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1.
Blood ; 138(19):4239-4239, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602670

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the relationship between D-dimer, inflammatory markers, cytokines and disease severity, and the possibility of early identification of COVID-19 critical type patients. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE and CNKI databases were searched by computer, and references of related reviews and systematic reviews were manually searched as supplements. The retrieval deadline is February 9, 2021. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the literatures were screened and the quality was evaluated, and then the data were extracted for meta-analysis. The fixed/random effects model was used to calculate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CI to evaluate whether the levels of D-dimer, hsCRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in critical type patients were statistically different from those in severe type patients. If there were statistical differences, logistic regression analysis was used, and establish the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) of each index for the diagnosis of critical type patients. The best diagnostic value of COVID-19 critical type patients was calculated by Youden index. Results: A total of 3519 literatures entered the screening process. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 articles were finally included in this study, and all of them were high-quality studies after evaluation. The results of meta-analysis showed that the levels of D-dimer, hsCRP, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in critical type group were significantly higher than those in severe type group (P<0.05). Based on ROC curve, the AUC of D-dimer was 0.785 (95% CI: 0.671-0.899), AUC of hsCRP was 0.884 (95% CI: 0.632-1.000), AUC of IL-6 was 0.819 (95% CI: 0.700-0.939), which had diagnostic significance for critical type patients (P<0.05). The optimal diagnostic threshold of D-dimer was ≥2.00 mg/L (sensitivity 89.3%, specificity 64.0%);the optimal diagnostic threshold of hsCRP was ≥64.22 mg/L (sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 100%);the optimal diagnostic threshold of IL-6 was ≥33.01 ng/L (sensitivity 68.0%, specificity 92.0%). Conclusion: The levels of D-dimer, hsCRP, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 in COVID-19 critical type patients were significantly higher than those in severe type patients. Our results might be helpful in identify and risk reduction of mortality in critical types patients infected with COVID-19. Disclosures No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

2.
J Virol ; : JVI0195521, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575593

ABSTRACT

The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the coronavirus spike protein (S) has been verified to be the main target for potent neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in most coronaviruses, and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of some betacoronaviruses has also been indicated to induce nAbs. For alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E, its RBD has been shown to have neutralizing epitopes, and these epitopes could change over time. However, whether neutralizing epitopes exist on the NTD and whether these epitopes change like those of the RBD are still unknown. Here, we verified that neutralizing epitopes exist on the NTD of HCoV-229E. Furthermore, we characterized an NTD targeting nAb 5H10, which could neutralize both pseudotyped and authentic HCoV-229E VR740 in vitro. Epitope mapping indicated that 5H10 targeted motif E1 (147-167 aa) and identified F159 as critical for 5H10 binding. More importantly, our results revealed that motif E1 was highly conserved among clinical isolates except for F159. Further data proved that mutations at position 159 gradually appeared over time and could completely abolish the neutralizing ability of 5H10, supporting the notion that position 159 may be under selective pressure during the human epidemic. In addition, we also found that contemporary clinical serum has a stronger binding capacity for the NTD of contemporary strains than historic strains, proving that the epitope on the NTD could change over time. In summary, these findings define a novel neutralizing epitope on the NTD of HCoV-229E S and provide a theoretical basis for the design of vaccines against HCoV-229E or related coronaviruses. Importance Characterization of the neutralizing epitope of the spike (S) protein, the major invasion protein of coronaviruses, can help us better understand the evolutionary characteristics of these viruses and promote vaccine development. To date, the neutralizing epitope distribution of alphacoronaviruses is not well known. Here, we identified a neutralizing antibody that targeted the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the alphacoronavirus HCoV-229E S protein. Epitope mapping revealed a novel epitope that was not previously discovered in HCoV-229E. Further studies identified an important residue, F159. Mutations that gradually appeared over time at this site abolished the neutralizing ability of 5H10, indicating that selective pressure occurred at this position in the spread of HCoV-229E. Furthermore, we found that the epitopes within the NTD also changed over time. Taken together, our findings defined a novel neutralizing epitope and highlighted the role of the NTD in the future prevention and control of HCoV-229E or related coronaviruses.

3.
EClinicalMedicine ; 43: 101226, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549739

ABSTRACT

Background: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective in the general population with intact immunity. However, their safety and immunogenicity have not been demonstrated in people living with HIV (PLWH). Methods: 42 HIV-1 infected individuals who were stable on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and 28 healthy individuals were enrolled in this open-label two-arm non-randomized study at Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China. Two doses of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) were given on April 22, 2021 and May 25, 2021, respectively. The reactogenicity of the vaccine were evaluated by observing clinical adverse events and solicited local and systemic reactions. Humoral responses were measured by anti-spike IgG ELISA and surrogate neutralization assays. Cell-mediated immune responses and vaccine induced T cell activation were measured by flow cytometry. Findings: All the HIV-1 infected participants had a CD4+ T cell count >200 cells/µL both at baseline (659·0 ± 221·9 cells/µL) and 4 weeks after vaccination (476·9 ± 150·8 cells/µL). No solicited adverse reaction was observed among all participants. Similar binding antibody, neutralizing antibody and S protein specific T cell responses were elicited in PLWH and healthy individuals. PLWH with low baseline CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratios (<0·6) generated lower antibody responses after vaccination than PLWH with medium (0·6∼1·0) or high (≥1·0) baseline CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratios (P<0·01). The CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts of PLWH decreased significantly after vaccination (P<0·0001), but it did not lead to any adverse clinical manifestation. Moreover, we found that the general HIV-1 viral load among the PLWH cohort decreased significantly after vaccination (P=0·0192). The alteration of HIV-1 viral load was not significantly associated with the vaccine induced CD4+ T cell activation (P>0·2). Interpretation: Our data demonstrated that the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was safe, immunogenic in PLWH who are stable on cART with suppressed viral load and CD4+ T cell count > 200 cells/µL. However, the persistence of the vaccine-induced immunities in PLWH need to be further investigated.

4.
Food Funct ; 12(22): 11241-11249, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545659

ABSTRACT

The discovery of psychobiotics has improved the therapeutic choices available for clinical mental disorders and shows promise for regulating mental health in people by combining the properties of food and medicine. A Pediococcus acidilactici strain CCFM6432 was previously isolated and its mood-regulating effect was investigated in this study. Viable bacteria were given to chronically stressed mice for five weeks, and then the behavioral, neurobiological, and gut microbial changes were determined. CCFM6432 significantly reduced stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors, mitigated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, and reversed the abnormal expression of hippocampal phosphorylated CREB and the c-Fos protein. In particular, CCFM6432 improved the gut microbial composition by inhibiting the over-proliferated pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Escherichia-shigella) and promoting beneficial bacteria growth (e.g., Bifidobacterium). Lactic acid, rather than bacteriocin, was further confirmed as the key compound that determined the antimicrobial activity of CCFM6432. Collectively, these results first proved the psychobiotic potential of the Pediococcus acidilactici strain. Ingestion of CCFM6432, or fermented food containing it, may facilitate mental health management in daily life, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

5.
Epidemiology and Infection ; 149, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1521670

ABSTRACT

As acute infectious pneumonia, the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has created unique challenges for each nation and region. Both India and the United States (US) have experienced a second outbreak, resulting in a severe disease burden. The study aimed to develop optimal models to predict the daily new cases, in order to help to develop public health strategies. The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models, generalised regression neural network (GRNN) models, ARIMA–GRNN hybrid model and exponential smoothing (ES) model were used to fit the daily new cases. The performances were evaluated by minimum mean absolute per cent error (MAPE). The predictive value with ARIMA (3, 1, 3) (1, 1, 1)14 model was closest to the actual value in India, while the ARIMA–GRNN presented a better performance in the US. According to the models, the number of daily new COVID-19 cases in India continued to decrease after 27 May 2021. In conclusion, the ARIMA model presented to be the best-fit model in forecasting daily COVID-19 new cases in India, and the ARIMA–GRNN hybrid model had the best prediction performance in the US. The appropriate model should be selected for different regions in predicting daily new cases. The results can shed light on understanding the trends of the outbreak and giving ideas of the epidemiological stage of these regions.

6.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 36(1): 37-45, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517926

ABSTRACT

This qualitative study describes the psychological experience of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. These patients went through 3 psychological stages: extremely uncertainties during the initial diagnostic stage, complicated feelings of negativity during the treatment stage, and positive growth in the recovery stage. It is important for nurses to provide holistic care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emotions , Humans , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(21): 23895-23912, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498164

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is presently the most pressing public health concern worldwide. Cytokine storm is an important factor leading to death of patients with COVID-19. This study aims to characterize serum cytokines of patients with severe or critical COVID-19. Clinical records were obtained from 149 patients who were tested at the Sino-French New City Branch of Tongji Hospital from 30 January to 30 March 2020. Data regarding the clinical features of the patients was collected and analyzed. Among the 149, 45 (30.2%) of them had severe conditions and 104 (69.8%) of that presented critical symptoms. In the meantime, 80 (53.7%) of that 149 died during hospitalization. Of all, male patients accounted for 94 (69.1%). Compared with patients in severe COVID-19, those who in critical COVID-19 had significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-10. Moreover, the passed-away patients had considerably higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 than those survived from it. Regression analysis revealed that serum TNF-α level was an independent risk factor for the death of patient with severe conditions. Among the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-6) analyzed herein, TNF-α was seen as a risk factor for the death of patients with severe or critical COVID-19. This study suggests that anti-TNF-α treatment allows patients with severe or critical COVID-19 pneumonia to recover.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Interleukins/blood , Pneumonia, Viral , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Immunologic Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use
8.
Food Funct ; 12(22): 11241-11249, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493239

ABSTRACT

The discovery of psychobiotics has improved the therapeutic choices available for clinical mental disorders and shows promise for regulating mental health in people by combining the properties of food and medicine. A Pediococcus acidilactici strain CCFM6432 was previously isolated and its mood-regulating effect was investigated in this study. Viable bacteria were given to chronically stressed mice for five weeks, and then the behavioral, neurobiological, and gut microbial changes were determined. CCFM6432 significantly reduced stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors, mitigated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, and reversed the abnormal expression of hippocampal phosphorylated CREB and the c-Fos protein. In particular, CCFM6432 improved the gut microbial composition by inhibiting the over-proliferated pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Escherichia-shigella) and promoting beneficial bacteria growth (e.g., Bifidobacterium). Lactic acid, rather than bacteriocin, was further confirmed as the key compound that determined the antimicrobial activity of CCFM6432. Collectively, these results first proved the psychobiotic potential of the Pediococcus acidilactici strain. Ingestion of CCFM6432, or fermented food containing it, may facilitate mental health management in daily life, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear if patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and/or asthma are susceptible to corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, severity, and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of AR and/or asthma in COVID-19 infection, severity, and mortality, and assess whether long-term AR and/or asthma medications affected the outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data of 70,557 adult participants completed SARS-CoV-2 testing between March 16 and December 31, 2020, in the UK Biobank were analyzed. The rates of COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and mortality in relation to pre-existing AR and/or asthma were assessed based on adjusted generalized linear models. We further analyzed the impact of long-term AR and/or asthma medications on the risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality. RESULTS: Patients with AR of all ages had lower positive rates of SARS-CoV-2 tests (relative risk [RR]: 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.81, P < .001), with lower susceptibility in males (RR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.65-0.85, P < .001) than females (RR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.72-0.9, P < .001). However, similar effects of asthma against COVID-19 hospitalization were only major in participants aged <65 (RR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86-1, P = .044) instead of elderlies. In contrast, patients with asthma tested positively had higher risk of hospitalization (RR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.32-1.54, P < .001). Neither AR nor asthma had an impact on COVID-19 mortality. None of conventional medications for AR or asthma, for example, antihistamines, corticosteroids, or ß2 adrenoceptor agonists, showed association with COVID-19 infection or severity. CONCLUSION: AR (all ages) and asthma (aged <65) act as protective factors against COVID-19 infection, whereas asthma increases risk for COVID-19 hospitalization. None of the long-term medications had a significant association with infection, severity, and mortality of COVID-19 among patients with AR and/or asthma.

10.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463827

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes diarrhoea in suckling piglets and has the potential for cross-species transmission. No effective PDCoV vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available. Here, we successfully generated an infectious clone of PDCoV strain CHN-HN-2014 using a combination of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based reverse genetics system with a one-step homologous recombination. The recued virus (rCHN-HN-2014) possesses similar growth characteristics to the parental virus in vitro. Based on the established infectious clone and CRISPR/Cas9 technology, a PDCoV reporter virus expressing nanoluciferase (Nluc) was constructed by replacing the NS6 gene. Using two drugs, lycorine and resveratrol, we found that the Nluc reporter virus exhibited high sensibility and easy quantification to rapid antiviral screening. We further used the Nluc reporter virus to test the susceptibility of different cell lines to PDCoV and found that cell lines derived from various host species, including human, swine, cattle and monkey enables PDCoV replication, broadening our understanding of the PDCoV cell tropism range. Taken together, our reporter viruses are available to high throughput screening for antiviral drugs and uncover the infectivity of PDCoV in various cells, which will accelerate our understanding of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/metabolism , Genes, Reporter/genetics , Luciferases/genetics , A549 Cells , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Deltacoronavirus/growth & development , Dogs , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Luciferases/biosynthesis , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Nanostructures , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 696976, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450816

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous research suggested that Chinese Medicine (CM) Formula Huashibaidu granule might shorten the disease course in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This research aimed to investigate the early treatment effect of Huashibaidu granule in well-managed patients with mild COVID-19. Methods: An unblinded cluster-randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Dongxihu FangCang hospital. Two cabins were randomly allocated to a CM or control group, with 204 mild COVID-19 participants in each cabin. All participants received conventional treatment over a 7 day period, while the ones in CM group were additionally given Huashibaidu granule 10 g twice daily. Participants were followed up to their clinical endpoint. The primary outcome was worsening symptoms before the clinical endpoint. The secondary outcomes were cure and discharge before the clinical endpoint and alleviation of composite symptoms after the 7 days of treatment. Results: All 408 participants were followed up to their clinical endpoint and included in statistical analysis. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups (P > 0.05). The number of worsening patients in the CM group was 5 (2.5%), and that in the control group was 16 (7.8%) with a significant difference between groups (P = 0.014). Eight foreseeable mild adverse events occurred without statistical difference between groups (P = 0.151). Conclusion: Seven days of early treatment with Huashibaidu granule reduced the likelihood of worsening symptoms in patients with mild COVID-19. Our study supports Huashibaidu granule as an active option for early treatment of mild COVID-19 in similar well-managed medical environments. Clinical Trial Registration:www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=49408, identifier: ChiCTR2000029763.

12.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 421-429, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The amygdala is vital in processing psychological stress and predicting vulnerability or resilience to stress-related disorders. This study aimed to build the link between functional magnetic resonance imaging data obtained before the stress event and the subsequent stress-related depressive symptoms. METHODS: Neuroimaging data obtained before the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic from 39 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 61 health controls (HCs) were used in this study. The participants were divided retrospectively into four groups in accordance with the severity of depressive symptoms during the pandemic: remitted patients, non-remitted patients, depressed HCs (HCd) and non-depressed HCs (HCnd). Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses of the amygdala and its subregions, including the centromedial (CM), the basolateral and the superficial (SF), were performed. RESULTS: Vulnerability to depression was suggested by decreased rsFC between the left CM amygdala and the bilateral lingual gyrus in the HCd group compared with the HCnd group, and decreased rsFC of the left CM or right SF amygdala with the precuneus and the postcentral gyrus in the HCd group compared with patients with MDD. No evidence supported the rsFC of the amygdala or its subregions as a biomarker for the resilience of patients with MDD to stress under antidepressant treatment. LIMITATIONS: Smaller sample size and no longitudinal neuroimaging data. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that the rsFC of amygdala subregions may represent a neurobiological marker of vulnerability to depression following stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Amygdala/diagnostic imaging , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnostic imaging , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 6803510, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443673

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently the most significant public health threat worldwide. Patients with severe COVID-19 usually have pneumonia concomitant with local inflammation and sometimes a cytokine storm. Specific components of the SARS-CoV-2 virus trigger lung inflammation, and recruitment of immune cells to the lungs exacerbates this process, although much remains unknown about the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Our study of lung type II pneumocyte cells (A549) demonstrated that ORF7, an open reading frame (ORF) in the genome of SARS-CoV-2, induced the production of CCL2, a chemokine that promotes the chemotaxis of monocytes, and decreased the expression of IL-8, a chemokine that recruits neutrophils. A549 cells also had an increased level of IL-6. The results of our chemotaxis Transwell assay suggested that ORF7 augmented monocyte infiltration and reduced the number of neutrophils. We conclude that the ORF7 of SARS-CoV-2 may have specific effects on the immunological changes in tissues after infection. These results suggest that the functions of other ORFs of SARS-CoV-2 should also be comprehensively examined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Chemotaxis , Monocytes/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology , Open Reading Frames/physiology , Pneumonia/pathology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , A549 Cells , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics
14.
Atmos Environ (1994) ; 266: 118750, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432963

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread rapidly worldwide in the first half of 2020. Stringent national lockdown policies imposed by China to prevent the spread of the virus reduced anthropogenic emissions and improved air quality. A weather research and forecasting model coupled with chemistry was applied to evaluate the impact of meteorology and emissions on air quality during the COVID-19 outbreak (from January 23 to February 29, 2020) in mid-eastern China. The results show that air pollution episodes still occurred on polluted days and accounted for 31.6%-60.5% of the total number of outbreak days in mid-eastern China from January 23 to February 29, 2020. However, anthropogenic emissions decreased significantly, indicating that anthropogenic emission reduction cannot completely offset the impact of unfavorable meteorological conditions on air quality. Favorable meteorological conditions in 2019 improved the overall air quality for a COVID-19 outbreak in 2019 instead of 2020. PM2.5 concentrations decreased by 4.2%-29.2% in Beijing, Tianjin, Shijiazhuang, and Taiyuan, and increased by 6.1%-11.5% in Jinan and Zhengzhou. PM2.5 concentrations increased by 10.9%-20.5% without the COVID-19 outbreak of 2020 in mid-eastern China, and the frequency of polluted days increased by 5.3%-18.4%. Source apportionment of PM2.5 during the COVID-19 outbreak showed that industry and residential emissions were the dominant PM2.5 contributors (32.7%-49.6% and 26.0%-44.5%, respectively) followed by agriculture (18.7%-24.0%), transportation (7.7%-15.5%), and power (4.1%-5.9%). In Beijing, industrial and residential contributions to PM2.5 concentrations were lower (32.7%) and higher (44.5%), respectively, than in other cities (38.7%-49.6% for industry and 26.0%-36.2% for residential). Therefore, enhancing regional cooperation and implementing a united air pollution control are effective emission mitigation measures for future air quality improvement, especially the development of new technologies for industrial and cooking fumes.

15.
J Virol ; 2021 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376458

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses that infect humans belong to the Alpha-coronavirus (including HCoV-229E) and Beta-coronavirus (including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) genera. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 is currently a major threat to public health worldwide. The spike (S) homotrimers bind to their receptors via the receptor-binding domain (RBD), which is a major target to block viral entry. In this study, we selected Alpha-coronavirus (HCoV-229E) and Beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) as models. Their RBDs exist two different conformational states (lying or standing) in the prefusion S-trimer structure. Then, the differences in the immune responses to RBDs from these coronaviruses were analyzed structurally and immunologically. Our results showed that more RBD-specific antibodies (antibody titers: 1.28×105; 2.75×105) were induced by the S-trimer with the RBD in the "standing" state (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) than the S-trimer with the RBD in the "lying" state (HCoV-229E, antibody titers: <500), and more S-trimer-specific antibodies were induced by the RBD in the SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (antibody titers: 6.72×105; 5×105) than HCoV-229E (antibody titers:1.125×103). Besides, we found that the ability of the HCoV-229E RBD to induce neutralizing antibodies was lower than S-trimer, and the intact and stable S1 subunit was essential for producing efficient neutralizing antibodies against HCoV-229E. Importantly, our results reveal different vaccine strategies for coronaviruses, and S-trimer is better than RBD as a target for vaccine development in Alpha-coronavirus Our findings will provide important implications for future development of coronavirus vaccines.Importance Outbreak of coronaviruses, especially SARS-CoV-2, poses a serious threat to global public health. Development of vaccines to prevent the coronaviruses that can infect humans has always been a top priority. Coronavirus spike (S) protein is considered as a major target for vaccine development. Currently, structural studies have shown that Alpha-coronavirus (HCoV-229E) and Beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) RBDs are in "lying" and "standing" states in the prefusion S-trimer structure. Here, we evaluated the ability of S-trimer and RBD to induce neutralizing antibodies among these coronaviruses. Our results showed that the S-trimer and RBD are both candidates for subunit vaccines in Beta-coronavirus (SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2) with a RBD "standing" state. However, for Alpha-coronavirus (HCoV-229E) with a RBD "lying" state, the S-trimer may be more suitable for subunit vaccines than the RBD. Our results will provide novel ideas for the development of vaccines targeting S protein in the future.

16.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(5): 343-360, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352746

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China in December 2019. By Feb. 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially named the disease resulting from infection with SARS-CoV-2 as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 represents a spectrum of clinical manifestations that typically include fever, dry cough, and fatigue, often with pulmonary involvement. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and most individuals within the population at large are susceptible to infection. Wild animal hosts and infected patients are currently the main sources of disease which is transmitted via respiratory droplets and direct contact. Since the outbreak, the Chinese government and scientific community have acted rapidly to identify the causative agent and promptly shared the viral gene sequence, and have carried out measures to contain the epidemic. Meanwhile, recent research has revealed critical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 biology and disease pathogenesis; other studies have focused on epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, management, as well as drug and vaccine development. This review aims to summarize the latest research findings and to provide expert consensus. We will also share ongoing efforts and experience in China, which may provide insight on how to contain the epidemic and improve our understanding of this emerging infectious disease, together with updated guidance for prevention, control, and critical management of this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Amino Acid Motifs , Animals , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Vaccines
17.
The Leadership Quarterly ; : No Pagination Specified, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1320174

ABSTRACT

Does U.S. governors' political partisanship matter to their responses to the COVID-19 public health crisis? Drawing from upper echelons theory, we examined whether and when the governors' political partisanship (Democratic versus Republican) mattered to the time they took to issue stay-at-home orders, which were advocated to be a strong defense to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings based on event history methodology reveal that Democratic governors took about 9 fewer days than Republican governors to issue statewide stay-at-home orders. In addition, governing discretion and governing demands exacerbated the relationship of governors' political partisanship with the time to their issuance of stay-at-home orders. For instance, when governing discretion was high, Democratic governors took 18 fewer days than Republican governors to issue stay-at-home orders. Moreover, when governing demands were high, Democratic governors took 25 fewer days than Republican governors to declare stay-at-home orders. Our findings are robust to different sets of analyses and a comprehensive set of controls. Moreover, additional analyses suggest that governors' political partisanship was also related to the issuance of reopening plans and that governing discretion and governing demands moderated the relationship. This research provides theoretical and actionable practical implications for various stakeholders in the fight against COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

18.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153671, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Hua Shi Bai Du Granule (Q-14) plus standard care compared with standard care alone in adults with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). STUDY DESIGN: A single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Wuhan, China, February 27 to March 27, 2020. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 204 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were randomized into the treatment group and control group, consisting of 102 patients in each group. INTERVENTIONS: In the treatment group, Q-14 was administered at 10 g (granules) twice daily for 14 days, plus standard care. In the control group, patients were provided standard care alone for 14 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was the conversion time for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral assay. Adverse events were analyzed in the safety population. RESULTS: Among the 204 patients, 195 were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. A total of 149 patients (71 vs. 78 in the treatment and control groups, respectively) tested negative via the SARS-CoV-2 viral assay. There was no statistical significance in the conversion time between the treatment group and control group (Full analysis set: Median [interquartile range]: 10.00 [9.00-11.00] vs. 10.00 [9.00-11.00]; Mean rank: 67.92 vs. 81.44; P = 0.051). The recovery time for fever was shorter in the treatment group than in the control group. The disappearance rate of symptoms like cough, fatigue, and chest discomfort was significantly higher in the treatment group. In chest computed tomography (CT) examinations, the overall evaluation of chest CT examination after treatment compared with baseline showed that more patients improved in the treatment group. There were no significant differences in the other outcomes. CONCLUSION: The combination of Q-14 and standard care for COVID-19 was useful for the improvement of symptoms (such as fever, cough, fatigue, and chest discomfort), but did not result in a significantly higher probability of negative conversion in the SARS-CoV-2 viral assay. No serious adverse events were observed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR2000030288.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
19.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 48: 128263, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309173

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has created an unprecedented global health emergency. As of July 2021, only three antiviral therapies have been approved by the FDA for treating infected patients, highlighting the urgent need for more antiviral drugs. The SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease (3CLpro) is deemed an attractive drug target due to its essential role in viral polyprotein processing and pathogenesis. Indeed, a number of peptidomimetic 3CLpro inhibitors armed with electrophilic warheads have been reported by various research groups that can potentially be developed for treating COVID-19. However, it is currently impossible to compare their relative potencies due to the different assays employed. To solve this, we conducted a head-to-head comparison of fifteen reported peptidomimetic inhibitors in a standard FRET-based SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition assay to compare and identify potent inhibitors for development. Inhibitor design and the suitability of various warheads are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Peptidomimetics/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Enzyme Assays , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Peptidomimetics/metabolism , Protein Binding
20.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 163, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies had described the health consequences of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) especially in those with severe infections after discharge from hospital. Moreover, no research had reported the health consequences in health care workers (HCWs) with COVID-19 after discharge. We aimed to investigate the health consequences in HCWs with severe COVID-19 after discharge from hospital in Hubei Province, China. METHODS: We conducted an ambidirectional cohort study in "Rehabilitation Care Project for Medical Staff Infected with COVID-19" in China. The participants were asked to complete three physical examinations (including the tests of functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators) at 153.4 (143.3, 164.8), 244.3 (232.4, 259.1), and 329.4 (319.4, 339.3) days after discharge, respectively. Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, t test, one-way ANOVA, χ2, and Fisher's exact test were used to assess the variance between two or more groups where appropriate. RESULTS: Of 333 HCWs with severe COVID-19, the HCWs' median age was 36.0 (31.0, 43.0) years, 257 (77%) were female, and 191 (57%) were nurses. Our research found that 70.4% (114/162), 48.9% (67/137), and 29.6% (37/125) of the HCWs with severe COVID-19 were considered to have not recovered their functional fitness in the first, second, and third functional fitness tests, respectively. The HCWs showed improvement in muscle strength, flexibility, and agility/dynamic balance after discharge in follow-up visits. The seropositivity of IgM (17.0% vs. 6.6%) and median titres of IgM (3.0 vs. 1.4) and IgG (60.3 vs. 45.3) in the third physical examination was higher than that in the first physical examination. In the third physical examination, there still were 42.1% and 45.9% of the HCWs had elevated levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, and 11.9% and 6.3% of the HCWs had decreased relative numbers of CD3+ T cells and CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSION: The HCWs with severe COVID-19 showed improvement in functional fitness within 1 year after discharge, active intervention should be applied to help their recovery if necessary. It is of vital significance to continue monitoring the functional fitness, antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and immunological indicators after 1 year of discharge from hospital in HCWs with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , Exercise Test , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Functional Status , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
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