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1.
Front Psychol ; 13: 801006, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887127

ABSTRACT

In the context of the COVID-19, we examined the relationship between college students' ego depletion and their prosocial behavior. We explored the mediating role of social self-efficacy between ego depletion and prosocial behavior, we also examined the moderating role of personal belief in a just world in this relationship. 1,122 college students completed the ego depletion questionnaire, prosocial behavior questionnaire, social self-efficacy questionnaire, and personal belief in a just world questionnaire. The current findings suggested that: (1) Social self-efficacy mediated the relationship between college students' ego depletion and their prosocial behaviors. The ego depletion of college students could be used to predict their prosocial behavior through social self-efficacy. (2) Personal belief in a just world moderated the relationship between social self-efficacy and prosocial behavior.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319483

ABSTRACT

Background: Although novel pneumonia associated with the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) suddenly broke out in China, China has controlled this epidemic effectively. Therefore, evidence-based descriptions of medical and clinical characteristics in China are necessary. Methods Literatures have been systematically performed a search on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, GreyNet International, and The Cochrane Library from inception up to March 15, 2020. Quality of evidence was evaluated according to the STROBE checklist, and publication bias was analyzed by Egger’s test. In the single-arm meta-analysis, A random-effects model was used to obtain a pooled incidence rate. We conducted subgroup analysis according to geographic region and research scale. Results A total of 30 Chinese studies and 1969 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The valid pooled incidence rates of symptoms were as follows: rhinorrhea 5.1% (95% CI: 3.7–6.8, I 2  = 31.90), diarrhea 11.0% (95% CI: 9.3–12.9, I 2  = 16.58), pharyngalgia 9.4% (95% CI: 7.5–11.7, I 2  = 36.40), headache 9.5% (95% CI: 8.5–11.1, I 2  = 5.7), and lymphocytopenia 36.7% (95% CI: 33.8–39.8 I 2  = 28.73). Meanwhile, 4.3% (95% CI: 3.5–5.4, I 2  = 0.00) of patients were found without any symptoms, although they were diagnosed by RT-PCR. In terms of lung CT imaging, most of the patients showed bilateral mottling or ground-glass opacity, and 7.7% (95% CI: 4.4–12.9, I 2  = 35.64) of patients had a crazy-paving pattern. In subgroup analysis, the pooled incidence rate of normal CT presentations in the Wuhan area and outside Wuhan area was 2.3% (95% CI: 1.4–3.6, I 2  = 24.78) and 5.8% (95% CI: 4.4–7.7, I 2  = 32.76) respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusions The findings suggest that although most of the COVID-19 patients have symptoms or abnormal CT imaging presentations, a few of them accompany with no symptoms or abnormal CT imaging results should also be noticed. The digestive symptoms and lymphocytopenia may be the potential clinical characteristics, especially for patients with a history of contact with COVID-19. Additionally, the incidence rate of ARDS in the Wuhan area and outside Wuhan area was different;however, the reasons for this phenomenon are unclear.

3.
Agronomy ; 11(11):2346, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1542394

ABSTRACT

The photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of crop canopy is highly related to yield formation, but how it relates to yield and yield distribution is not well understood. The focus of this study was to explore the relationship between light competition under different densities and yield distributions of cotton. The experiment was conducted in 2019 and 2020 at the Cotton Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Anyang city, Henan Province, China. A randomized block design was employed, with a total of three repeats. Each repeat had six density treatments: D1: 15,000;D2: 33,000;D3: 51,000;D4: 69,000;D5: 87,000;and D6: 105,000 plants·ha−1. As predicted, the results showed that the canopy light interception, leaf area index, plant height, and biomass of high-density cotton were higher than those of low-density cotton. The aboveground biomass produced by D6 was the highest, and was 12.9, 19.5, 25.4, 46.3, and 69.2% higher in 2019 and 14.3, 19.9, 32.5, 53.7, and 109.9% higher in 2020 than D5, D4, D3, D2, and D1, respectively. Leaf area, plant height, biomass, boll number, and boll weight were significantly correlated with the light interception rate. D5 (87,000 plants·ha−1) had a higher light interception rate and the highest yield. The highest lint yields produced by D5 were 1673.5 and 1375.4 kg·ha−1 in two years, and was 3.2, 4.3, 5.6, 9.7, and 24.7% higher in 2019, and 6.8, 10.6, 13.5, 21.5, and 34.4% higher in 2020 than D6, D4, D3, D2, and D1, respectively. The boll retention of the lower fruit branch under D5 reached 0.51 and 0.57 in two years, respectively. The shedding rate of the upper fruit branch decreased with the increase in cotton density in two years. The boll retention rate and shedding rate in the lower part of cotton plants were most closely related to light interception, with R2 values of 0.91 and 0.96, respectively. Our study shows cotton yield could be improved through higher light interception by optimizing planting density and canopy structure. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Agronomy is the property of MDPI and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(7): 1010-1014, July 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1486697

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the suboptimal health status (SHS) and influencing factors of nurses in Wuhan Hospital, China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: This study was conducted through an online survey, from March 1-7, 2020, in Wuhan, China. The data collection tools, such as Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaires, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Chinese version of the Perceived Stress Scale, were used. RESULTS: The average value of suboptimal health status was 28.44 (standard deviation=15.15). The overall prevalence of SHS was 35.1%. Suboptimal health status of the nurses was significantly different based on their gender, age, whether they directly care for COVID-19 patients, anxiety level, and stress perception expect education. Multivariate analysis found that average sleep times per day, female, age, directly participate in the rescue of COVID-19, self-infection, and anxiety were the influencing factors of suboptimal health status. CONCLUSIONS: First-line nurses have poor suboptimal health status in Wuhan.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , COVID-19 , Nurses , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Health Status , Disease Outbreaks , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Depression , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Allergy ; 76(2): 483-496, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impacts of chronic airway diseases on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are far from understood. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) comorbidity on disease expression and outcomes, and the potential underlying mechanisms in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A total of 961 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with a definite clinical outcome (death or discharge) were retrospectively enrolled. Demographic and clinical information were extracted from the medical records. Lung tissue sections from patients suffering from lung cancer were used for immunohistochemistry study of angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) expression. BEAS-2B cell line was stimulated with various cytokines. RESULTS: In this cohort, 21 subjects (2.2%) had COPD and 22 (2.3%) had asthma. After adjusting for confounding factors, COPD patients had higher risk of developing severe illness (OR: 23.433; 95% CI 1.525-360.135; P < .01) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR: 19.762; 95% CI 1.461-267.369; P = .025) than asthmatics. COPD patients, particularly those with severe COVID-19, had lower counts of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells and B cells and higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2 receptor, IL-10, IL-8, and IL-6 than asthmatics. COPD patients had increased, whereas asthmatics had decreased ACE2 protein expression in lower airways, compared with that in control subjects without asthma and COPD. IL-4 and IL-13 downregulated, but TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-17A upregulated ACE2 expression in BEAS-2B cells. CONCLUSION: Patients with asthma and COPD likely have different risk of severe COVID-19, which may be associated with different ACE2 expression.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/immunology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Natl Sci Rev ; 7(12): 1868-1878, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087785

ABSTRACT

Systematic autopsy and comprehensive pathological analyses of COVID-19 decedents should provide insights into the disease characteristics and facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. In this study, we report the autopsy findings from the lungs and lymphatic organs of 12 COVID-19 decedents-findings that evaluated histopathological changes, immune cell signature and inflammatory factor expression in the lungs, spleen and lymph nodes. Here we show that the major pulmonary alterations included diffuse alveolar damage, interstitial fibrosis and exudative inflammation featured with extensive serous and fibrin exudates, macrophage infiltration and abundant production of inflammatory factors (IL-6, IP-10, TNFα and IL-1ß). The spleen and hilar lymph nodes contained lesions with tissue structure disruption and immune cell dysregulation, including lymphopenia and macrophage accumulation. These findings provide pathological evidence that links injuries of the lungs and lymphatic organs with the fatal systematic respiratory and immune malfunction in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

7.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 42(2): 164-169, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035550

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: As of August 23, 2020, the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has infected more than 23,518,340 people and caused more than 810,492 deaths worldwide including 4,717 deaths in China. We present a case of a 53-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital because of dry coughs and high fever on January 26, 2020, in Wuhan, China. She was not tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA until on hospital day 11 (illness day 21) because of a significant shortage of test kits at the local hospital. Then, her test was positive for COVID-19 on hospital day 20. Despite intensive medical treatments, she developed respiratory failure with secondary bacterial infection and expired on hospital day 23 (3 days after she was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA). A systemic autopsy examination, including immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural studies, demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 can infect multiple organs with profound adverse effect on the immune system, and the lung pathology is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage. Extrapulmonary SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in several organs postmortem. The detailed pathological features are described. In addition, this report highlights the value of forensic autopsy in studying SARS-CoV-2 infection and the importance of clinicopathological correlation in better understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Autopsy , Epiglottitis/pathology , Female , Fibroblasts/pathology , Humans , Infarction/pathology , Intracranial Thrombosis/pathology , Kidney/blood supply , Kidney/pathology , Lung/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Middle Aged , Myocytes, Cardiac/pathology , Myofibroblasts/pathology , Necrosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Splenic Infarction/pathology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/pathology , Thromboembolism/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/pathology , Urinary Bladder/pathology
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(45): 28336-28343, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-882991

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, has resulted thus far in greater than 933,000 deaths worldwide; yet disease pathogenesis remains unclear. Clinical and immunological features of patients with COVID-19 have highlighted a potential role for changes in immune activity in regulating disease severity. However, little is known about the responses in human lung tissue, the primary site of infection. Here we show that pathways related to neutrophil activation and pulmonary fibrosis are among the major up-regulated transcriptional signatures in lung tissue obtained from patients who died of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Strikingly, the viral burden was low in all samples, which suggests that the patient deaths may be related to the host response rather than an active fulminant infection. Examination of the colonic transcriptome of these patients suggested that SARS-CoV-2 impacted host responses even at a site with no obvious pathogenesis. Further proteomics analysis validated our transcriptome findings and identified several key proteins, such as the SARS-CoV-2 entry-associated protease cathepsins B and L and the inflammatory response modulator S100A8/A9, that are highly expressed in fatal cases, revealing potential drug targets for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , Transcriptome , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Colon/metabolism , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophil Activation , Proteome/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load
9.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(8): 4569-4575, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-757668

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to assess the levels of human serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to determine their prognostic value in predicting the severity of disease. Patients with COVID-19 who presented with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) shared distinct characteristics. For example, the patients were older, and had higher levels of inflammatory indicators [i.e., levels of CRP, SAA, procalcitonin (PCT), and interleukin-6; CRP-to-PCT ratio; SAA-to-CRP ratio; and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)], higher inflammatory cell counts (i.e., white blood cell count and neutrophil count), and lower lymphocyte counts compared with patients without ARDS. Patients without ARDS still exhibited mild illness and had elevated SAA levels but not CRP levels. In patients with elevated SAA and CRP levels, the NLR was statistically associated with disease severity. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the combined predictive probability of CRP and SAA levels, along with white blood cell count, showed the highest area under the curve (AUC; 0.878), and was able to distinguish between patients with and without ARDS. The cut-off level for SAA to predict the severity of COVID-19 was 92.900, with a sensitivity of 95.8%, a specificity of 53.7%, and an AUC of 0.712. For patients with elevated levels of SAA but not CRP, a mild condition was predicted. For patients with elevated levels of both SAA and CRP, and a high NLR, a severe infection was predicted, requiring medical attention. Therefore, CRP and SAA levels demonstrate a prognostic value for predicting the severity of COVID-19.

10.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(9): 2205-2221, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence, severity, and outcomes of AKI in COVID-19 varied in different reports. In patients critically ill with COVID-19, the clinicopathologic characteristics of AKI have not been described in detail. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 81 patients critically ill with COVID-19 in an intensive care unit. The incidence, etiologies, and outcomes of AKI were analyzed. Pathologic studies were performed in kidney tissues from ten deceased patients with AKI. RESULTS: A total of 41 (50.6%) patients experienced AKI in this study. The median time from illness to AKI was 21.0 (IQR, 9.5-26.0) days. The proportion of Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) stage 1, stage 2, and stage 3 AKI were 26.8%, 31.7%, and 41.5%, respectively. The leading causes of AKI included septic shock (25 of 41, 61.0%), volume insufficiency (eight of 41, 19.5%), and adverse drug effects (five of 41, 12.2%). The risk factors for AKI included age (per 10 years) (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.69; P=0.002) and serum IL-6 level (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.73; P=0.003). KDIGO stage 3 AKI predicted death. Other potential risk factors for death included male sex, elevated D-dimer, serum IL-6 level, and higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. The predominant pathologic finding was acute tubular injury. Nucleic acid tests and immunohistochemistry failed to detect the virus in kidney tissues. CONCLUSIONS: AKI was a common and multifactorial complication in patients critically ill with COVID-19 at the late stage of the disease course. The predominant pathologic finding was acute tubular injury. Older age and higher serum IL-6 level were risk factors of AKI, and KDIGO stage 3 AKI independently predicted death.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Kidney/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Creatinine/blood , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Kidney/ultrastructure , Kidney/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(4): 618-624, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695581

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV2 is characterized by a remarkable variation in clinical severity ranging from a mild illness to a fatal multi-organ disease. Understanding the dysregulated human immune responses in the fatal subjects is critical for management of COVID-19 patients and the pandemic. In this study, we examined the immune cell compositions in the lung tissues and hilar lymph nodes using immunohistochemistry on 6 deceased COVID-19 patients and 4 focal organizing pneumonia (FOP) patients who underwent lung surgery and served as controls. We found a dominant presence of macrophages and a general deficiency of T cells and B cells in the lung tissues from deceased COVID-19 patients. In contrast to the FOP patients, Tfh cells and germinal center formation were largely absent in the draining hilar lymph nodes in the deceased COVID-19 patients. This was correlated with reduced IgM and IgG levels compared to convalescent COVID-19 patients. In summary, our data highlight a defect of germinal center structure in deceased COVID-19 patients leading to an impaired humoral immunity. Understanding the mechanisms of this deficiency will be one of the key points for the management of this epidemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Germinal Center/pathology , Humans , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/pathology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/pathology
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