obtain the overall evaluation results. METHODS: This study was divided into three steps. Step 1: In February 2020, the improved Delphi method was used to establish the quality evaluation indexes system for COVID-19 P&C. Step 2: in March 2020, the CRITIC method was used to adjust the Order Relation Analysis (G1) method to obtain the subjective and objective (S&O) combination weights. The comprehensive evaluation value was obtained using the weighted Efficacy Coefficient (EC) method, weighted TOPSIS method, weighted rank-sum ratio (RSR) method, and weighted Grey Relationship Analysis (GRA) method. Finally, the linear normalization method was used to synthesize the evaluation values of different evaluation methods. Step 3: From April 2020 to May 2021, this evaluation method was used to monitor and assess COVID-19 P&C quality in critical departments prospectively. The results were reported to the departments monthly. RESULT: A quality evaluation indexes system for COVID-19 P&C was established. Kendall's consistency test shows that the four evaluation method had good consistency (χ2 = 43.429, P<0.001, Kendall's consistency coefficient = 0.835). The Spearman correlation test showed that the correlation between the combined evaluation results and the original method was statistically significant(P < 0.001). According to the Mann-Kendall test, from March 2020 to May 2021, the mean value of COVID-19 P&C quality in all critical departments showed an upward trend (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The combined comprehensive evaluation method based on the S&O combined weight was more scientific and comprehensive than the single weighting and evaluation methods. In addition, monitoring and feedback of COVID-19 P&C quality were helpful for the improvement of P&C quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitals, General , Health Services , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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