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2.
Int J High Perform Comput Appl ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2064608

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for computational tools to automate and accelerate drug design for novel protein targets. We leverage deep learning language models to generate and score drug candidates based on predicted protein binding affinity. We pre-trained a deep learning language model (BERT) on ∼9.6 billion molecules and achieved peak performance of 603 petaflops in mixed precision. Our work reduces pre-training time from days to hours, compared to previous efforts with this architecture, while also increasing the dataset size by nearly an order of magnitude. For scoring, we fine-tuned the language model using an assembled set of thousands of protein targets with binding affinity data and searched for inhibitors of specific protein targets, SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and PLpro. We utilized a genetic algorithm approach for finding optimal candidates using the generation and scoring capabilities of the language model. Our generalizable models accelerate the identification of inhibitors for emerging therapeutic targets.

3.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae ; 42(7):53-62, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056466

ABSTRACT

In order to study the pollution levels of PM2.5 and water-soluble inorganic ions(WSIIs)in the towns of southern Gansu, PM2.5 samples were collected quarterly in Cheng County of Gansu from April 2019 to February 2020. Their characteristics of variation were analyzed, and the sources were apportioned using correlation and principal component analysis. The results showed that the mean annual mass concentration of PM2.5 was(57.2±26.9)μg·m-3 in Cheng County of Gansu Province. The seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentration was represented by winter>spring>autumn>summer during the sampling period, and the concentrations in winter were about 1.9 times than that in summer. The annually good air quality rate was 81%, of which 100% in summer. The ranking of WSII concentrations was SO42->NO3->Na+>NH4+>Ca2+>K+>Cl->Mg2+.SNA is the highest water-soluble ions, accounting for 70.1% of the concentration of eight main water-soluble ions. The mean ratio of ρ(NO3-)/ρ(SO42-)was 0.6, indicating that fixed sources such as industrial and agricultural production and fossil fuel combustion emissions, was the major source for particulate pollution. During the 2019 coronavirus epidemic, control measures had a significant impact on the concentration of PM2.5 and SNA in water-soluble ions, and the mean concentration of PM2.5 was reduced by 44.2%. Source apportionment showed that WSIIs in PM2.5 were mainly from fossil fuel combustion, biomass combustion, secondary formation and road construction dust, etc. © 2022 Science Press. All rights reserved.

4.
Frontiers in Microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2043499

ABSTRACT

Although the FDA has given emergency use authorization (EUA) for some antiviral drugs for the treatment of COVID-19, no direct antiviral drugs have been identified for the treatment of critically ill patients, the most important treatment is suppression of the hyperinflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of corticosteroids in hospitalized severe or critical patients positive for COVID-19. This is a retrospective single-center descriptive study. Patients classified as having severe or critical COVID-19 infections with acute respiratory dysfunction syndrome in Shenzhen Third People’s Hospital were enrolled from January 11th to March 30th, 2020. Ninety patients were classified as having severe or critical COVID-19 infections. The patients were treated with methylprednisolone with a low-to-moderate dosage and short duration. The days from the symptom onset to methylprednisolone were about 8 days. Eighteen patients were treated with invasive ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) care. All the patients in the severe group and ten in the critical group recovered and were discharged. Three critical cases with invasive ventilation died. Although cases were much more severe in the corticosteroid-treated group, the mortality was not significantly increased. Early use of low-to-moderate dosage and short duration of corticosteroid may be the more accurate immune-modulatory treatment and brings more benefits to severe patients with COVID-19.

5.
Current Bioinformatics ; 17(3):217-237, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032698

ABSTRACT

Drug repositioning invovles exploring novel usages for existing drugs. It plays an important role in drug discovery, especially in the pre-clinical stages. Compared with the traditional drug discovery approaches, computational approaches can save time and reduce cost significantly. Since drug repositioning relies on existing drug-, disease-, and target-centric data, many machine learning (ML) approaches have been proposed to extract useful information from multiple data resources. Deep learning (DL) is a subset of ML and appears in drug repositioning much later than basic ML. Nevertheless, DL methods have shown great performance in predicting potential drugs in many studies. In this article, we review the commonly used basic ML and DL approaches in drug repositioning. Firstly, the related databases are introduced, while all of them are publicly available for researchers. Two types of preprocessing steps, calculating similarities and constructing networks based on those data, are discussed. Secondly, the basic ML and DL strategies are illustrated separately. Thirdly, we review the latest studies focused on the applications of basic ML and DL in identifying potential drugs through three paths: drug-disease associations, drug-drug interactions, and drug-target interactions. Finally, we discuss the limitations in current studies and suggest several directions of future work to address those limitations.

6.
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology ; 87(3):AB57, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2031376

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there continues to be a need for innovative virtual teaching methods. Chalk talks, or brief illustrated talks given on a whiteboard, are easily made virtual with a tablet and online whiteboard. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a live virtual chalk talk given to medical students on their dermatology clerkship. Methodology: A 1-hour chalk talk was delivered over Zoom. The instructor engaged 3-4 students to complete a table differentiating five common papulosquamous diseases, which was followed by an interactive case-based practice session. Pre- and postintervention surveys were administered. Results: A total of 18 students participated. Based on a Likert scale (1 = least confident to 5 = most confident), and comparing pre- to postintervention, students became more confident recognizing (2.11 ± 0.76 versus 3.72 ± 0.46, P <.001) and differentiating (2.00 ± 0.59 versus 3.44 ± 0.62, P <.001) papulosquamous conditions, and students were able to more list more papulosquamous conditions (0.56 ± 2.45 versus 4.83 ± 0.51, P <.001). Qualitative responses showed that the talk was well-received: students appreciated the case-based practice (n = 13, 72.2%), the white-board table (n = 10, 55.6%), level of interaction (n = 8, 44.4%), and the mix of didactic learning followed by practice (n = 6, 33.3%). The most common suggestion was a request for more details about each disorder (n = 3, 16.7%). Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the ability of live virtual chalk talks to teach dermatology to medical students in an effective and engaging manner. The results encourage the broader application of this teaching format in the virtual classroom.

7.
30th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Quality of Service, IWQoS 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992651

ABSTRACT

With the growing interest in web services during the current COVID-19 outbreak, the demand for high-quality low-latency interactive applications has never been more apparent. Yet, packet losses are inevitable over the Internet, since it is based on UDP. In this paper, we propose Ivory, a new real-world system framework designed to support network adaptive error control in real-time communications, such as VoIP, using a recently proposed low-latency streaming code. We design and implement our prototype over UDP that can correct or retransmit lost packets conditional on network conditions and application requirements.To maintain the highest quality, Ivory attempts to correct as many lost packets as possible on-the-fly, yet incurring the smallest footprint in terms of coding overhead over the network. To achieve such an objective, Ivory uses a deep reinforcement learning agent to estimate the best coding parameters in real-time based on observed network states and experience learned. It learns offline the best coding parameters to use based on previously observed loss patterns and takes into account the round-trip time observed to decide on the optimum decoding delay for a low-latency application. Our extensive array of experiments shows that Ivory achieves a better trade-off between recovering packets and using lower redundancy than the state-of-the-art network adaptive streaming codes algorithms. © 2022 IEEE.

8.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis ; 42(7):2047-2055, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1988159

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), many research institutes and enterprises at home and abroad have been accelerating the research of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody drugs. However, the research on effective drugs was limited by the drug polymorphisms. The environment of drug production, storage and use also affected the stability of the drug. As a fast, non-destructive testing method, infrared spectroscopy can reflect the differences in drug structure, crystal form and even manufacturing technique to the vibration spectrum, which greatly improves the efficiency of R&D (research and development). In this paper, three clinical trials were considered effective drugs for the treatment of COVID-19: Chloroquine diphosphate, Ribavirin and Abidol hydrochloride. Their far-infrared spectrum (1~10 THz) and mid-infrared spectrum (400~4 000 cm-1) were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). In the far-infrared spectrum, the characteristic peaks of Ribavirin were around 2.01, 2.68, 3.37, 4.05, 4.83, 5.45, 5.92, 6.42 and 7.14 THz;the characteristic peaks of Chloroquine phosphate were near 1.26, 1.87, 2.37, 3.06, 3.78, 5.09 and 6.06 THz;the characteristic peaks of Abidol hydrochloride were located near 2.24, 3.14, 3.72, 4.25 and 5.38 THz. Based on density functional theory, the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-311++G (d, p) basis sets were selected to analyze the vibrational modes corresponding to all characteristic peaks in the spectrum using Crystal14 and Gaussian 16 software, and the accurate identification of the vibration spectrum was realized. The vibrational modes originated from the molecules' collective vibration in the far infrared region. In the mid-infrared band, below 2 800 cm-1, the vibrational modes mainly came from the in-plane and out-of-plane bending and rocking of the group;Above 2 800 cm-1, the vibrational modes transited to the in-plane stretching of C-H, O-H and N-H bonds. Taking the crystal structure with periodic boundary conditions as the initial configuration of the theoretical calculation would make the calculated spectrum more consistent with the experimental one, especially in the far-infrared band and the low-frequency band of mid-infrared (400~1 000 cm-1). This study was of great significance to deeply understand the pharmaceutical characteristics, drug interactions, control of drug production process, and guide the storage and use of antiviral drugs such as Chloroquine phosphate, Ribavirin and Abidol hydrochloride. © 2022 Science Press. All rights reserved.

9.
Journal of Urban Planning and Development ; 148(4), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1984583

ABSTRACT

Since China's reform and opening up, the domestic economic structure has undergone significant changes, and the industrial system has gradually developed to the tertiary industry. As the core of the tertiary sector and service industry, tourism has, therefore, entered a stage of vigorous development. At the same time, in the context of promoting new-type urbanization, industrial parks created by the theory of industry-urban integration have entered a new stage of development. Due to the respective characteristics of industrial parks and tourism, tourism industrial parks with comprehensive coverage and a strong driving ability have gradually formed under the promotion of industry-urban integration. As a new carrier of the tourism industry, tourism industrial parks are being built all over China. However, due to the differences in the development level of each region, how to improve the competitiveness in the construction of tourism industrial parks has become a problem worth studying. Based on the diamond model in the competitiveness theory, this paper first improves the model according to the actual situation and constructs the competitiveness evaluation index system of tourism industrial parks from the perspective of new-type urbanization. Second, the weight of each index is calculated using the Analytic Network Process (ANP), and then the competitiveness evaluation model is constructed by the matter-element method. Finally, the evaluation model is verified by taking the Suining city Tourism Industrial Park as an example, and corresponding improvement suggestions are put forward for this case. At the same time, the feedback from this evaluation process also provides a scientific method and theoretical basis for enhancing the competitiveness of tourism industrial parks and provides a new idea for the future development of such parks. © 2022 American Society of Civil Engineers.

10.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927789

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) results from injury to the alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) barrier leading to pulmonary edema;recovery requires epithelial regeneration. However, the specific defect resulting in ongoing barrier permeability in fatal early ARDS is unknown. In mouse models of ARDS, we found that AEC2s assume a transitional state characterized by transient cell cycle arrest during differentiation towards AEC1s. Transitional cells persist and are senescent in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), leading some to speculate that persistence of transitional cells is pathognomonic of fibrosis in humans. We hypothesized that transitional cells also arise early in human ARDS and that incomplete AEC1 differentiation from the transitional state underlies barrier permeability and death from respiratory failure in early ARDS. We speculated that in contrast to IPF, transitional cells in early ARDS are in transient cell cycle arrest but not senescent and maintain capacity for an AEC1 fate. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lung tissue was obtained from patients who died within two weeks of hospitalization of ARDS due to COVID-19 or other etiologies, and from patients with IPF. Histology revealed diffuse alveolar damage without fibrosis in patients with ARDS. Immunostaining demonstrated AEC damage and abundant transitional cells in both ARDS and IPF. In ARDS, transitional cells existed in a monolayer on alveolar septa, filling gaps denuded of AEC1s and displaying spread morphologies without AEC1 marker expression, suggesting ongoing but incomplete differentiation. In fibrosis, transitional cells existed on a background of architectural distortion and fibrosis. Meta-analysis of single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) datasets demonstrated that transitional cells were transcriptionally highly similar. However, the senescence marker p16 was expressed in transitional cells in human IPF but not in mouse models. Immunostaining confirmed that transitional cells in IPF but not human ARDS expressed p16. CONCLUSION: We conclude that transitional cells arise in early human ARDS without fibrosis. We propose that incomplete AEC1 differentiation from the transitional state is the specific defect in epithelial regeneration underlying barrier permeability and respiratory failure. We speculate that in early human ARDS, as in mouse models, transitional cells retain the capacity to differentiate into AEC1s, restoring alveolar architecture without fibrosis. However, in IPF and fibroproliferative ARDS, transitional cells become senescent, lose capacity for AEC1 differentiation, and fibrosis ensues. Evolution of transitional cells from a transient cell cycle arrest to a permanent cell cycle arrest (senescence) may be the key defect driving the pathogenesis of fibrosis after injury.

11.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 30(5): 554-558, 2022 May 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911777

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic that has had caused a profound impact on social stability, economic development and national security, and has further evolved into a major public health crisis. The rapid research and development and efficient deployment of vaccines is one of the effective means to prevent and control the epidemic. This article reviews the primary features of current COVID-19 vaccines, simultaneously focus the clinical features of liver injury post-vaccination and explore its possible pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Liver , Vaccination
12.
Alexandria Engineering Journal ; 61(12):9661-9671, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1885580

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we introduce a new class of statistical models to deal with the data sets in the sports and health sectors. The new class is called, a novel exponent power-Y (NovEP-Y) family of distributions. By implementing the NovEP-Y approach, a new model, namely, a novel exponent power-Weibull (NovEP-Weibull) distribution is introduced. Some distributional properties of the NovEP-Y family such as identifiability, order statistics, quantile function, and moments are obtained. The maximum likelihood estimators of the parameters are also derived. Furthermore, a brief Monto Carlo simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performances of the estimators. To show the applicability of the NovEP-Weibull model, two data sets from the sports and health sciences are considered. The first data set represents the time-to-even data collected from different football matches during the period 1964-2018. Whereas, the second data set is taken from the health sector, representing the survival times of the COVID-19 infected patients. Based on some well-known statistical tests, it is observed that the NovEP-Weibull model is a very competitive dis-tribution for modeling the data sets in the sports and health sectors. (c) 2022 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier BV on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

13.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1879979
14.
Intelligent Decision Technologies-Netherlands ; 16(1):109-109, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1869342
15.
Intelligent Decision Technologies-Netherlands ; 16(1):263-276, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1869341

ABSTRACT

This article presents a selective literature review of Analytics Intelligent Decision Technologies Systems (Analytics IDTS) developed to support decision-making in business and public organizations, with a particular focus on the global COVID-19 pandemic. We select Analytics IDTS published in 2019-2020 and evaluate them with an Analytics IDTS Design and Evaluation Framework. We include the types of Analytics IDTS, their decisional services, architectural capabilities, and support for phases in the decision-making process. Results are shown for 33 articles in the general Analytics domain and 71 articles in the focused Public Health domain applied to COVID-19, including how these Analytics IDTS were architected and utilized for decision making. Research in descriptive and predictive models is evident in Public Health COVID-19 research reflecting the lak of knowledge about the disease, while predictive and prescriptive models are the primary focus of the general Analytics domain. IDTS in all disciplines rely on Algorithmic decision services and Heuristic Analysis services. Higher-level decisional Synthesis and Hybrid services such as design, explanations, discovery, and learning associated with human decision-making are missing in most types of decision support, indicating that research in Machine Learning and AI has many growth opportunities for future research.

16.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337444

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant BA.1 first emerged on the Chinese mainland in January 2022 in Tianjin and caused a large wave of infections. During mass PCR testing, a total of 430 cases infected with Omicron were recorded between January 8 and February 7, 2022, with no new infections detected for the following 16 days. Most patients had been vaccinated with SARSCoV-2 inactivated vaccines. The disease profile associated with BA.1 infection, especially after vaccination with inactivated vaccines, is unclear. Whether BA.1 breakthrough infection after receiving inactivated vaccine could create a strong enough humoral immunity barrier against Omicron is not yet investigated. Methods We collected the clinical information and vaccination history of the 430 COVID-19 patients infected with Omicron BA.1. Re-positive cases and inflammation markers were monitored during the patient’s convalescence phase. Ordered multiclass logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors for COVID-19 disease severity. Authentic virus neutralization assays against SARS-CoV-2 wildtype, Beta and Omicron BA.1 were conducted to examine the plasma neutralizing titers induced after post-vaccination Omicron BA.1 infection, and were compared to a group of uninfected healthy individuals who were selected to have a matched vaccination profile. Findings Among the 430 patients, 316 (73.5%) were adults with a median age of 47 years, and 114 (26.5%) were under-age with a median age of 10 years. Female and male patients account for 55.6% and 44.4%, respectively. Most of the patients presented with mild (47.7%) to moderate diseases (50.2%), with only 2 severe cases (0.5%) and 7 (1.6%) asymptomatic infections. No death was recorded. 341 (79.3%) of the 430 patients received inactivated vaccines (54.3% BBIBP-CorV vs. 45.5% CoronaVac), 49 (11.4%) received adenovirus-vectored vaccines (Ad5-nCoV), 2 (0.5%) received recombinant protein subunit vaccines (ZF2001), and 38 (8.8%) received no vaccination. No vaccination is associated with a substantially higher ICU admission rate among Omicron BA.1 infected patients (2.0% for vaccinated patients vs. 23.7% for unvaccinated patients, P<0.001). Compared with adults, child patients presented with less severe illness (82.5% mild cases for children vs. 35.1% for adults, P<0.001), no ICU admission, fewer comorbidities (3.5% vs. 53.2%, P<0.001), and less chance of turning re-positive on nucleic acid tests (12.3% vs. 22.5%, P=0.019). For adult patients, compared with no prior vaccination, receiving 3 doses of inactivated vaccine was associated with significantly lower risk of severe disease (OR 0.227 [0.065-0.787], P=0.020), less ICU admission (OR 0.023 [0.002-0.214], P=0.001), lower re-positive rate on PCR (OR 0.240 [0.098-0.587], P=0.002), and shorter duration of hospitalization and recovery (OR 0.233 [0.091-0.596], P=0.002). At the beginning of the convalescence phase, patients who had received 3 doses of inactivated vaccine had substantially lower systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and C-reactive protein than unvaccinated patients, while CD4+/CD8+ ratio, activated Treg cells and Th1/Th2 ratio were higher compared to their 2-dose counterparts, suggesting that receipt of 3 doses of inactivated vaccine could step up inflammation resolution after infection. Plasma neutralization titers against Omicron, Beta, and wildtype significantly increased after breakthrough infection with Omicron. Moderate symptoms were associated with higher plasma neutralization titers than mild symptoms. However, vaccination profiles prior to infection, whether 2 doses versus 3 doses or types of vaccines, had no significant effect on post-infection neutralization titer. Among recipients of 3 doses of CoronaVac, infection with Omicron BA.1 largely increased neutralization titers against Omicron BA.1 (8.7x), Beta (4.5x), and wildtype (2.2x), compared with uninfected healthy individuals who have a matched vaccination profile. Interpretation Receipt of 3-dose inactivated vaccines can substantially reduce the disease severity of Omicr n BA.1 infection, with most vaccinated patients presenting with mild to moderate illness. Child patients present with less severe disease than adult patients after infection. Omicron BA.1 convalescents who had received inactivated vaccines showed significantly increased plasma neutralizing antibody titers against Omicron BA.1, Beta, and wildtype SARS-CoV-2 compared with vaccinated healthy individuals.

18.
2021 International Conference on Intelligent Traffic Systems and Smart City, ITSSC 2021 ; 12165, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1779297

ABSTRACT

Generally, the first factor in the primary consideration of the transportation of materials is to minimize and make the total cost of transport most economical. The model established in this study is applicable to emergency situations such as the spread of infectious diseases. The model considers how to help each province or region to transport the supplies that meet the demand to the destination in the shorted time, while ensuring the transportation cost as low as possible. Therefore, this paper establishes a model to simulate the situation, and proves the rationality and efficiency of the model. © 2021 SPIE.

19.
Modern Food Science and Technology ; 38(1):88-93, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1771824

ABSTRACT

A highly sensitive visualization method for SARS-CoV-2 detection, based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and molecular light switch [Ru(phen)2dppz]2+, was established. In this design, insulation cups replaced laboratory thermostats and blue flashlights replaced blue transilluminators, to realize the rapid on-site visual LAMP detection of SARS-CoV-2. Specific primers were designed for the N gene of SARS-CoV-2. LAMP amplification products were detected by [Ru(phen)2dppz]2+ with molecular light switch characteristics. Red fluorescence could be directly detected by naked eye using blue light flashlight. Single copy number SARS-CoV-2 gene fragments were detected with high specificity. The detection was rapid, requiring only 40 minutes to visually observe the results. The LAMP detection results for food samples artificially contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus were 100% consistent with the current gold-standard real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR method for SARS-CoV-2 detection. This method requires only insulation cups and blue flashlight, and can be used to supplement the real-time fluorescent PCR method to provide a fast and efficient on-site screening of food for SARS-CoV-2. © 2022, Editorial Board of Modern Food Science and Technology. All right reserved.

20.
Discov Med ; 32(165):7-11, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1710711

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a dramatic loss of human life worldwide and presents a novel challenge to public health due to human-to-human transmission. People with COVID-19 have had a wide range of symptoms reported, ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. Initially, the most common symptoms were fever or chills, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, muscle or body aches, headache, new loss of taste or smell, and sore throat. Recently, the disease has been known to involve different body parts, including eyes. The present paper will discuss the ocular manifestations seen in patients who tested positive for COVID-19. Since eye symptoms were the only presenting features in some of these patients, our aim is to highlight the importance of eye examination during this ongoing pandemic. Routine screening of patients by ophthalmologists during COVID-19 outbreaks may aid in patient care and management.

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