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1.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834927

ABSTRACT

Nineteen CVA9 isolates were obtained between 2010 and 2019 from six provinces of mainland China, using the HFMD surveillance network established in China. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the full-length VP1 of 19 CVA9 isolates was 906 bases encoding 302 amino acids. The combination of the thresholds of the phylogenetic tree and nucleotide divergence of different genotypes within the same serotype led to a value of 15-25%, and enabled CVA9 worldwide to be categorized into ten genotypes: A-J. The phylogenetic tree showed that the prototype strain was included in genotype A, and that the B, C, D, E, H, and J genotypes disappeared during virus evolution, whereas the F, I, and G genotypes showed co-circulation. Lineage G was the dominant genotype of CVA9 and included most of the strains from nine countries in Asia, North America, Oceania, and Europe. Most Chinese strains belonged to the G genotype, suggesting that the molecular epidemiology of China is consistent with that observed worldwide. The 165 partial VP1 strains (723 nt) showed a mean substitution rate of 3.27 × 10-3 substitution/site/year (95% HPD range 2.93-3.6 × 10-3), dating the tMRCA of CVA9 back to approximately 1922 (1911-1932). The spatiotemporal dynamics of CVA9 showed the spread of CVA9 obviously increased in recent years. Most CVA9 isolates originated in USA, but the epidemic areas of CVA9 are now concentrated in the Asia-Pacific region, European countries, and North America. Recombination analysis within the enterovirus B specie (59 serotypes) revealed eight recombination patterns in China at present, CVB4, CVB5, E30, CVB2, E11, HEV106, HEV85, and HEV75. E14, and E6 may act as recombinant donors in multiple regions. Comparison of temperature sensitivity revealed that temperature-insensitive strains have more amino acid substitutions in the RGD motif of the VP1 region, and the sites T283S, V284M, and R288K in the VP1 region may be related to the temperature tolerance of CVA9.


Subject(s)
Enterovirus B, Human , Nucleotides , China/epidemiology , Enterovirus B, Human/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genotype , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny
2.
China CDC Wkly ; 2(34): 645-650, 2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355404

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS TOPIC?: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, while the profile of antibody response against the COVID-19 virus has not been well clarified. WHAT IS ADDED BY THIS REPORT?: In this study, 210 serum samples from 160 confirmed COVID-19 cases with different disease severities were recruited. The IgM, IgA, IgG, and neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against COVID-19 virus were determined. Our findings indicated that four antibodies could be detectable at low levels within 2 weeks of disease onset, then rapidly increasing and peaking from the 3rd to 5th Weeks. NAb decreased between 5th and 9th Weeks, and a higher IgM/IgA level was observed in the groups with mild/moderate severity within 2 weeks (p<0.05), while all 4 types of antibodies were higher in the group with severe/critical severity after 4 weeks (p<0.05). WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE?: Our study on the dynamics of serological antibody responses against COVID-19 virus among COVID-19 patients complements the recognition regarding the humoral immune response to COVID-19 virus infection. The findings will help in the interpretation of antibody detection results for COVID-19 patients and be beneficial for the evaluation of vaccination effects.

3.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(30): 637-644, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317436

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic? Though coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has largely been controlled in China, several outbreaks of COVID-19 have occurred from importation of cases or of suspected virus-contaminated products. Though several outbreaks have been traced to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolated on the outer packaging of cold chain products, live virus has not been obtained. What is added by this report? In September 2020, two dock workers were detected as having asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection using throat swabs during routine screening in Qingdao, China. Epidemiological information showed that the two dock workers were infected after contact with contaminated outer packaging, which was confirmed by genomic sequencing. Compared to the Wuhan reference strain, the sequences from the dock workers and the package materials differed by 12-14 nucleotides. Furthermore, infectious virus from the cold chain products was isolated by cell culture, and typical SARS-CoV-2 particles were observed under electron microscopy. What are the implications for public health practice? The international community should pay close attention to SARS-CoV-2 transmission mode through cold chain, build international cooperative efforts in response, share relevant data, and call on all countries to take effective prevention and control measures to prevent virus contamination in cold-chain food production, marine fishing and processing, transportation, and other operations.

4.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(21): 441-447, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237076

ABSTRACT

What is known about this topic? Few major outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have occurred in China after major non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccines have been deployed and implemented. However, sporadic outbreaks that had high possibility to be linked to cold chain products were reported in several cities of China.. What is added by this report? In July 2020, a COVID-19 outbreak occurred in Dalian, China. The investigations of this outbreak strongly suggested that the infection source was from COVID-19 virus-contaminated packaging of frozen seafood during inbound unloading personnel contact. What are the implications for public health practice? Virus contaminated paper surfaces could maintain infectivity for at least 17-24 days at -25 ℃. Exposure to COVID-19 virus-contaminated surfaces is a potential route for introducing the virus to a susceptible population. Countries with no domestic transmission of COVID-19 should consider introducing prevention strategies for both inbound travellers and imported goods. Several measures to prevent the introduction of the virus via cold-chain goods can be implemented.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2501-2508, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915844

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic with increasing numbers of cases worldwide. SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus of COVID-19, is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets or through direct and indirect contact with an infected person. The possibility of potential faecal-oral transmission was investigated in this study. We collected 258 faecal specimens from nine provinces in China and detected the nucleic acid of SARS-CoV-2 using real-time RT-PCR. Vero cells were used to isolate the virus from SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive samples, after which sequencing of Spike gene in eight samples was performed. In all, 93 of 258 (36%) stool samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The positive rates of critical, severe, moderate, and mild patients were 54.4%, 56.1%, 30.8%, and 33.3%, respectively. The content of nucleic acid increased within 2 weeks after the onset of the disease. From the perspective of clinical typing, the nucleic acid can be detected in the faeces of critical patients within two weeks and until four to five weeks in the faeces of severe and mild patients. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from stool specimens of two severe patients. Four non-synonymous mutations in Spike gene were newly detected in three stool samples. A small number of patients had strong faecal detoxification ability. The live virus in faeces could be an important source of contamination, which may lead to infection and further spread in areas with poor sanitary conditions. The findings of this study have public health significance and they should be considered when formulating disease control strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Feces/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , Public Health , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Vero Cells
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