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1.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(5): e348-e356, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984300

ABSTRACT

Background: The memory immune response is crucial for preventing reinfection or reducing disease severity. However, the robustness and functionality of the humoral and T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 remains unknown 12 months after initial infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the durability and functionality of the humoral and T-cell response to the original SARS-CoV-2 strain and variants in recovered patients 12 months after infection. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, we recruited participants who had recovered from COVID-19 and who were discharged from the Wuhan Research Center for Communicable Disease Diagnosis and Treatment at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Wuhan, China, between Jan 7 and May 29, 2020. Patients received a follow-up visit between Dec 16, 2020, and Jan 27, 2021. We evaluated the presence of IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein, Spike protein, and the receptor-binding domain 12 months after initial infection, using ELISA. Neutralising antibodies against the original SARS-CoV-2 strain, and the D614G, beta (B.1.351), and delta (B.1.617.2) variants were analysed using a microneutralisation assay in a subset of plasma samples. We analysed the magnitude and breadth of the SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T-cell responses using the interferon γ (IFNγ) enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (ELISpot) assay and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay. The antibody response and T-cell response (ie, IFN-γ, interleukin-2 [IL-2], and tumour necrosis factor α [TNFα]) were analysed by age and disease severity. Antibody titres were also analysed according to sequelae symptoms. Findings: We enrolled 1096 patients, including 289 (26·4%) patients with moderate initial disease, 734 (67·0%) with severe initial disease, and 73 (6·7%) with critical initial disease. Paired plasma samples were collected from 141 patients during the follow-up visits for the microneutralisation assay. PBMCs were collected from 92 of 141 individuals at the 12-month follow-up visit, of which 80 were analysed by ELISpot and 92 by ICS assay to detect the SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T-cell responses. N-IgG (899 [82·0%]), S-IgG (1043 [95·2%]), RBD-IgG (1032 [94·2%]), and neutralising (115 [81·6%] of 141) antibodies were detectable 12 months after initial infection in most individuals. Neutralising antibodies remained stable 6 and 12 months after initial infection in most individuals younger than 60 years. Multifunctional T-cell responses were detected for all SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins tested. There was no difference in the magnitude of T-cell responses or cytokine profiles in individuals with different symptom severity. Moreover, we evaluated both antibody and T-cell responses to the D614G, beta, and delta viral strains. The degree of reduced in-vitro neutralising antibody responses to the D614G and delta variants, but not to the beta variant, was associated with the neutralising antibody titres after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also found poor neutralising antibody responses to the beta variant; 83 (72·2%) of 115 patients showed no response at all. Moreover, the neutralising antibody titre reduction of the recovered patient plasma against the delta variant was similar to that of the D614G variant and lower than that of the beta variant. By contrast, T-cell responses were cross-reactive to the beta variant in most individuals. Importantly, T-cell responses could be detected in all individuals who had lost the neutralising antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 12 months after the initial infection. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralising antibody and T-cell responses were retained 12 months after initial infection. Neutralising antibodies to the D614G, beta, and delta viral strains were reduced compared with those for the original strain, and were diminished in general. Memory T-cell responses to the original strain were not disrupted by new variants. This study suggests that cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses could be particularly important in the protection against severe disease caused by variants of concern whereas neutralising antibody responses seem to reduce over time. Funding: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation, and UK Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cytokines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Longitudinal Studies , T-Lymphocytes
2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2054260, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795430

ABSTRACT

The significance of COVID-19 vaccine has been declared and this study synthesizes the attitudes and determinants in vaccination hesitancy of college students. We searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and CNKI to enroll the related studies. The modified NOS was used for quality evaluation. Proportion and OR with 95% CI were pooled to estimate the acceptance rates and determinants of COVID-19 vaccination. Data of 34 studies involving 42 countries were pooled. The pooled acceptance rate of COVID-19 vaccination among all the college students was 69% and varies between countries, while medical students have a slightly higher acceptancy rate. Knowledge, trust conception, social behavior, and information sources were important for their decision. Most of the college students intended to COVID-19 vaccination, but the proportion varied among countries. Governments should strengthen credibility, convey trusted information with media influences and improve vaccination services in urging students to be vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Students , Vaccination
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 201, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779609

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China is one of 30 countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden, and poor adherence to TB treatment is one of the biggest challenges for TB control. We aimed to explore the barriers and facilitators of treatment adherence among drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB) patients under the "Integrated model" in Western China, to provide evidence-based treatment and control regimens for DS-TB patients to improve adherence behaviours. METHODS: Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to explore the factors associated with self-reported adherence (SRA) behaviours. Questionnaire surveys with DS-TB patients and in-depth interviews with leaders from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and community health sectors (CHCs), healthcare workers (HCWs) from CHCs, and DS-TB patients were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 459 eligible patients were included in the quantitative survey, and two patients and 13 healthcare providers were included in the in-depth interviews. The percentage of patients who experienced a missed dose, lack of follow-up sputum examination, and interrupted treatment were 19.0%, 11.3%, and 9.2%, respectively. Patients aged 20-39 had a higher risk of missed dose [OR (95% CI): 2.302 (1.001-5.305)] and a lower risk of interrupted treatment [OR (95% CI): 0.278 (0.077-0.982)] than patients more than 60 years. Patients who were of Han ethnicity (OR [95% CI]: 0.524 [0.301-0.912]) received psychological support (OR [95% CI]: 0.379 [0.144-0.998]) from their family and had a lower risk of missed doses. Patients who had drug side effects had a higher risk of interrupted treatment (OR [95% CI]: 2.587 [1.237-5.412]). Patients who possessed higher knowledge had a lower risk of lack of follow-up sputum examination [OR (95% CI): 0.817 (0.673-0.991)]. The results of the qualitative study also reported that patients' poor TB knowledge was the main reason for their non-SRA behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: Patient-centred strategies should be implemented to improve health literacy and strengthen psychological support. More effective case management should be designed and implemented based on different patient characteristics to improve adherence behaviours in further studies.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents , Tuberculosis , Adult , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , China , Humans , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Young Adult
4.
Biosaf Health ; 4(2): 66-69, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734223

ABSTRACT

Upper respiratory tract samples are the most commonly used samples for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosis. The samples collected from the nasopharynx are preferred for viral nucleic acids detection. Commercial nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) are the major factor that influences the sampling quality. We here evaluated the acceptability and efficiency of NPSs from five manufacturers by examining the concentration of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GAPDH) retrieved from the swabs using the RT-PCR method. Significant different concentrations of GAPDH were detected, ranged from 4.36 × 108 copies/mL to 6.98 × 1010 copies/mL among the five swabs (p < 0.05). The designation of the swab head, with or without tip expansion, had limited influence on the collection efficiency. The discrepancy among the NPSs emphasized the improvement of the swab head material.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319974

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused global pandemic. Here we profiled the humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM and IgG against nucleocapsid, spike proteins and IgM, IgG antibodies against receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein along with total neutralizing antibodies. We tested 279 plasma samples collected from 176 COVID-19 patients. We demonstrate more severe cases have a late onset in the humoral response compared to mild/moderate infections. All the antibody titers continue to rise in patients with COVID-19 over the disease course. However, these levels are mostly unrelated to the disease severity. The appearance time and titers of neutralizing antibodies showed significant positive correlation to the antibodies against spike protein. Our results suggest late onset of antibody response as a risk factor for disease severity, however there is a limited role of antibody titers in predicting disease severity of COVID-19.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311704

ABSTRACT

Background: Seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) including HCoV-229E, -OC43, -NL63 and -HKU1 are widely spreading in global human populations. However, the relevance of humoral response against seasonal HCoVs to COVID-19 pathogenesis is elusive.Methods: We profiled the temporal changes of IgG antibodies against spike (S;S-IgG) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs in 838 plasma samples collected from 344 COVID-19 patients. We tested the antigenic cross-reactivity of S protein between SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs and evaluated the correlations between HCoV-OC43 S-IgG antibody and disease severity in COVID-19 patients.Findings: SARS-CoV-2 S-IgG titers mounted until days 22–28, whereas HCoV-OC43 antibody titers increased until days 15–21 and then plateaued until day 46. However, IgG antibody titers against HCoV-NL63, -229E, and -HKU1 showed no significant increasing. A two-way cross-reactivity was identified between SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43. Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were not detected in healthy controls who were positive for HCoV-OC43 S-IgG. HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titers were significantly higher in patients with severe disease than those in mild/moderate patients at days 1–21 post symptom onset (PSO). Higher levels of HCoV-OC43 S-IgG were also observed in patients requiring mechanical ventilation and the elderly. At days 1–10 PSO, HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titers correlated to disease severity in all age groups, and to fatality in over 60-year group.Interpretation: Our data indicate that there exist a humoral cross-reactive response between HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2. The cross-reactive HCoV-OC43 S-IgG antibody is not protective against SARS-CoV-2, but may be a risk factor for the severity and adverse outcome of COVID-19.Funding Statement: This study was funded in part by the National Major Science & Technology Project for Control and Prevention of Major Infectious Diseases in China (2017ZX10204401, 2018ZX10734404), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (2016-I2M-1–014, 2018-I2M-1-003, 2020-I2M-1-001, 2020-I2M-CoV19-005), Natural Science Foundation of China (82041011/H0104), and National Key R&D Program of China (2020YFA0707600). Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Infectious Disease Hospital of Heilongjiang Province (Harbin), and Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Written informed consent was obtained from each healthy volunteer and COVID-19 patients in cohort 4. Written informed consents from the remaining patients were waived in light of the emerging infectious disease of high public health relevance.

8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 791348, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608514

ABSTRACT

Background: Striking similarities have been found between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody (Ab)-related dermatomyositis, implying a shared autoinflammatory aberrance. Herein, we aim to investigate whether the anti-MDA5 Ab is present in COVID-19 and correlates with the severity and adverse outcome of COVID-19 patients. Methods and Findings: We retrospectively recruited 274 adult inpatients with COVID-19 in this study, including 48, 164, and 62 cases of deaths, severe, and non-severe patients respectively. The anti-MDA5 Ab was determined by ELISA and verified by Western Blotting, which indicated that the positive rate of anti-MDA5 Ab in COVID-19 patients was 48.2% (132/274). The clinical and laboratory features, as well as outcomes between patients with positive and negative anti-MDA5 Ab were compared and we found that the anti-MDA5 Ab positive patients tended to represent severe disease (88.6% vs 66.9%, P<0.0001). We also demonstrated that the titer of anti-MDA5 Ab was significantly elevated in the non-survivals (5.95 ± 5.16 vs 8.22 ± 6.64, P=0.030) and the positive rate was also higher than that in the survivals (23.5% vs 12.0%, P=0.012). Regarding severe COVID-19 patients, we found that high titer of anti-MDA5 Ab (≥10.0 U/mL) was more prevalent in the non-survivals (31.2% vs 14.0%, P=0.006). Moreover, a dynamic analysis of anti-MDA5 Ab was conducted at different time-points of COVID-19, which revealed that early profiling of anti-MDA5 Ab could distinguish severe patients from those with non-severe ones. Conclusions: Anti-MDA5 Ab was prevalent in the COVID-19 patients and high titer of this antibody is correlated with severe disease and unfavorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): e545-e551, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The characteristics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and antibody against major antigen proteins related to clinical outcomes in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were still less known. METHODS: NAbs and antibodies targeting nucleocapsid (N), spike protein (S), and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in longitudinal plasma samples from the LOTUS China trial were measured by microneutralization assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Viral load was determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 576 plasma and 576 throat swabs were collected from 191 COVID-19 patients. Antibody titers related to adverse outcome and clinical improvement were analyzed. Multivariable adjusted generalized linear mixed model for random effects were developed. RESULTS: After day 28 post symptoms onset, the rate of antibody positivity reached 100% for RBD-immunoglobulin M (IgM), 97.8% for S-IgM, 100% for N-immunoglobulin G (IgG), 100% for RBD-IgG, 91.1% for N-IgM, and 91.1% for NAbs. The NAbs titers increased over time in both survivors and nonsurvivors and correlated to IgG antibodies against N, S, and RBD, whereas its presence showed no statistical correlation with death. N-IgG (slope -2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] -3.04 to -1.18, P < .0001), S-IgG (slope -2.44, 95% CI -3.35 to -1.54, P < .0001), and RBD-IgG (slope -1.43, 95% CI -1.98 to -.88, P < .0001) were negatively correlated with viral load. S-IgG titers were lower in nonsurvivors than survivors (P = .020) at week 4 after symptoms onset. CONCLUSIONS: IgM and IgG against N, S, and RBD and NAbs developed in most severe COVID-19 patients and do not correlate clearly with clinical outcomes. The levels of IgG antibodies against N, S, and RBD were related to viral clearance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2
10.
The Lancet ; 397(10270):220-232, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1164655

ABSTRACT

Presents a study which aims to examine consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital for 6-months. This ambidirectional cohort study was done at Jin Yin-tan Hospital, the first designated hospital for patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, Hubei, China. Clinical data for acute phase were retrieved from electronic medical records, including demographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, laboratory test results;and treatment. The disease severity was characterized by the highest seven-category scale during the hospital stay. Data were managed using REDCap electronic data capture tools in order to minimize missing inputs and allow for real-time data validation and quality control. Follow-up consultations were done in the outpatient clinic of Jin Yin-tan Hospital. All participants were interviewed face-to-face by trained physicians and asked to complete a series of questionnaires. For the symptom questionnaire, participants were asked to report newly occurring and persistent symptoms, or any symptoms worse than before COVID-19 development. A total of 2469 patients with COVID-19 were discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital between Jan 7, and May 29, 2020, and the follow-up study was done from June 16, 2020, to Sept 3, 2020. This is the largest cohort study with the longest follow-up duration assessing the health consequences of adult patients discharged from hospital recovering from COVID-19. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

11.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1075-1084, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wuhan was the epicentre of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence and kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at population level in Wuhan to inform the development of vaccination strategies. METHODS: In this longitudinal cross-sectional study, we used a multistage, population-stratified, cluster random sampling method to systematically select 100 communities from the 13 districts of Wuhan. Households were systematically selected from each community and all family members were invited to community health-care centres to participate. Eligible individuals were those who had lived in Wuhan for at least 14 days since Dec 1, 2019. All eligible participants who consented to participate completed a standardised electronic questionnaire of demographic and clinical questions and self-reported any symptoms associated with COVID-19 or previous diagnosis of COVID-19. A venous blood sample was taken for immunological testing on April 14-15, 2020. Blood samples were tested for the presence of pan-immunoglobulins, IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and neutralising antibodies were assessed. We did two successive follow-ups between June 11 and June 13, and between Oct 9 and Dec 5, 2020, at which blood samples were taken. FINDINGS: Of 4600 households randomly selected, 3599 families (78·2%) with 9702 individuals attended the baseline visit. 9542 individuals from 3556 families had sufficient samples for analyses. 532 (5·6%) of 9542 participants were positive for pan-immunoglobulins against SARS-CoV-2, with a baseline adjusted seroprevalence of 6·92% (95% CI 6·41-7·43) in the population. 437 (82·1%) of 532 participants who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins were asymptomatic. 69 (13·0%) of 532 individuals were positive for IgM antibodies, 84 (15·8%) were positive for IgA antibodies, 532 (100%) were positive for IgG antibodies, and 212 (39·8%) were positive for neutralising antibodies at baseline. The proportion of individuals who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins who had neutralising antibodies in April remained stable for the two follow-up visits (162 [44·6%] of 363 in June, 2020, and 187 [41·2%] of 454 in October-December, 2020). On the basis of data from 335 individuals who attended all three follow-up visits and who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins, neutralising antibody levels did not significantly decrease over the study period (median 1/5·6 [IQR 1/2·0 to 1/14·0] at baseline vs 1/5·6 [1/4·0 to 1/11·2] at first follow-up [p=1·0] and 1/6·3 [1/2·0 to 1/12·6] at second follow-up [p=0·29]). However, neutralising antibody titres were lower in asymptomatic individuals than in confirmed cases and symptomatic individuals. Although titres of IgG decreased over time, the proportion of individuals who had IgG antibodies did not decrease substantially (from 30 [100%] of 30 at baseline to 26 [89·7%] of 29 at second follow-up among confirmed cases, 65 [100%] of 65 at baseline to 58 [92·1%] of 63 at second follow-up among symptomatic individuals, and 437 [100%] of 437 at baseline to 329 [90·9%] of 362 at second follow-up among asymptomatic individuals). INTERPRETATION: 6·92% of a cross-sectional sample of the population of Wuhan developed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, with 39·8% of this population seroconverting to have neutralising antibodies. Our durability data on humoral responses indicate that mass vaccination is needed to effect herd protection to prevent the resurgence of the epidemic. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, National Natural Science Foundation, and Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunity, Herd/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 664-676, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139855

ABSTRACT

Seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) including HCoV-229E, -OC43, -NL63, and -HKU1 widely spread in global human populations. However, the relevance of humoral response against seasonal HCoVs to COVID-19 pathogenesis is elusive. In this study, we profiled the temporal changes of IgG antibody against spike proteins (S-IgG) of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs in 838 plasma samples collected from 344 COVID-19 patients. We tested the antigenic cross-reactivities of S protein between SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs and evaluated the correlations between the levels of HCoV-OC43 S-IgG and the disease severity in COVID-19 patients. We found that SARS-CoV-2 S-IgG titres mounted until days 22-28, whereas HCoV-OC43 antibody titres increased until days 15-21 and then plateaued until day 46. However, IgG titres against HCoV-NL63, -229E, and -HKU1 showed no significant increase. A two-way cross-reactivity was identified between SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43. Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were not detectable in healthy controls who were positive for HCoV-OC43 S-IgG. HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titres were significantly higher in patients with severe disease than those in mild patients at days 1-21 post symptom onset (PSO). Higher levels of HCoV-OC43 S-IgG were also observed in patients requiring mechanical ventilation. At days 1-10 PSO, HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titres correlated to disease severity in the age group over 60. Our data indicate that there is a correlation between cross-reactive antibody against HCoV-OC43 spike protein and disease severity in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
13.
Lancet ; 397(10270): 220-232, 2021 01 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term health consequences of COVID-19 remain largely unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the long-term health consequences of patients with COVID-19 who have been discharged from hospital and investigate the associated risk factors, in particular disease severity. METHODS: We did an ambidirectional cohort study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 who had been discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between Jan 7, 2020, and May 29, 2020. Patients who died before follow-up, patients for whom follow-up would be difficult because of psychotic disorders, dementia, or re-admission to hospital, those who were unable to move freely due to concomitant osteoarthropathy or immobile before or after discharge due to diseases such as stroke or pulmonary embolism, those who declined to participate, those who could not be contacted, and those living outside of Wuhan or in nursing or welfare homes were all excluded. All patients were interviewed with a series of questionnaires for evaluation of symptoms and health-related quality of life, underwent physical examinations and a 6-min walking test, and received blood tests. A stratified sampling procedure was used to sample patients according to their highest seven-category scale during their hospital stay as 3, 4, and 5-6, to receive pulmonary function test, high resolution CT of the chest, and ultrasonography. Enrolled patients who had participated in the Lopinavir Trial for Suppression of SARS-CoV-2 in China received severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibody tests. Multivariable adjusted linear or logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between disease severity and long-term health consequences. FINDINGS: In total, 1733 of 2469 discharged patients with COVID-19 were enrolled after 736 were excluded. Patients had a median age of 57·0 (IQR 47·0-65·0) years and 897 (52%) were men. The follow-up study was done from June 16, to Sept 3, 2020, and the median follow-up time after symptom onset was 186·0 (175·0-199·0) days. Fatigue or muscle weakness (63%, 1038 of 1655) and sleep difficulties (26%, 437 of 1655) were the most common symptoms. Anxiety or depression was reported among 23% (367 of 1617) of patients. The proportions of median 6-min walking distance less than the lower limit of the normal range were 24% for those at severity scale 3, 22% for severity scale 4, and 29% for severity scale 5-6. The corresponding proportions of patients with diffusion impairment were 22% for severity scale 3, 29% for scale 4, and 56% for scale 5-6, and median CT scores were 3·0 (IQR 2·0-5·0) for severity scale 3, 4·0 (3·0-5·0) for scale 4, and 5·0 (4·0-6·0) for scale 5-6. After multivariable adjustment, patients showed an odds ratio (OR) 1·61 (95% CI 0·80-3·25) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and 4·60 (1·85-11·48) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for diffusion impairment; OR 0·88 (0·66-1·17) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and OR 1·77 (1·05-2·97) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for anxiety or depression, and OR 0·74 (0·58-0·96) for scale 4 versus scale 3 and 2·69 (1·46-4·96) for scale 5-6 versus scale 3 for fatigue or muscle weakness. Of 94 patients with blood antibodies tested at follow-up, the seropositivity (96·2% vs 58·5%) and median titres (19·0 vs 10·0) of the neutralising antibodies were significantly lower compared with at the acute phase. 107 of 822 participants without acute kidney injury and with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2 or more at acute phase had eGFR less than 90 mL/min per 1·73 m2 at follow-up. INTERPRETATION: At 6 months after acute infection, COVID-19 survivors were mainly troubled with fatigue or muscle weakness, sleep difficulties, and anxiety or depression. Patients who were more severely ill during their hospital stay had more severe impaired pulmonary diffusion capacities and abnormal chest imaging manifestations, and are the main target population for intervention of long-term recovery. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, National Key Research and Development Program of China, Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, and Peking Union Medical College Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Quality of Life , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/epidemiology , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 780, 2020 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975030

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic. Here we profiled the humoral response against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, and IgG against nucleocapsid and spike proteins, along with IgM and IgG antibodies against receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein and total neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). We tested 279 plasma samples collected from 176 COVID-19 patients who presented and enrolled at different stages of their disease. Plasma dilutions were optimized and based on the data, a single dilution of plasma was used. The mean absorbance at 450 nm was measured for Ig levels and NAbs were measured using geometric mean titers. We demonstrate that more severe cases have a late-onset in the humoral response compared to mild/moderate infections. All the antibody titers continue to rise in patients with COVID-19 over the disease course. However, these levels are mostly unrelated to disease severity. The appearance time and titers of NAbs showed a significant positive correlation to the antibodies against spike protein. Our results suggest the late onset of antibody response as a risk factor for disease severity, however, there is a limited role of antibody titers in predicting disease severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Young Adult
15.
J Virol Methods ; 288: 114030, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951217

ABSTRACT

Quick and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for COVID-19 control. Dozens of real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays have been developed to meet the urgent need of COVID-19 control. However, methodological comparisons among the developed qRT-PCR assays are limited. In the present study, we evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, amplification efficiency, and linear detection ranges of three qRT-PCR assays, including the assays developed by our group (IPBCAMS), and the assays recommended by WHO and China CDC (CCDC). The three qRT-PCR assays exhibited similar sensitivities, with the limit of detection (LoD) at about 10 copies per reaction (except the ORF 1b gene assay in CCDC assays with a LoD at about 100 copies per reaction). No cross reaction with other respiratory viruses were observed in all of the three qRT-PCR assays. Wide linear detection ranges from 106 to 101 copies per reaction and acceptable reproducibility were obtained. By using 25 clinical specimens, the N gene assay of IPBCAMS assays and CCDC assays performed better (with detection rates of 92 % and 100 %, respectively) than that of the WHO assays (with a detection rate of 60 %), and the ORF 1b gene assay in IPBCAMS assays performed better (with a detection rate of 64 %) than those of the WHO assays and the CCDC assays (with detection rates of 48 % and 20 %, respectively). In conclusion, the N gene assays of CCDC assays and IPBCAMS assays and the ORF 1b gene assay of IPBCAMS assays were recommended for qRT-PCR screening of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22766, 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894694

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between overweight and severity, drug response, and clinical outcomes of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed medical records of 240 COVID-19 patients admitted to Union Hospital in Wuhan, China, between December 24, 2019, and March 25, 2020. Physical, clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics, treatment, and outcome data were abstracted. Patients who were obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥28 kg/m], underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m), under 18 years old, pregnant, or still in hospital were excluded. Disease severity was classified as moderate or severe pneumonia based on the World Health Organization interim guidance. Overweight was defined as BMI ≥24 kg/m and <28 kg/m. Patients were followed for discharge or death through April 10, 2020. We used logistic regression models to identify risk factors for severe disease, Cox proportional hazard models to explore associations between medications and patient outcomes (discharge or in-hospital death), and Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression models to evaluate risk factors for in-hospital death.One-half of patients (120, 50.0%) had severe pneumonia, while nearly one-half (114, 47.5%) were overweight. Among patients over 45 years old, overweight patients had significantly lower rates of fatigue, higher rates of headache, and higher median C-reactive protein levels. Patients under 45 years old had higher rates of cough and myalgia and higher proportions of increased alanine aminotransferase and lactic dehydrogenase, as well as more pulmonary lobes involved in the pneumonia revealed by chest computed tomography scans. Overweight patients were at higher risk of developing severe pneumonia. Although weight was not a risk factor for in-hospital death, overweight patients showed different responses to medications compared with normal weight patients. Intravenous interferon-α, intravenous glucocorticoids, and antifungal drugs were associated with reduced mortality in overweight patients. Intravenous immunoglobulin, oseltamivir, and ribavirin were associated with reduced mortality in normal weight patients.Overweight is a worldwide health problem. We found overweight to be related to the COVID-19 severity but not to in-hospital death. Clinicians should be aware that overweight COVID-19 patients require increased attention for different clinical features and treatment response.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Overweight/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100503, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-805325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients had been profoundly affected by the outbreak of COVID-19 especially after quarantine restrictions in China. We aimed to explore the treatment changes and delays of early breast cancer (EBC) during the first quarter of 2020. METHODS: We did this retrospective, multicentre, cohort study at 97 cancer centres in China. EBC patients who received treatment regardless of preoperative therapy, surgery or postoperative therapy during first quarter of 2020 were included. FINDINGS: 8397 patients were eligible with a median age of 50 (IQR 43-56). 0·2% (15/8397) of EBC patients were confirmed as COVID-19 infection. Only 5·2% of breast cancer diagnosis occurred after quarantine in Hubei compared with 15·3% in other provinces (OR= 0·30, 95%CI 0·24-0·38). postoperative endocrine therapy were least affected compared with different regions after quarantine (OR=0·37 [95%CI 0·19-0·73]). The proportion of surgery decreased from 16·4% in December last year to 2·6% in February in Hubei. Compared with intervals from diagnosis to treatment before quarantine restrictions, the average time increased with significance from 3·5 to 7·7 days in Hubei and 5·7 to 7·7 days in other provinces (p< 0·001). There were also 18·5 and 7·2 days delay in Hubei and other provinces respectively when calculating interval from surgery to postoperative therapy. INTERPRETATION: EBC from high risk regions had a comparative rate of COVID-19 infection. After implementation of COVID-19 quarantine restrictions, fewer diagnosis and surgery with significant delays were seen when compared with treatment before. FUNDING: Beijing Medical Award Foundation (YJ0120).

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