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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 937460, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952266

ABSTRACT

Humanity has experienced four major pandemics since the twentieth century, with the 1918 Spanish flu, the 2002 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the 2009 swine flu, and the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemics having the most important impact in human health. The 1918 Spanish flu caused unprecedented catastrophes in the recorded human history, with an estimated death toll between 50 - 100 million. While the 2002 SARS and 2009 swine flu pandemics caused approximately 780 and 280,000 deaths, respectively, the current COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in > 6 million deaths globally at the time of writing. COVID-19, instigated by the SARS - coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), causes unprecedented challenges in all facets of our lives, and never before brought scientists of all fields together to focus on this singular topic. While for the past 50 years research have been heavily focused on viruses themselves, we now understand that the host immune responses are just as important in determining the pathogenesis and outcomes of infection. Research in innate immune mechanisms is crucial in understanding all aspects of host antiviral programmes and the mechanisms underpinning virus-host interactions, which can be translated to the development of effective therapeutic avenues. This review summarizes what is known and what remains to be explored in the innate immune responses to influenza viruses and SARS-CoVs, and virus-host interactions in driving disease pathogenesis. This hopefully will encourage discussions and research on the unanswered questions, new paradigms, and antiviral strategies against these emerging infectious pathogens before the next pandemic occurs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , Influenza, Human , Viruses , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , History, 20th Century , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Interferons , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940317

ABSTRACT

Humanity has experienced four major pandemics since the twentieth century, with the 1918 Spanish flu, the 2002 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the 2009 swine flu, and the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemics having the most important impact in human health. The 1918 Spanish flu caused unprecedented catastrophes in the recorded human history, with an estimated death toll between 50 – 100 million. While the 2002 SARS and 2009 swine flu pandemics caused approximately 780 and 280,000 deaths, respectively, the current COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in > 6 million deaths globally at the time of writing. COVID-19, instigated by the SARS – coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), causes unprecedented challenges in all facets of our lives, and never before brought scientists of all fields together to focus on this singular topic. While for the past 50 years research have been heavily focused on viruses themselves, we now understand that the host immune responses are just as important in determining the pathogenesis and outcomes of infection. Research in innate immune mechanisms is crucial in understanding all aspects of host antiviral programmes and the mechanisms underpinning virus-host interactions, which can be translated to the development of effective therapeutic avenues. This review summarizes what is known and what remains to be explored in the innate immune responses to influenza viruses and SARS-CoVs, and virus-host interactions in driving disease pathogenesis. This hopefully will encourage discussions and research on the unanswered questions, new paradigms, and antiviral strategies against these emerging infectious pathogens before the next pandemic occurs.

3.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940315

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 epidemic has influenced human beings from various aspects including physical exercise behaviours. This study aims to explore the influence of the COVID-19 epidemic on exercise self-efficacy and exercise behaviour, as well as the intermediary effects of exercise motivation. A sample of 1,115 undergraduate students was investigated using the physical exercise behaviour scale, exercise self-efficacy scale, and exercise motivation scale, combined with the COVID-19 epidemic environment as an influencing factor. SPSS was used for statistical analysis and AMOS for the prediction model building. Logical analysis was undertaken to sort out and analyse the data. The structural equation model reveals that exercise self-efficacy has a positive effect on exercise motivation and exercise behaviour. Meanwhile, the COVID-19 epidemic environment negatively influences exercise behaviour through the intermediary role of exercise self-efficacy and exercise motivation. Moreover, the intermediary effect of exercise self-efficacy is greater than that of exercise self-efficacy and exercise motivation. This study provides both theoretical implications and practical guidelines for society and undergraduate students to improve their exercise behaviour during epidemic.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 851642, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933645

ABSTRACT

The rapid evolution of highly infectious pathogens is a major threat to global public health. In the front line of defense against bacteria, fungi, and viruses, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally produced by all living organisms and offer new possibilities for next-generation antibiotic development. However, the low yields and difficulties in the extraction and purification of AMPs have hindered their industry and scientific research applications. To overcome these barriers, we enabled high expression of bomidin, a commercial recombinant AMP based upon bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-27. This novel AMP, which can be expressed in Escherichia coli by adding methionine to the bomidin sequence, can be produced in bulk and is more biologically active than chemically synthesized AMPs. We verified the function of bomidin against a variety of bacteria and enveloped viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), herpes simplex virus (HSV), dengue virus (DENV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Furthermore, based on the molecular modeling of bomidin and membrane lipids, we elucidated the possible mechanism by which bomidin disrupts bacterial and viral membranes. Thus, we obtained a novel AMP with an optimized, efficient heterologous expression system for potential therapeutic application against a wide range of life-threatening pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viruses , Adenosine Monophosphate , Animals , Antimicrobial Peptides , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cattle , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 64, 2022 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term clinical status of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in recovered patients remains largely unknown. This prospective cohort study evaluated clinical status of COVID-19 and explored the associated risk factors. METHODS: At the outpatient visit, patients underwent routine blood tests, physical examinations, pulmonary function tests, 6-min walk test, high-resolution computed tomography (CT) of the chest, and extrapulmonary organ function tests. RESULTS: 230 patients were analyzed. Half (52.7%) reported at least one symptom, most commonly fatigue (20.3%) and sleep difficulties (15.8%). Anxiety (8.2%), depression (11.3%), post-traumatic symptoms (10.3%), and sleep disorders (26.3%) were also reported. Diffusion impairments were found in 35.4% of the patients. Abnormal chest CT scans were present in 63.5% of the patients, mainly reticulation and ground-glass opacities. Further, a persistent decline in kidney function was observed after discharge. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies of IgA, IgG, and IgM were positive in 56.4%, 96.3%, and 15.2% of patients, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression showed that disease severity, age, and sex were closely related to patient recovery. CONCLUSIONS: One year after hospital discharge, patients recovered from COVID-19 continued to experience both pulmonary and extrapulmonary dysfunction. While paying attention to pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19, follow-up studies on extrapulmonary manifestations should be strengthened.

6.
Chemosphere ; 305: 135489, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906853

ABSTRACT

The formation of secondary aerosol species, including nitrate and sulfate, induces severe haze in the North China Plain. However, despite substantial reductions in anthropogenic pollutants due to severe restriction of residential and industrial activities in 2020 to stop the spread of COVID-19, haze still formed in Zhengzhou. We compared ionic compositions of PM2.5 during the period of the restriction with that immediately before the restriction and in the comparison period in 2019 to investigate the processes that caused the haze. The average concentration of PM2.5 was 83.9 µg m-3 in the restriction period, 241.8 µg m-3 before the restriction, and 94.0 µg m-3 in 2019. Nitrate was the largest contributor to the PM2.5 in all periods, with an average mass fraction of 24%-30%. The average molar concentration of total nitrogen compounds (NOx + nitrate) was 0.89 µmol m-3 in the restriction period, which was much lower than that in the non-restriction periods (1.85-2.74 µmol m-3). In contrast, the concentration of sulfur compounds (SO2 + sulfate) was 0.34-0.39 µmol m-3 in all periods. The conversion rate of NOx to nitrate (NOR) was 0.35 in the restriction period, significantly higher than that before the restriction (0.26) and in 2019 (0.25). NOR was higher with relative humidity in 40-80% in the restriction period than in the other two periods, whereas the conversion rate of SO2 to sulfate did not, indicating nitrate formation was more efficient during the restriction. When O3 occupied more than half of the oxidants (Ox = O3 + NO2), NOR increased rapidly with the ratio of O3 to Ox and was much higher in the daytime than nighttime. Therefore, haze in the restriction period was caused by increased NOx-to-nitrate conversion driven by photochemical reactions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Nitrates/analysis , Nitrogen Oxides/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Seasons , Sulfates/analysis
7.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(8): 8035-8056, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896958

ABSTRACT

Multiple variants of SARS-CoV-2 have emerged but the effectiveness of existing COVID-19 vaccines against variants has been reduced, which bring new challenges to the control and mitigation of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, a mathematical model for mutated COVID-19 with quarantine, isolation and vaccination is developed for studying current pandemic transmission. The basic reproduction number $ \mathscr{R}_{0} $ is obtained. It is proved that the disease free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if $ \mathscr{R}_{0} < 1 $ and unstable if $ \mathscr{R}_{0} > 1 $. And numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate our main results. The COVID-19 pandemic mainly caused by Delta variant in South Korea is analyzed by using this model and the unknown parameters are estimated by fitting to real data. The epidemic situation is predicted, and the prediction result is basically consistent with the actual data. Finally, we investigate several critical model parameters to access the impact of quarantine and vaccination on the control of COVID-19, including quarantine rate, quarantine effectiveness, vaccination rate, vaccine efficacy and rate of immunity loss.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270038, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of the respiratory infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus in 2019, the COVID-19 epidemic has posed a serious threat to the life and safety of the public, and has also seriously affected the normal study and life of college students in China. Although a series of studies have been conducted on college students' knowledge, attitudes and practices of COVID-19, the results vary widely. This study aimed to evaluate the pooled estimated level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) about COVID-19 among college students in China. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search on Scopus, ProQuest, PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP Database and Wanfang Database up to 13 February 2022. We then assessed the quality of included studies using a checklist developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) for cross-sectional studies and analyzed using STATA.15 after two researchers independently extracted relevant data and entered them into Microsoft Excel. Funnel plots and Egger's regression tests were used to check for publication bias, and sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results. A random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis, on the basis of which subgroup analyses were performed by time of investigation (study period) and by gender and major of the subjects. RESULT: A total of 42 studies including 174,440 subjects were included in this review, and the quality of the included studies was mainly intermediate and advanced. The findings of the meta-analysis showed that the overall levels of Chinese college students' knowledge, positive and negative attitudes, and practice of preventive measures towards COVID-19 were 74% (95%CI: 69%-79%), 84% (95%CI: 80%-88%), 31% (95%CI: 23%-38%) and 82% (95%CI: 77%-86%), respectively. The results of subgroup analysis showed that female and medical college students had higher levels of knowledge and practice on COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The study findings showed that the overall KAP level of college students in China included in the study was relatively optimistic. Influenced by gender, major and time, there were differences in the KAP level of college students. In order to promote the effective prophylaxis and control of pandemic, we recommend implementing targeted measures to improve the awareness rate of COVID-19-related knowledge among this group and the implementation rate of COVID-19 preventive measures among male and non-medical college students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Students
9.
Information Processing & Management ; 59(4):102991, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1882114

ABSTRACT

The emotion of social media users has been found to impact market value, but the mechanism of emotion transmission needs to be further explored. Based on the signaling theory, this study formulates the hypothesis that government microblog affects tourism market value by affecting consumers' emotion. A total of 10020 pieces of observation data on four famous Chinese scenic spots are analyzed with text analysis technique, and the correlations between government microblog emotion, comment emotion, and market value are confirmed. Besides, the moderating roles played by the COVID-19 epidemic and tourism attention are verified, and the crowding-out effect of tourism attention on comment emotion is validated. This study provides new understandings of signal transmission as well as practical suggestions for promoting the development of tourism through government social media in the context of COVID-19.

10.
Sustainability ; 14(11):6796, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1869780

ABSTRACT

The investment in Major Construction Projects (MCPs) has a counter-cyclical impact on quantitative GDP increases during the recession period. However, its impact on the quality of economic growth is still unknown. Based on the data of prefecture-level cities in China from 2008 to 2017, we construct an economic Quality Growth Index (QGI) including sustainable development factors and take the PPP (Public–Private Partnership projects) policy as a quasi-natural experiment to design a Difference-In-Differences (DID) strategy for the first time to estimate the effects of the MCPs investment on the sustainable development of regional economies. We find that the MCPs investment can significantly improve the quality of regional economic growth. The MCPs investment can improve the quality of regional economic growth by enhancing innovation and entrepreneurship at the regional levels. Our findings may provide empirical evidence to support the policy of increasing investment into infrastructure constructions to promote sustainable development in the current economic recession under the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337676

ABSTRACT

Protein-biomolecule interactions play pivotal roles in almost all biological processes, the identification of the interacting protein is essential. By combining a substrate-based proximity labelling activity from the pupylation pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and the streptavidin (SA)-biotin system, we developed S pecific P upylation as IDE ntity R eporter (SPIDER) for identifying protein-biomolecular interactions. As a proof of principle, SPIDER was successfully applied for global identification of interacting proteins, including substrates for enzyme (CobB), the readers of m 6 A, the protein interactome of mRNA, and the target proteins of drug (lenalidomide). In addition, by SPIDER, we identified SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant specific receptors on cell membrane and performed in-depth analysis for one candidate, Protein-g. These potential receptors could explain the differences between the Omicron variant and the Prototype strain, and further serve as target for combating the Omicron variant. Overall, we provide a robust technology which is applicable for a wide-range of protein-biomolecular interaction studies.

12.
Journal of Shandong University ; 58(4):7-11, 2020.
Article in English, Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1812679

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the first COVID-19 case and related family cluster outbreaks in Jinan City.

13.
Front Public Health ; 10: 846894, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809619

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental health issue among college students is routinely a major public health concern, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have exacerbated the students' mental health issues which include psychological distress, panic disorder, insomnia, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. However, few studies reached a consensus on the impact of COVID-19 fear on mental health among college students. Therefore, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis that quantitatively synthesized the fear among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO electronic databases were systematically searched to identify cross-sectional study reporting the state of COVID-19 fear examined by the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) published up until November 20, 2021. Methodological quality was complied with the evaluation criteria of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The random effects model was employed to estimate the pooled mean of FCV-19S score. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis were also conducted. Publication bias was assessed by Begg's test and funnel plot. Results: A total of 16 studies with a sample size of 11,872 were included. A pooled mean of FCV-19S score was 17.60 [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.41-18.78]. The mean of COVID-19 fear in women (17.11, 95% CI: 16.59-17.64) was higher than that in men (15.21, 95% CI: 14.33-16.08). The highest and lowest pooled means of FCV-19S score were observed in the studies conducted in multiple countries that include Israel, Russian, and Belarus (21.55, 95% CI: 20.77-22.33) and in Europe (16.52, 95% CI: 15.26-17.77), respectively. No significant publication bias was detected by Begg's test. Conclusions: College students experienced a moderate level of fear caused by COVID-19 pandemic. It is necessary to design and implement prevention programs that target the mental health of college students. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021287017, identifier: CRD42021287017.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Students/psychology , United States
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4191, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799570

ABSTRACT

Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) provide effective protection against diseases spread through airborne infectious droplets and particles. The widespread use of FFRs during the COVID-19 pandemic has not only led to supply shortages, but the disposal of single-use facemasks also threatens the environment with a new kind of plastic pollution. While limited reuse of filtering facepiece respirators has been permitted as a crisis capacity strategy, there are currently no standard test methods available for decontamination before their repeated use. The decontamination of respirators can compromise the structural and functional integrity by reducing the filtration efficiency and breathability. Digital segmentation of X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) scans of the meltblown nonwoven layers of a specific N95 respirator model (Venus-4400) after treatment with one and five cycles of liquid hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet radiation, moist heat, and aqueous soap solution enabled us to perform filtration simulations of decontaminated respirators. The computed filtration efficiencies for 0.3 µm particles agreed well with experimental measurements, and the distribution of particle penetration depths was correlated with the structural changes resulting from decontamination. The combination of X-ray microCT imaging with numerical simulations thus provides a strategy for quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of decontamination treatments for a specific respirator model.


Subject(s)
Decontamination/methods , Masks , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Detergents/chemistry , Equipment Reuse , Filtration , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Masks/virology , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ultraviolet Rays , X-Ray Microtomography
15.
Journal of Industrial Textiles ; : 15280837221082322, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1785086

ABSTRACT

With the recent emergence of highly transmissible variants of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the demand for N95 respirators is expected to remain high. The extensive use of N95 respirators by the public is susceptible to demand?supply gaps and raises concern about their disposal, threatening the environment with a new kind of plastic pollution. Herein, we investigated the filtration performance of the N95 respirator by specifically analyzing the structure in the key filtration layers of meltblown nonwoven after decontamination with one and five cycles of liquid hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet radiation, moist heat, and aqueous soap solution treatments. With the aid of X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) analysis, the local structural heterogeneity of the meltblown nonwoven has been unfolded and subsequently correlated with their filtration performance at a face velocity that matched with speaking conditions (?3.89 m/s). The filtration efficiency results of the N95 respirator remain unaltered after performing one cycle of treatment modalities (except autoclave).

17.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(2): 283-290, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744872

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The high development of tourism is considered a factor that facilitates the global spread of infectious diseases. The association between tourism and the epidemic of coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear. METHODOLOGY: We retrieved the data of COVID-19 in 178 countries/territories from the Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University. Data on tourism indicators were collected from the World Tourism Organization. We used Spearman's correlation analysis to explore the association between tourism and the epidemic of COVID-19. RESULTS: We find that international tourism expenditure, international tourism receipts, international tourist arrivals, and international tourism exports were significantly correlated with the total number of cases (rs=0.86, rs=0.79, rs=0.80, rs=0.81, respectively), the daily growth of cases of COVID-19 (rs=0.84, rs=0.76, rs=0.78, rs=0.78, respectively), and the number of cases (per million persons) (rs=0.52, rs=0.53, rs=0.36, rs=0.53, respectively) (p < 0.0001 for all), especially in places with high-income. Tourism as percentage of exports was slightly associated with the total number of cases and the daily growth of cases (rs=-0.33, rs=-0.33) (p < 0.0001 for both). CONCLUSIONS: The clinical and public health care providers must realize the potential for the transmission of infections across regions and put more effort to prevent and respond to future infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Tourism , Travel
18.
J Clin Virol ; 149: 105133, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739902

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 has become a public health crisis of unprecedented proportions. The fast spread of emerging variants increases the needs of rapid diagnostic and screening testing. Sample pooling efficiently expands the testing capacity under limited resources. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the performance of sample pooling on the Point-of-Care (POC) Liat® and cobas® 6800 systems and provided real-world experiences for implementing these systems in large-scale screenings. METHODS: Positive nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens with Ct values < 25, 25∼30 or > 30 were tested individually and in pools to optimize the POC Liat® and cobas® 6800 systems, which were then implemented in community screenings. RESULTS: The 5-sample pooling strategy did not affect the positive detection rates on Liat® or cobas® 6800 in samples with Ct values <25 or 25∼30. However, in samples with low viral loads (Ct values >30), five-sample pooling has a higher positive detection rate on POC Liat® (20/20; 100%), compared to cobas® 6800 (9/20; 45%). Five-sample pooled on POC Liat® and two-sample pooled on cobas® 6800 appear to be appropriate for SARS-CoV-2 detection. By implementing the pooling strategies in two large-scale community screenings, 7,606 NP specimens was tested within 36 h; the average turn-around time was 4.8 h for cobas® 6800 and 1.3 h for POC Liat®. Eight positive specimens (0.11%; 8/7,606) were identified, with Ct values ranging from 18.85 to 37.68. CONCLUSION: The performance of sample pooling on POC Liat® was demonstrated to be an effective, accurate, and economical approach for large-scale community screenings for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nasopharynx , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(10)2020 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725611

ABSTRACT

This study examines the relationships between government interventions, risk perception, and the public's adoption of protective action recommendations (PARs) during the COVID-19 coronavirus disease emergency in mainland China. We conducted quota sampling based on the proportion of the population in each province and gender ratios in the Sixth Census and obtained a sample size of 3837. Government intervention was divided into government communication, government prevention and control, and government rescue. We used multiple regression and a bootstrap mediation effect test to study the mechanism of these three forms of government intervention on the public's adoption of PARs. The results show that government prevention and control and government rescue significantly increased the likelihood of the public adopting PARs. Risk perception was significantly associated with the public's adoption of PARs. The effects of government interventions and risk perception on the public's adoption of PARs was not found to vary by region. Risk perception is identified as an important mediating factor between government intervention and the public's adoption of PARs. These results indicate that increasing the public's risk perception is an effective strategy for governments seeking to encourage the public to adopt PARs during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Government , Humans , Male , Perception , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Journal of inflammation research ; 15:851-864, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1688114

ABSTRACT

Purpose Plant polyphenols possess beneficial functions against various diseases. This study aimed to identify phenolic ingredients in Camellia fascicularis (C. fascicularis) and investigate its possible underlying anti-inflammatory mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human monocytes (THP-1) macrophages. Methods C. fascicularis polyphenols (CFP) were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) combined with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass/mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS/MS). The THP-1 cells were differentiated into macrophages under the stimulation of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and then treated with LPS to build a cellular inflammation model. The cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry. The secretion and expression of inflammatory cytokines were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were analyzed by Western blotting. Results Twelve phenolic constituents including (–)-epicatechin, casuariin, agastachoside, etc. in CFP were identified. The CCK-8 assay showed that CFP exhibited no significant cytotoxicity between 100 and 300 μg/mL. After treated with CFP, the release of ROS was significantly suppressed. CFP inhibited inflammation in macrophages by attenuating the polarization of LPS-induced THP-1 macrophages, down-regulating the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α, and up-regulating the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Western blotting experiments manifested that CFP could markedly inhibit the phosphorylation of p65, ERK and JNK, thereby suppressing the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Conclusion These findings indicated that CFP exerted anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the activation NF-κB and MAPK pathways which may induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This study offers a reference for C. fascicularis as the source of developing natural, safe anti-inflammatory agents in the future.

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